Ownership, Concentration, Convergence: Google [2010-11]

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Slides used in the MAC309 session this semester

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Ownership, Concentration, Convergence: Google [2010-11]

  1. 1. Ownership, concentration, convergence<br />Google?<br />MAC309<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />
  4. 4. ?<br />4<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />
  9. 9. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />Recent trend: megamedia<br />fewer and fewer corporations owning more and more media outlets <br /> (i.e. concentration)<br />through merger, hostile acquisition, strategic partnership<br />owning across platform; across places; across news/entertainment divide<br />corporations that do more than just produce media<br />9<br />
  10. 10. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />10<br />
  11. 11. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />Economics of megamedia<br />Media is a ‘public good’, experiences and ‘economy of scale’<br />Consuming media does not make it unavailable to others<br />Privileges firms with available capital<br />Urges firms to seek bigger audiences<br />11<br />
  12. 12. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />Economics of megamedia<br />Media is a ‘public good’, experiences and ‘economy of scale’<br />Integration, on vertical and horizontal dimensions<br />Vertical: owning steps along the production process<br />Horizontal: owning multiple outlets for product<br />12<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Vertical integration<br />Production<br />Distribution<br />Horizontal integration<br />Publishing<br />Radio<br />Television<br />Press<br />Consumption<br />
  14. 14. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />20th Century Fox<br />Fox Searchlight<br />Fox Television Studios<br />Blue Sky Studios<br />Sky (+)<br />Fox<br />FX<br />Sky 1, 2, 3<br />Sky Movies<br />14<br />Vertical: film production <br />(egThe Simpsons Movie)<br />Harper Collins The Sun MySpace IGN STAR<br />
  15. 15. megamedia– concerns for culture – concerns for news - search<br />20th Century Fox<br />Fox Searchlight<br />Fox Television Studios<br />Blue Sky Studios<br />Sky (+)<br />Fox<br />FX<br />Sky 1, 2, 3<br />Sky Movies<br />15<br />Horizontal: film production <br />(egThe Simpsons Movie)<br />Harper Collins The Sun MySpace IGN STAR<br />
  16. 16. megamedia–concerns for culture– concerns for news - search<br />Implications of media concentration?<br />Homogenisation of content?<br />Incessant cross-promotion?<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />
  18. 18. megamedia–concerns for culture– concerns for news - search<br />Implications of media concentration?<br />Homogenisationof content?<br />Incessant cross-promotion?<br />Huge cost of entry for independents, new creators, smaller interests?<br />Bottom-line trumps creativity?<br />Loss of local character of media?<br />18<br />
  19. 19. megamedia– concerns for culture–concerns for news - convergence<br />Implications of media concentration?<br />Homogenisation of content?<br />Incessant cross-promotion?<br />Huge cost of entry for independents, new creators, smaller interests?<br />Bottom-line trumps creativity?<br />Loss of local character of media?<br />Fewer sources of information?<br />Take safe political positions… or agenda-driven ones?<br />Unlikely to report fairly on their own public impact<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />
  21. 21. megamedia– concerns for culture–concerns for news - search<br />Implications of media concentration?<br />Homogenisation of content?<br />Incessant cross-promotion?<br />Huge cost of entry for independents, new creators, smaller interests?<br />Bottom-line trumps creativity?<br />Loss of local character of media?<br />Fewer sources of information?<br />Take safe political positions… or agenda-driven ones?<br />unlikely to report fairly on their own public impact…<br />or on the political situations that benefit them<br />or on the problems of corporate capitalism?<br />Lobbying power, international influence<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Searching for answers<br />22<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />
  24. 24. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Google<br />1998: search engine launched<br />2004: public stock offering<br />2006: ‘google’ added to the OED<br />24<br /><link><br />
  25. 25. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />25<br /><link><br />
  26. 26. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />26<br /><link><br />
  27. 27. Feb 2010<br /><link><br />
  28. 28. Feb 2011<br />
  29. 29. <link><br />
  30. 30. <link><br />
