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Med312 spies and whistleblowers lecture

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Lecture slides dealing with the role of sources and whistleblowers in the 21st century information war - part of the University of Sunderland media ethics module

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Med312 spies and whistleblowers lecture

  1. 1. @rob_jewitt #med312 Secrets, spies and whistleblowers: the ethics of radical transparency 1
  2. 2. “The state has its eye on every citizen, but every citizen, at least every hacker – the citizens’ self appointed avenger – can pry into the state’s every secret” --Umberto Eco, 2010 2
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  5. 5. Jana Winter Fox News Aurora, Colorado James Holmes’ notebook 5
  6. 6. It’s the fixed point on the ethical firmament to which all other journalism principles are anchored, and reflects the highest aspiration of reporting – to inform the public whatever the personal cost to the journalist Hill and Lashmar, 2014: 132 6
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  8. 8. British soigneur Emma O’Reilly Resigned in 2000 Whistleblew in 2004 8
  9. 9. Dr David Kelly May 2003 BBC: Andrew Gilligan Today programme ‘sexed up’ ‘dodgy dossier’ 45 mins Hutton Inquiry 9
  10. 10. The legend of Deep Throat runs deep and, to British journalists, it conveys a solitary absolute: confidential sources must never be identified while they are alive Luckhurst, The Independent, 2003 10
  11. 11. Dr David Kelly May 2003 BBC: Andrew Gilligan Today programme ‘sexed up’ ‘dodgy dossier’ 45 mins Hutton Inquiry 11
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  14. 14. By 1988 the book was cleared for sale when the Law Lords accepted that overseas revelations rendered its secrets as public knowledge 14
  15. 15. By gagging its own papers the British Government was found guilty by the European Court of Human Rights of breaching the European Convention of Human Rights (Nov 1991) 15
  16. 16. “They are only online entities. They don’t become sources until you have met them” Paul Lewis cited in Hill and Lashmar, 2014: 132 16
  17. 17. Gomez-Mejia et al (2007) define whistleblowing as an occurrence in which a former or current employee discloses illegal, immoral or illegitimate practices under the control of the employer to persons or 17 organisations that may be able to take corrective actions.
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  22. 22. Protecting your source • • • • • • Try to avoid electronic communication Meet face to face Turn off both your phones, tablets, etc, well in advance of meeting Avoid meeting in locations with CCTV If you do use phone or email, do not use names If you do use mobile phones, only use PAYG mobiles for both sides of the conversation 22 • If you use email, create an anonymous generic account (eg Hotmail)
  23. 23. ‘the right of people to freely access information … helps citizens hold their own governments accountable’ ‘a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas’ – Clinton , 2010 23
  24. 24. April 2010 - Collateral Murder 24
  25. 25. April 2010 Afghan War Logs 90,000 classified documents 25
  26. 26. 23 October 2010 Iraq War Logs 391,832 classified documents 26
  27. 27. 29 November 2010 Cablegate 251,287 classified documents 27
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  29. 29. • John Gilmore • “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it” – TIME magazine (6 Dec 1993) 29
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  33. 33. Wikileaks: ‘the World’s First Stateless News Organization’ - Jay Rosen, professor of journalism at New York University 33
  34. 34. ‘the possibilities allowed [...] for dissent, openness and diversity rather than closure, exclusivity and ideological homogeneity’ Brian McNair, 2006: vii 34
  35. 35. Scientific journalism allows you to read a news story, then to click online to see the original document it is based on. That way you can judge for yourself: Is the story true? Did the journalist report it accurately? -- Assange, 2010 35
  36. 36. Radical transparency? 36
  37. 37. Credibility? 37
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  39. 39. The Internet and democracy: from openness to closedness • mass participation (see Anderson, 2009) • end of traditional gatekeepers of information (see Grossberg, 1995) 39
  40. 40. ‘reinvigoration of democratic processes have been progressively dashed as technological potentials have been commandeered by corporate and governmental initiatives designed to reinstitute top-down control’ 40 -- Brevini & Murdock, 2013: 36
  41. 41. ‘the Web’s arrival as an everyday utility has intersected with economic and political shifts that have shaped its deployment in fundamental ways. Three are particularly relevant to the present discussion: marketization; the consolidation of the security state; and the erosion of the United States’ position as the primary global superpower’ -- Brevini and Murdock, 2013: 36-7 41
