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Med332 the origins of hip hop


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lecture slides. features video clips from the following documentaries:
The Hip Hop Years Parts 1 & 2
Once Upon A Time In New York

Published in: Education
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Med332 the origins of hip hop

  1. 1. #med332 The birth of hip hop
  2. 2. Hip hop versus rap 1. Turntablism 2. MC/emcee 3. Breaking 4. GraffiD
  3. 3. ‘Rap is something you do, hip hop is something you live’ KRS One – ‘Hip Hop Vs. Rap’ (2003)
  4. 4. Block parDes ~1972 GraffiD ~1975 Early recordings ~1979 Yo MTV Video Raps (1983) Sampling ~1981 Live MCs ~1975 Breakbeats and B-­‐Boys ~1973/4 Pop/rap crossovers ~1990
  5. 5. Video of locaDons
  6. 6. DJ Kool Herc Born 1955 Kingston Jamaica NYC 1967
  7. 7. DJ Kool Herc
  8. 8. Hip hop culture as reacDon against late-­‐era disco’s exclusivity
  9. 9. Video of bronx New York’s economic woes
  10. 10. Gang culture
  11. 11. ‘channel the anger of young people away from gang fighDng and into music, dance, and graffiD’ -­‐ Lipsitz, 1994: 26
  12. 12. B-­‐Boys
  13. 13. Turntablism
  14. 14. The DJ is close to what Lévi-­‐Strauss (1976) called a ‘bricoleur’ or crafsperson who makes use – in this case – of musical fragments in order to create new music. Here a beat or a passage is idenDfied by the DJ and, using two copies of the record, it is intermixed, enabling the seamless repeDDon of a percussive secDon of a parDcular record -­‐ Back, 1996: 192
  15. 15. the absence of a need for musical skill, in the more convenDonal sense of being able to play a musical instrument -­‐ Benneg, 2001: 89
  16. 16. LL Cool J – ‘Rock The Bells’ (1985)
  17. 17. Imported Jamaican soundclash culture
  18. 18. Bambaataa and his Zulu naDon used their knowledge as consumers of music to become skilled producers of it … Hemmed in by urban renewal, crime and police surveillance, and silenced by neglect from the culture industry, the school system, and the city government, they found a way to declare themselves through music. Lipsitz, 1994a: 26
  19. 19. ‘[Rapping] can be traced from African bardic tradiDons to rural southern-­‐based expressions of African Americans – toasts, tales, sermons, blues, game songs, and allied forms – all of which are recited in a chanted rhyme or poeDc fashion’ -­‐ Keyes, 1991: 40
  20. 20. From live hip-­‐hop to recorded product Harlem World (1978-­‐1984) Jack ‘Fat Jack’ Taylor
  21. 21. Cold Crush Brothers
  22. 22. FantasDc Five (aka FantasDc Freaks)
  23. 23. Doug E Fresh
  24. 24. Kool Moe Dee Vs Chief Rocka Busy Bee at Harlem World 1981
  25. 25. First rap record? The Fatback Band – ‘King Tim III (Personality Jock)’ – released March 25, 1979
  26. 26. I was approached in '77. A gentleman walked up to me and said, 'We can put what you're doing on record.' I would have to admit that I was blind. I didn't think that somebody else would want to hear a record re-­‐ recorded onto another record with talking on it. I didn't think it would reach the masses like that. I didn't see it. I knew of all the crews that had any sort of juice and power, or that was drawing crowds. So here it is two years later, and I hear 'To the hip-­‐hop, to the bang to the boogie', and it's not Bam, Here, Breakout, AJ. Who is this? -­‐ Grandmaster Flash quoted in George 1993, p. 49
  27. 27. The Sugarhill Gang – ‘Rapper’s Delight’ released November, 1979
  28. 28. ‘Rapper's Delight’ clearly ruptured the art form's sense of conDnuity as a live pracDce known to all its 'in group' members. This rupture was a defining one for hip hop as it marked the art's entrance into the public sphere of worldwide cultural discourse, where it has remained ever since. The decentralised face-­‐to-­‐face social dynamic which marked early hip hop has thus given way to a different dynamic, one mediated by way of commodity forms such as vinyl, video and CD. -­‐ Dimitriadis, 1996: 179
  29. 29. When ‘Rapper’s Delight’ first came out, every […] tradiDonal rapper was fucking morDfied. They was like, what the fuck are they doing […] with our […] art form? […] It’s like they axe-­‐ murdered the shit. So, we didn’t think that that was creditable [sic]. -­‐ Melle Mel interview, The Hip Hop Years, 1999
  30. 30. Afrika Bambaataa & Soul Sonic Force – ‘Planet Rock’ (1982)
  31. 31. Black Consciousness Civil Rights Movement PoliDcal Ideology
  32. 32. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five -­‐ ‘The Message’ (1982)
  33. 33. Public Enemy – ‘Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos’ It Takes a Na3on of Millions To Hold Us Back (1987)
  34. 34. Self-­‐determinaDon Knowledge of self
  35. 35. So many emcees focusin' on black people exterminaDon We keep it balanced with that knowledge of self, determinaDon It's hot, we be blowin' the spots, with conversaDons C'mon let's smooth it out like Soul SensaDon We in the house like Japanese in Japan, or Koreans in Korea Head to Philly and free Mumia with the Kujichagulia TRUE Singin' is swingin' and wriDn' is fighDn', but what They wriDn' got us clashin' like Dtans it's not exciDn' No quesDon, bein' a black man is demandin' The fire's in my eyes and the flames need fannin' (x3) With that what? (Knowledge Of Self) DeterminaDon (x4) […] Inner-­‐city concentraDon camps where no one pays agenDon or menDons the ascension of death, 'Dl nothing's lef The young, gifed and Black are sprung addicted to crack All my people where y'all at cause, y'all ain't here And your hero's using your mind as a canvas to paint fear With, broad brush strokes and tales of incarceraDon You get out of jail with that Knowledge of Self determinaDon Mos Def and Talib Kweli -­‐ ‘K.O.S. (DeterminaDon)’ (2002)
  36. 36. Outkast ‘LiberaDon’ (1998) Aquemini I must admit, they planted a lot of things in the brains and the veins of my strain Makes it hard to refrain, from the host of cocaine From them whores, from the flame From a post in the game Makes it hard to maintain focus They're from the glock rounds, and lockdowns, and berries The seeds that sow, get devoured by the same locusts […] Now have a choice to be who you wants to be It's lef uppa to me, and my momma n'em told me (yes she did) I said I have a choice to be who you wants to be It's lef uppa to me, and my momma n'em told me
  37. 37. Summary Early hip-­‐hop culture was marked by mulDple forms of expression that were highly visible and hard to ignore. Rap spoke of collecDve experience, communality, the urban poor PoliDcal consciousness
  38. 38. Images Ventura Mendoza (2007) Public Enemy @ CasDllo Negro -­‐ Tenerife -­‐ Islas Canarias -­‐ 20/04/2007 Mag Green (2012) Portal of the day PTGreg (2007) Disco Tony Cairns (2014 )Zulu NaDon et al in Newtown Street Art NEAR! (2013) AFRIKA BAMBAATAA (by NEAR!) Mikey Wally (2011) Baseck's Hands Zach Jackson (2004) Turntable wayne marshal (2013) rockers sound staDon system Phillip Capper (2008) South Bronx, New York, 17 Nov. 2008 Stuart Crawford (2009) gmf3 06 Steve (2009) Love The Mixtape