  31. 31. <link><br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. <link><br />
  35. 35. 35<br />
  36. 36. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Is the search industry concentrated?<br />36<br /><link><br />
  37. 37. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Is the search industry concentrated?<br />37<br /><link><br />
  38. 38. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Is the search industry concentrated?<br />Dominated by a few firms<br />Capital intensive to compete<br />Overwhelmingly supported by ad revenue<br />Companies are expanding well beyond search and access<br />Overwhelmingly American<br />38<br />
  39. 39. 39<br /><link><br />
  40. 40. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Is our use of the web dominated by these providers?<br />40<br />
  41. 41. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Does concentration matter here?<br />Traditional media business: 2 commodities<br /> - Providecontent to audience<br /> - Provideaudienceto advertiser<br />Tendency to want to shape content to serve most viewers<br />41<br />
  42. 42. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Does concentration matter here?<br />Traditional media business: 2 commodities<br /> - Providecontent to audience<br /> - Provideaudienceto advertiser<br />Tendency to want to shape content to serve most viewers<br />Search: provide platform for every user to find exactly what they want<br />Generally less interested in the content<br />More important to be comprehensive and satisfying<br />Automation of search removes some human involvement<br />42<br />
  43. 43. Search?<br />SEO?<br />Spam?<br />
  44. 44. concentrated search– the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />What explains the corporate presence in our top searches?<br />Google’s ‘PageRank’ algorithm?<br />Search results based on incoming links, not just content<br />Wisdom of the crowd?<br />Popularity contest?<br />Self-affirming, high-ranked links stay high?<br />Corporate power over content production, search merely delivers?<br />Do the structures of ‘information access’ shape our engagement with that information?<br />44<br />
  45. 45. concentrated search –the pull of advertising– platform lock-in - privacy<br />Does the dependence on ad revenue affect search?<br />DoubleClick: serves up banner ads to web pages<br />AdSense: matches ads to webpage content<br />AdWords: matches ads to search terms<br />Sponsored and affiliated links<br />45<br />
  46. 46. 46<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />
  48. 48. 48<br />
  49. 49. concentrated search – the pull of advertising –platform lock-in- privacy<br />Are there new implications of concentration in search?<br />Established firms curtail innovation?<br />Lobbying power?<br />Platform lock-in?<br />Search (+ advertising) + applications<br />Ad revenue makes it desirable to keep users coming back<br />Google apps feed users back to search engine<br />49<br />
  50. 50. concentrated search – the pull of advertising –platform lock-in- privacy<br />Search (+ advertising) + applications<br />Ad revenue makes it desirable to keep users coming back<br />Google apps feed users back to search engine<br />50<br />
  51. 51. concentrated search – the pull of advertising –platform lock-in- privacy<br />Search (+ advertising) + applications<br />Ad revenue makes it desirable to keep users coming back<br />Google apps feed users back to search engine<br />Steet View<br />Latitude<br />Android<br />Wave<br />Buzz<br />Voice<br />Gmail<br />News<br />Reader<br />Maps<br />Earth<br />Android<br />YouTube<br />Groups<br />Docs<br />Calendar<br />Books<br />Scholar<br />Chrome OS<br />Goggles<br />Checkout<br />Shopping<br />Images<br />Desktop<br />Video<br />Sketch UP<br />Picassa<br />Orkut<br />Talk<br />Blogger<br />Chrome<br />Desktop<br />51<br />
  52. 52. concentrated search – the pull of advertising – platform lock-in - privacy<br />Are there new implications of concentration in search?<br />Established firm curtails innovation?<br />Lobbying power?<br />Platform lock-in?<br />Information privacy?<br />Google saves search queries<br />Uses Gmail and Deja as consumer data<br />Maps, Street View, Latitude…<br />52<br />
  53. 53. 53<br />
  54. 54. 54<br />
  55. 55. 55<br />
  56. 56. 56<br />
  57. 57. 57<br />
  58. 58. 58<br />
  59. 59. 59<br />
  60. 60. http://thenextweb.com/shareables/2010/01/10/google-street-view-fails-wins-wtfs/<br />
  61. 61. Latitude<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-Oq-9enE-k<br />Check out Aka Aki too:<br />http://www.aka-aki.com/<br />61<br />
  62. 62. Other stuff<br />Google book deal?<br />Behaviourial advertising<br />

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