12. S2013 Henry III - Religion and Education


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Changes in religious practice lead to a new spate of philanthropy and building of cathedrals. Education coupled with exposure to Aristotle is manifested in an interest in natural philosophy. Henry III;s own iconography includes a look back into the past of Britain.

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  • but not explicitly as a place
  • This marginal painting was introduced by Matthew Paris into the margins of his HistoriaAnglorum (The History of the English) to illustrate a passage in which the chronicler discusses the marriage between King Henry III of England (1216-1272) and Eleanor, daughter of Ramon Berenguer V, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy.  The ceremony that took place in 1236 in Canterbury Cathedral is evoked here by the King's gesture of placing the wedding ring on the Queen's finger.Although Eleanor had never seen her future husband prior to the wedding, the couple became very close during their marriage, to the extent that the Queen's influence on the King and the presence of her Savoyard entourage were heavily criticised by the barons and inhabitants of London.  On 13 July 1263, certain angry London citizens even dared to attack Eleanor's barge when she was sailing down the River Thames.
  • Whodoes not give what he loves (holds), does not receive what he desires.Motto on walls of palaces.
  • the Painted Chamber was a spacious room of state, measuring 24.5 by 7.9m with walls of 9.7m in height
  • Length: 45.300 cm (including frame)Width: 43.000 cmThickness: 1.200 cm (panel)
  • Wheel of forutne Rochester Cathedra;Morgan Library manuscriot of Dives and LazarusNow there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. A certain beggar, named Lazarus, was laid at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table. Yes, even the dogs came and licked his sores. It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried. In Hades, he lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus at his bosom. He cried and said, "Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue! For I am in anguish in this flame."But Abraham said, "Son, remember that you, in your lifetime, received your good things, and Lazarus, in the same way, bad things. But now here he is comforted and you are in anguish. Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that those who want to pass from here to you are not able, and that none may cross over from there to us."He said, "I ask you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father's house; for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them, so they won't also come into this place of torment."But Abraham said to him, "They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them."He said, "No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent."He said to him, "If they don't listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rises from the dead."— Luke 16:19–31Christ: Parable, Lazarus and Dives -- Dives, nude, lies in draped four-post bed. From his mouth emerges nude soul ascending between horns of green bestial devil, with fringed waist-bands, grasping both the soul and Dives. Chain around neck of the soul, with hands joined, is pulled by another bestial horned devil, with fringed waist-bands, departing to right.
At right, bestial devil (upper part green), wearing pointed cap and fringed waist-bands, pushes down into flaming Hell Mouth Dives raising object in right hand toward his open mouth. He raises left hand toward horned devil, with horn at shoulder and face at genitals, forcing him down with hook.
Scenes within decorated frames.
  • Two of the more specific features associated with this text are (1) a preference for reason over authority in matters of science and nature (in other words, seeking solutions via reason and logic rather than through faith) and (2) the use of the literary device of invoking Arab teachings when presenting very controversial topics (i.e. that brute animals may possess knowledge and souls
  • Bacon’s formula questionable but he does report a firecracker like device. Formula would be ineeffective.Albertusmagnus perhaps based in Liber Ignium by otherwise unknown . Marcus Graecus (Mark the Greek)
  • 12. S2013 Henry III - Religion and Education

