8‘The history of audience research is littered withthe corpses of studies that have tried and failedto demonstrate, once and for all, a cause andeffect relationship between media message andreceiver behaviour’(Ross & Nightingale, 2003: p9) Myths
13‘despite decades of work in which researchershave tried to demonstrate the cause-effectrelationship, it has never actually been possibleto isolate out the specific influence of mediafrom the other factors, including individualpathology, on human behaviour’(Ross and Nightengale, 2003: 72)The direction of effects research
14Effects Uses and Encoding / Now? Gratifications Decoding Passive Active Socially Autonomous situated ? Interactive? The basic historical trajectory
15Phase 1 – media as all-powerfulPhase 2 - media as all-powerful challengedPhase 3 – powerful media revisitedPhase 4 – negotiating media meaning4 phases (see McQuail, 1993, 2010)
161900-1930sMedia as a top-down model of communicationFrom the power elites to ‘the masses’Phase 1 – media as all-powerful
17Ivan PavlovPhysiologist1901‘Conditional reflex’Classical conditioningPhase 1 – media as all-powerful
201930s-1950sStudies into voting patternsStudies into juvenile delinquencyAcknowledgment of multiple variablesImpact of positivismInfluence of behaviourism Phase 2 - media as all-powerful challenged
21B.F. SkinnerBehaviouristSchedules of reinforcementOperant Conditioning Chamber(aka the Skinner Box)Cause and effect Phase 2 - media as all-powerful challenged
27Criticisms?Ferguson (2010) suggest the Bobo Doll studiesare not studies of aggression at all• Children were motivated to imitate the adult in the belief the videos were instructions.• Children were motivated by the desire to please adults rather than genuine aggression.• The external validity of the study noting that Bobo Dolls are designed to be hit.Phase 3 – powerful media revisited
28 1970s onwards Focus on media message construction and how audiences deconstruct these An examination of what audiences did with media, rather than what the media did to audiences Qualitative research EthnographyPhase 4 – negotiating media meaning
29A new dimension?More cause and effect?Brain science?Neuroscience + psychology? What happens next?
30Models have changedCyclical arguments, claims and counter-claimsIdentification?Addition?Desensitisation?Morals? Summary
31• The research approach: – Content analysis? – Physical stimuli? – Trend analysis? – Closed question surveys? – Participant observation? – Focus groups? – Ethnography? The biggest problem?
33The tartanpodcast, 2009, Social Media OutpostsM. Mackenzie, 2008, Top Secret Codeword Data$PHPhoto, 2008, Time is MoneyFrozenCapybara, 2007, Wait, where am I again?Ramkarthikblogger, 2009, DirectionNina Leen (LIFE), 1964, B F Skinner training a ratHolah.co.uk (date unknown), bobo2Mal Cubed, 2005, MB1NR-3A. Diez Herrero, 2007, creative commons -Franz Patzig- Images