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12. S2013 Henry III - Religion and Education


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Changes in religious practice lead to a new spate of philanthropy and building of cathedrals. Education coupled with exposure to Aristotle is manifested in an interest in natural philosophy. Henry III;s own iconography includes a look back into the past of Britain.

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12. S2013 Henry III - Religion and Education

  1. 1. Henry IIIReligion andEducation
  2. 2. Homage toLouis IXTreaty of Paris 1259• Recognize French dominionover Normandy and Anjou• Homage for Gascony
  3. 3. 1260
  4. 4. Trade Within the EnglishDominionsWine
  5. 5. GasconWine
  6. 6. Royal Control Regained• 1266 Dictum of Kenilworth– restore confiscated property for 7 times annualvalue.• 1267 Statute of Marlborough– Affirm Magna Carta– Affirm Provisions of Westminster• Edward Effective Ruler
  7. 7. Two CountriesEngland• 1254 Ireland to Edward• 1257, 1263 Welshrevolts• 1267 Principality ofWales recognizedScotland• 1234 Galloway revoltcrushed• 1263 Norway loses Isleof Man• 1266 Norway cedesWestern Isles1237 Treaty of York
  8. 8. Themes• Anti-foreign sentimentsNote: Barons in England and „foreign‟advisors all speak the same language-French• Increased interest in English culture– English saints and heroes• Increased interest in expansion within theBritish Isles– Opposition to intervention in Gascony
  9. 9. Religion and EducationArtistic InterestsNew Developments
  10. 10. Purgatory• 1245, 47 Councils at Lyons affirm thedoctrine of purgatory as a state“Though one‟s merits cannot change afterdeath, the faithful on earth can assist those inpurgatory to progress to heaven through themass, prayers, and good works”Quoted in Robert Osei-Bonsu “Purgatory: A Study ofthe Historical Development and Its Compatibility withthe Biblical Teaching on the Afterlife” PhilosophyStudy, April 2012, Vol. 2, No. 4, 286-299
  11. 11. Consequences• Increased attention to lay devotion – Books ofHours• Increased philanthropy• Chantries
  12. 12. Henry III - MarriageMarriage to Eleanor of Provence, 1236
  13. 13. Henry III ResidencesQui non dat quod amat, non accipit ille quod optatKe ne duneke ne tine, ne prent ke desireWoodstock PalaceWestminster Palace
  14. 14. Westminster AbbeyMeeting Place of Great CouncilChapter House
  15. 15. Painted Chamber,Westminster PalaceWilliam Capon 1817•Bed chamber of Henry III•Site for almsgiving•Site for state occasions
  16. 16. Painted Chamber, Coronation of Edward the Confessor
  17. 17. Painted ChamberVirtues and VicesReconstructions byWilliam Tristram,1927(L)Triumph of Largesce(generosity) overCovoitise (greed)(R) Triumph ofDebonerete (courtesy)over Ira (anger)
  18. 18. Ceiling Panels – Painted ChamberProphet Seraph
  19. 19. Henry III artistic motifs• Edward the Confessor• Wheel of fortune• Dives and Lazarus
  20. 20. Cathedrals and Abbeys• Durham Western towers 1217-1226• Westminster. Begun 1220• Peterborough,west front 1237• Salisbury1237• Westminster 1243• Whitby, crossing, transepts 1250• Salisbury, W front 1260
  21. 21. English CathedralsDon Grimes, Osher Lifelong Learning,WilmingtonCathedrals Fall 2013, M 9 Canterbury, Wells, Lincoln, Salisbury.
  22. 22. Durham (1217-26
  23. 23. Petersborough1237
  24. 24. Salisbury, 1237
  25. 25. Westminster Abbey1243
  26. 26. Westminster Abbey
  27. 27. WhitbyWhitby, transept 1250
  28. 28. Salisbury1260
  29. 29. Twelve Months, Salisbury Cathedral Choir(King’s Chamber, Kennington; Queen’s Chamber, Clarendon)
  30. 30. Scholarship in the 13th Century