    1. 1. Henry IIIReligion andEducation
    2. 2. Homage toLouis IXTreaty of Paris 1259• Recognize French dominionover Normandy and Anjou• Homage for Gascony
    3. 3. 1260
    4. 4. Trade Within the EnglishDominionsWine
    5. 5. GasconWine
    6. 6. Royal Control Regained• 1266 Dictum of Kenilworth– restore confiscated property for 7 times annualvalue.• 1267 Statute of Marlborough– Affirm Magna Carta– Affirm Provisions of Westminster• Edward Effective Ruler
    7. 7. Two CountriesEngland• 1254 Ireland to Edward• 1257, 1263 Welshrevolts• 1267 Principality ofWales recognizedScotland• 1234 Galloway revoltcrushed• 1263 Norway loses Isleof Man• 1266 Norway cedesWestern Isles1237 Treaty of York
    8. 8. Themes• Anti-foreign sentimentsNote: Barons in England and „foreign‟advisors all speak the same language-French• Increased interest in English culture– English saints and heroes• Increased interest in expansion within theBritish Isles– Opposition to intervention in Gascony
    9. 9. Religion and EducationArtistic InterestsNew Developments
    10. 10. Purgatory• 1245, 47 Councils at Lyons affirm thedoctrine of purgatory as a state“Though one‟s merits cannot change afterdeath, the faithful on earth can assist those inpurgatory to progress to heaven through themass, prayers, and good works”Quoted in Robert Osei-Bonsu “Purgatory: A Study ofthe Historical Development and Its Compatibility withthe Biblical Teaching on the Afterlife” PhilosophyStudy, April 2012, Vol. 2, No. 4, 286-299
    11. 11. Consequences• Increased attention to lay devotion – Books ofHours• Increased philanthropy• Chantries
    12. 12. Henry III - MarriageMarriage to Eleanor of Provence, 1236
    13. 13. Henry III ResidencesQui non dat quod amat, non accipit ille quod optatKe ne duneke ne tine, ne prent ke desireWoodstock PalaceWestminster Palace
    14. 14. Westminster AbbeyMeeting Place of Great CouncilChapter House
    15. 15. Painted Chamber,Westminster PalaceWilliam Capon 1817•Bed chamber of Henry III•Site for almsgiving•Site for state occasions
    16. 16. Painted Chamber, Coronation of Edward the Confessor
    17. 17. Painted ChamberVirtues and VicesReconstructions byWilliam Tristram,1927(L)Triumph of Largesce(generosity) overCovoitise (greed)(R) Triumph ofDebonerete (courtesy)over Ira (anger)
    18. 18. Ceiling Panels – Painted ChamberProphet Seraph
    19. 19. Henry III artistic motifs• Edward the Confessor• Wheel of fortune• Dives and Lazarus
    20. 20. Cathedrals and Abbeys• Durham Western towers 1217-1226• Westminster. Begun 1220• Peterborough,west front 1237• Salisbury1237• Westminster 1243• Whitby, crossing, transepts 1250• Salisbury, W front 1260
    21. 21. English CathedralsDon Grimes, Osher Lifelong Learning,WilmingtonCathedrals Fall 2013, M 9 Canterbury, Wells, Lincoln, Salisbury.
    22. 22. Durham (1217-26
    23. 23. Petersborough1237
    24. 24. Salisbury, 1237
    25. 25. Westminster Abbey1243
    26. 26. Westminster Abbey
    27. 27. WhitbyWhitby, transept 1250
    28. 28. Salisbury1260
    29. 29. Twelve Months, Salisbury Cathedral Choir(King’s Chamber, Kennington; Queen’s Chamber, Clarendon)
    30. 30. Scholarship in the 13th Century
    31. 31. Conditions leading to modernscience• Translation of Greco-Arabic works on scienceand natural philosophy into Latin,• Formation of the Medieval University• Emergence of the theologian-naturalphilosophers
    32. 32. Communities of Scholars• Bologna 1088,Paris 1119• Oxford by 1190• Cambridge c. 1209• Other schools– Northampton, Lincoln,York, London, Hertfordand Exeter 1291 Confirmation ofPrivileges of Cambridge
    33. 33. CollegesEndowed boardinghouses for impoverishedscholars.• 1249 University College• 1263 Balliol College• 1264 Merton College“Mob Quad”
    34. 34. Academic Halls
    35. 35. Curriculum• Liberal Arts– Trivium grammar, rhetoric and dialectic– Quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music• Graduate Studies– Theology, law, medicine
    36. 36. Bracton and Legal Scholarship
    37. 37. New Religious Groups• Dominicans• Franciscans
    38. 38. Dominicans• Black Friars• 1221 Land at Dover• 1223 Oxford• Urban mendicants• St. Thomas Aquinas
    39. 39. Franciscans ArriveIn the year of our Lord 1224, in thetime of the Lord Pope Honorius...in theeighth year of the Lord King Henry,son of John, on the Tuesday after theFeast of the Nativity of the BlessedVirgin, which that year was uponSunday, the Friars Minor first cameinto England at DoverHouse at London
    40. 40. „Gray Friars‟• Embrace poverty• Could not own land• Lived by begging.• Activities in the world– caring for the sick– preaching to the poor– singing and praying
    41. 41. GrossetesteandBaconTheRebirthofScience
    42. 42. Medieval Science andTechnology• Ray Hain, Osher Lifelong Learning,Wilmngton Fall 2013, Friday at 9
    43. 43. Adelard of Bath (1080-1152)• Travels to Greeceand Middle East• Introduces zero• Euclid into Latin• Natural philosophyAdelard, Euclid, 1309 - 1316
    44. 44. Robert Grosseteste1170-1253
    45. 45. Grosseteste Career• 1229-1235 Lecturer, Oxford on theology toFranciscans• Works –Applications of Aristotle– De luce (Concerning Light)– Templum Dei (the Temple of God)• 1235-1253 Bishop of Lincoln• 1250 Lyons denounces the pope and thecardinals to their faces for acting contrary toChrist.
    46. 46. Speculations• Rainbow due to reflection and refraction• Colors related to intensity of light
    47. 47. Roger Bacon (1214-1294)1214-1292
    48. 48. Bacon Career• Oxford at age 13• 1240‟s Invited to Paris to reintroduce Aristotle• 1257 Becomes Franciscan• c. 1270 at Oxford• Restrained or imprisoned for alchemy
    49. 49. On Experimental Science, 1268• …without experiment it is impossible to knowanything thoroughly• This is evident even in mathematics, wheredemonstration is the surest.
    50. 50. On Experimental Science, 1268Experience is of two kinds.• One is through the external senses: [includingthrough instruments]• …such experience is not enough for man,…Hence mans intellect must be aided inanother way, … there is divine inspiration notalone concerning spiritual but even aboutcorporeal things.
    51. 51. Writings• Opus Majorus– Mathematics is the door and key to the sciences– All this information [astronomical] is secured bymeans of instruments suitable for these purposes,and by tables and by canons
    52. 52. Writings (2)• The experimenter considers whether amongvisible things, he can find colors formed andarranged as given in the rainbow. He findsthat there are hexagonal crystals from Irelandor India … and he holds these in a ray ofsunlight falling through the window, and findsall the colors of the rainbow,
    53. 53. Optics• Geometric optics• Parabolic burning mirrors• Theory that lenses may correct eyesight• Rainbow is due to the reflection andrefraction of sunlight through individualraindrops.
    54. 54. Gunpowder