11. S Free state to Republic to EU

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Ireland from 1932 to 2009
De Valera
World War II
Joining the EU

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11. S Free state to Republic to EU

  1. 1. Free State to Republic to EU<br />Era of De Valera<br />
  2. 2. 1932 Election Issues<br />FiannaFáil<br />CumannnanGaedheal<br />Free IRA prisoners,<br />Abolish the Oath of allegiance<br />Reduce power of Governor-General and Senate.<br />Protectionist policies, industrial development <br />Improvements in housing and social security benefits.<br />Record of stable government<br />Allege communist nature of FiannaFáil<br />[No solution for depression]<br />
  3. 3. 1932<br />
  4. 4. Anglo-Irish Trade War<br />Ireland refuses to make payments to UK under Land Acts<br />Asks for repayment of £400 million excess taxation during the 19th century<br />Tariffs on imports<br />Revoke Oath of Allegiance<br />Appoint Irish Governor-General<br />
  5. 5. Retaliation and Counter-retaliation<br />UK imposes 20% tariff on Irish agriculture<br />Ireland imposes duties on UK coal and other products<br />Irish farmers/herders refuse (are unable) to pay rates and annuities<br />Government impounds and auctions off cattle<br />
  6. 6. Industry<br />Control of Manufactures Act - Majority ownership of Irish companies limited to Irish citizens.<br />Flight of large companies<br />
  7. 7. Agriculture<br />Encouragement of tillage vs. pasturage <br />Offsets population migration to cities<br />
  8. 8. Settlement<br />1935 Agreement to trade cattle for coal<br />1938 Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement<br />Lift duties except on new industries<br />One time payment <br />Return ports to Irish control<br />
  9. 9. Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act<br />1935 Established citizenship for those born in Southern Ireland or Northern Ireland after 1922<br />UK continued to recognize Irish citizens as British subjects until the passing of the Ireland Act 1949, which acknowledged “citizens of the Republic of Ireland<br />2004 Constitutional amendment restricts rights<br />
  10. 10. Head of state<br />1922-1927 By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.<br />1927-1937 By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.<br />
  11. 11. 1937 Constitution<br />Define the Ireland (Éire) as the whole island of Ireland, its islands and the territorial seas’<br />Revoked after 1998 Belfast agreement<br />Passed by plebiscite 685,105 to 526,945<br />
  12. 12. “Fundamental rights”<br />Prohibit abortion except in case of threat to life of the mother<br />Right to travel and right to obtain information about services available abroad<br />Prohibit divorce<br />Removed 1996<br />
  13. 13. Women (Article 41)<br />Subsection 1: In particular, the State recognises that by her life within the home, woman gives to the State a support without which the common good cannot be achieved.<br />Subsection 2: The State shall, therefore, endeavour to ensure that mothers shall not be obliged by economic necessity to engage in labour to the neglect of their duties in the home.<br />
  14. 14. 1937 Religion <br />Section 2: The State recognises the special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens.<br />Section 3: The State also recognises the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution.<br />
  15. 15. Current Constitution<br />Freedom of religion<br /> Current law also forbids discrimination in employment and services on grounds of gender (& transsexuals), marital status, family status, sexual orientation, age, disability, race (& nationality) and membership of the Traveller community, as well as religion (or lack thereof).<br />
  16. 16. King<br />Not mentioned in 1937 Constitution<br />Head of State not mentioned<br />External Relations Act gives George VI power to:<br />Accredit ambassadors<br />Sign treaties<br />1948 Republic of Ireland Act<br />
  17. 17. Irish Literature and Art<br />
  18. 18. Poets<br />Patrick Kavanagh, (1904-1967)<br />John Hewitt (1907-1987) Ulster<br />Seamus Heaney (1939- ) Ulster<br />
  19. 19. Novelists<br />James Joyce (1882-1941)<br />Elizabeth Bowen (1899-1973)<br />Cathal Ó Sándair (1922–1996) Irish language<br />
  20. 20. Playwrights<br />Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) Waiting for Godot<br />Brendan Behan (1923-1964)<br />Brian Friel (1929- ) Dancing at Lughnasa<br />
  21. 21. Women Artists<br />Kathleen Fox (1880-1963)<br />Margaret Clarke (1884-1961)<br />Estella Solomons (1882-1962)<br />Gabriel Hayes (1909-1978)<br />
  22. 22. The Arrest of Countess Markievicz, Kathleen Fox, 1916<br />
  23. 23. Kathleen FoxChinese Reflections Pink, Red and Yellow Flowers<br />
  24. 24. Margaret Clarke<br />
  25. 25. Estella Solomons<br />Sitting on the Sand Dunes<br />The Artist’s Sister<br />
  26. 26. Gabriel Hayes<br />
  27. 27. DomhnallÓMurchadha,Madonna and Child <br />1970<br />
  28. 28. WW II “The Emergency” in the South<br />
  29. 29. “The Emergency”<br />Army in 1938<br />5915   Permanent Defense Forces Members; 4945   Members of the Reserve Force; 9525   Members of the Volunteer Force<br />Plans for 37,500 cut in half<br />Emergency powers – internment, censorship<br />
  30. 30. US Connection<br />