  31. 31. Conditions leading to modernscience• Translation of Greco-Arabic works on scienceand natural philosophy into Latin,• Formation of the Medieval University• Emergence of the theologian-naturalphilosophers
  32. 32. Communities of Scholars• Bologna 1088,Paris 1119• Oxford by 1190• Cambridge c. 1209• Other schools– Northampton, Lincoln,York, London, Hertfordand Exeter 1291 Confirmation ofPrivileges of Cambridge
  33. 33. CollegesEndowed boardinghouses for impoverishedscholars.• 1249 University College• 1263 Balliol College• 1264 Merton College“Mob Quad”
  34. 34. Academic Halls
  35. 35. Curriculum• Liberal Arts– Trivium grammar, rhetoric and dialectic– Quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music• Graduate Studies– Theology, law, medicine
  36. 36. Bracton and Legal Scholarship
  37. 37. New Religious Groups• Dominicans• Franciscans
  38. 38. Dominicans• Black Friars• 1221 Land at Dover• 1223 Oxford• Urban mendicants• St. Thomas Aquinas
  39. 39. Franciscans ArriveIn the year of our Lord 1224, in thetime of the Lord Pope theeighth year of the Lord King Henry,son of John, on the Tuesday after theFeast of the Nativity of the BlessedVirgin, which that year was uponSunday, the Friars Minor first cameinto England at DoverHouse at London
  40. 40. „Gray Friars‟• Embrace poverty• Could not own land• Lived by begging.• Activities in the world– caring for the sick– preaching to the poor– singing and praying
  41. 41. GrossetesteandBaconTheRebirthofScience
  42. 42. Medieval Science andTechnology• Ray Hain, Osher Lifelong Learning,Wilmngton Fall 2013, Friday at 9
  43. 43. Adelard of Bath (1080-1152)• Travels to Greeceand Middle East• Introduces zero• Euclid into Latin• Natural philosophyAdelard, Euclid, 1309 - 1316
  44. 44. Robert Grosseteste1170-1253
  45. 45. Grosseteste Career• 1229-1235 Lecturer, Oxford on theology toFranciscans• Works –Applications of Aristotle– De luce (Concerning Light)– Templum Dei (the Temple of God)• 1235-1253 Bishop of Lincoln• 1250 Lyons denounces the pope and thecardinals to their faces for acting contrary toChrist.
  46. 46. Speculations• Rainbow due to reflection and refraction• Colors related to intensity of light
  47. 47. Roger Bacon (1214-1294)1214-1292
  48. 48. Bacon Career• Oxford at age 13• 1240‟s Invited to Paris to reintroduce Aristotle• 1257 Becomes Franciscan• c. 1270 at Oxford• Restrained or imprisoned for alchemy
  49. 49. On Experimental Science, 1268• …without experiment it is impossible to knowanything thoroughly• This is evident even in mathematics, wheredemonstration is the surest.
  50. 50. On Experimental Science, 1268Experience is of two kinds.• One is through the external senses: [includingthrough instruments]• …such experience is not enough for man,…Hence mans intellect must be aided inanother way, … there is divine inspiration notalone concerning spiritual but even aboutcorporeal things.
  51. 51. Writings• Opus Majorus– Mathematics is the door and key to the sciences– All this information [astronomical] is secured bymeans of instruments suitable for these purposes,and by tables and by canons
  52. 52. Writings (2)• The experimenter considers whether amongvisible things, he can find colors formed andarranged as given in the rainbow. He findsthat there are hexagonal crystals from Irelandor India … and he holds these in a ray ofsunlight falling through the window, and findsall the colors of the rainbow,
  53. 53. Optics• Geometric optics• Parabolic burning mirrors• Theory that lenses may correct eyesight• Rainbow is due to the reflection andrefraction of sunlight through individualraindrops.
  54. 54. Gunpowder