  31. 31. Ireland – US <br />Ireland impacted by naval blockades<br />1941 Aiken mission to get food and arms<br />Refuses to back UK or offer ports in return for unification<br />Lobbies Irish-American groups<br />Offered food but not weapons<br />
  32. 32. Northern Ireland - Blitz<br />Four separate attacks<br />1,100 deaths<br />56,000 houses damaged (53% of entire housing stock) <br />100,000 temporarily homeless <br />£20 million damage<br />
  33. 33. Harland and Wolff Aircraft Factory<br />
  34. 34. Belfast, City Hall<br />Before<br />After<br />
  35. 35. Collateral damage<br />
  36. 36. German Representative, Dublin<br />Not initially a Nazi Party member<br />Honored neutrality<br />
  37. 37. Irish Soldiers in WW II<br />Army: End of 1944<br />About 5,000 deserted the British Army to return to Ireland<br />About 5,000 deserted the Irish Army to enlist in Britain<br />
  38. 38. Discreet neutrality<br />Share intelligence with MI5<br />U-Boat sightings<br />Repatriate downed airmen<br />
  39. 39. Flight over the South<br />
  40. 40. German refugees Three Fates<br />
  41. 41. Northern Ireland – War Economy+<br />Ship and aircraft construction<br />Mechanization of agriculture<br />Parachutes, uniforms, tents<br />Yanks are coming!<br />
  42. 42. After the War – 1945 NI election<br />Pro-Union<br />Ulster Unionist 34<br />Labour 3<br />Nationalist 10<br />
  43. 43. Jewish Lord Mayors<br />Yogi Berra “Only in America”<br />1555 William Annyas, Youghal, Co. Cork<br />1956 Robert Briscoe, Dublin<br />Veteran of war of Independence<br />
  44. 44. Elections<br />1949 39 Unionist; 9 Nationalist<br />1953 39 Unionist: 9 Nationalist<br />
  45. 45. IRA Revival<br />Ultimate aim – disband separate governments of north and south<br />Immediate aim – overthrow British institutions in Northern Ireland <br />1954 raid on Gough barracks<br />1956 “Operation Harvest”<br />1956-62 Border campaign internments by governments in north and south<br />
  46. 46. New Directions in the Republic<br />SeánLemass, Taoiseach 1959 -1966 <br />1958 Free trade<br />Play down role of Britain in partition<br />Encourage cross-border cooperation<br />Continue rhetoric on partition <br />
  47. 47. Rural Progress?<br />
  48. 48. Mechanization<br />
  49. 49. From Protection to Free Trade<br />T. K. Whitaker<br />1956-69 Secretary of the Department of Finance<br />Liaison with N. Ireland<br />
  50. 50. Ireland and Europe<br />1961 EEC application suspended<br />Concern about economic ability<br />Concern about neutrality (NATO)<br />Concern about UK<br />1965 Anglo-Irish Free Trade Agreement<br />1967 Resubmission <br />1972 Approved by existing members<br />Referendum 84.6% for<br />
  51. 51. Effects on Ireland<br />Reversal of out migration<br />Aid<br />Development of West<br />CAP: 1973 to 2008 Irish farmers receive nearly €44 billion <br />Multinationals<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Employment gains (1989-1997)<br />
  54. 54. Emigration<br />
  55. 55. Emigration-Immigration<br />
  56. 56. Where do they come from?<br />
  57. 57. Birth rate<br />1973 22.5<br />1983 19.1<br />1993 13.8<br />2003 15.5<br />2009 16.8<br />
  58. 58. Reversal of Decline<br />Marriage<br />1957 14,700; 1966 16,800; 1971 22,000<br />Age of marriage (1961-73) 30.6 to 27.2 for males, 26.9 to 24.8 for females.<br />Living standards<br />50% increase in 1960s<br />Return of educated families in 70s<br />
  59. 59. 1987 Single European Act<br />Single market<br />Four freedoms<br />People<br />Goods<br />Services<br />Capital<br />
  60. 60. Effects on Ireland<br />Ireland as low-cost manufacturing base<br />Remove government subsidies for Irish Steel, Aer Lingus and Telecom Eirean<br />New competitors Ryanair and EsatTelecom<br />Establish Ireland and financial services center<br />
  61. 61. EU and International Trade<br />1973 55% of exports to UK<br />2008 16.5% of exports to UK<br />
  62. 62. Trade<br />Exports <br />Machinery and transport equipment<br />Computers<br />Chemicals<br />Agri-food, cattle, beef, dairy products.<br />Imports<br />Data processing equipment<br />Machinery<br />Chemicals<br />Petroleum and petroleum products<br />Textiles and clothing.<br />
  63. 63. Major Companies<br />CRH: Construction - Raw Materials<br />Ryanair Holdings: Airlines<br />Kerry Group: Food Processing<br />DargsonOil<br />Aryzta AG: Food Processing<br />Elan Corp: Biotechnology & Drugs<br />DCC: Oil & Gas Operations<br />Bank of Ireland <br />Smurfit Kappa Group Public: Containers & Packaging<br />Paddy Power: Casinos & Gaming<br />
  64. 64. Large Employers<br />Intel, Co. Kildare ~4,000<br />Hewlett-Packard<br />IBM ~3,000<br />DellMoved to Poland<br />GlaxoSmithKline, Cork 1,450<br />
  65. 65. Largest Companies - NI<br />Moy Park – food processing<br />Tesco – supermarkets<br />Bombardier Aerospace<br />Asda –supermarkets<br />Translink – public transport<br />
  66. 66. Euro and Ireland<br />1992 Maastricht Treaty<br />Referendum 68.7% for ratification<br />2002 Irish pound phased out<br />Facilitate trade<br />Isolate Ireland from inflation of UK pound<br />
  67. 67. EU and Life<br />Increased travel<br />Educational opportunities abroad<br />Improved environment<br />European Small Claims Court<br />Cheaper phone calls <br />Standardized phone chargers in 2012<br />
  68. 68. Changing Face of Ireland<br />What is the second language of Dublin?<br />

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