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  43. 43. 2001: the top 10 websites accounted for 31% of US page views 2010: that figure had climbed to 75% -- see Anderson and Wolff, 2010 43
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  45. 45. Canada: Google has 81% share of search market Australia: 88% UK: 90.5% New Zealand: 92% -- See Winseck, 2010; Freedman, 2012 45
  46. 46. Top 7% of sites take 80% of all news traffic in US Top 10 news outlets = 25+% of market share -- Project for Excellence in Journalism, 46
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  48. 48. This context of persistent volatility in the international arena, continuing emphasis on the need to defeat “terrorism” at home and abroad, escalating civilian surveillance, entrenched official secrecy, combined with widespread corporate disregard for the public interest, has arguably made disclosure of governmental and business malpractice more imperative than ever. -- Brevini & Murdock, 2013: 38 48
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  51. 51. Summary • Whistleblowing has long history: contexts have changed • Internet as a platform to bypass journalists needs to be reconsidered • Whistleblowers as the story rather than their revelations? • Hiding in full view? • Smear campaigns? 51
  52. 52. Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anderson, C. and Wolff, M. (2009). The Future of a Radical Price. New York: Hyperion Anderson, C. and Wolff, M. (2010 August 17). The Web Is Dead; Long Live the Internet: Who’s to Blame: Them Wired Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/ magazine/2010/08/ff_webrip/ Julian Assange (2010a) ‘Why the World Needs Wikileaks’, TED, July, http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html Julian Assange (2010b) ‘Don't Shoot the Messenger for Revealing Uncomfortable Truths’, The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/in-depth/wikileaks/dontshoot-messenger-for-revealing-uncomfortable-truths/story-fn775xjq-1225967241332 Umberto Eco (2010) ‘Not such wicked leaks’, Presseurop, 2 December, http://www.presseurop.eu/en/content/article/414871-not-such-wicked-leaks Benedetta Brevini & Graham Murdock (2013) ‘Following the Money: WikiLeaks and the Political Economy of Disclosure’ in Beyond WikiLeaks: Implications for the Future of Communications, Journalism and Society, Palgrave Macmillan Hilary Clinton (2010) ‘Internet Freedom’, Foreign Policy, 21st January, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/01/21/internet_freedom?page=full Richard V. Ericson, Patricia M. Baranek and Janet B.L. Chan (1989) Negotiating Control: A Study of News Sources, Milton Keynes: Open University Press Mark Fishman (1980) Manufacturing the News, Austin: University of Texas Press Freedman, D. (2012). “Web 2.0 and the death of the blockbuster economy” in Curran, J. Fenton, N. and Freedman, D. Misunderstanding The Internet, London: Routledge John Gilmore (1993) Time, 6th December, http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/outerspace/internet-article.html Gomez-Mejia, L. et al (2007) ‘Developing an Effective Whistleblowing Policy’ in Managing Human Resources, 5th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Andy Greenberg (2010) ‘An Interview With WikiLeaks' Julian Assange’, Forbes, 29th October, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2010/11/29/an-interviewwith-wikileaks-julian-assange/ Grossman, K. L. (1995). The Electronic Republic: Reshaping Democracy in the Information Age. New York: Viking Huxford and Moore (2011) ‘Teaching Journalism Students About Confidential Whistleblower Sources: An Analysis Of Introductory News Writing Textbooks’, Journal Of College Teaching & Learning, Vol 8, No 10 http://cluteonline.com/journals/index.php/TLC/article/view/6107 Raffi Khatchadourian (2010) ‘No Secrets: Julian Assange’s mission for total transparency’, The New Yorker, 7th June, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/06/07/100607fa_fact_khatchadourian?currentPage=all Graham Meikle and Sherman Young (2012) Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Project for Excellence in Journalism (2011 May 9). Navigating News online, Journalism.org Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2011/05/09/navigating-newsonline/ Jay Rosen (2010) ‘The Afghanistan War Logs Released by Wikileaks, the World’s First Stateless News Organization’, PressThink, 26 July, http://pressthink.org/2010/07/the-afghanistan-war-logs-released-by-wikileaks-the-worlds-first-stateless-news-organization/ Karin Wahl-Jorgensen & Joanne Hunt (2012) ‘Journalism, accountability and the possibilities for structural critique: A case study of coverage of whistleblowing’, Journalism, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 399-416 www.dx.doi.org/10.1177/1464884912439135 Winseck, D. (2011). ‘Media and Internet Concentration in Canada, 1984–2010’, Mediamorphis, Retrieved from http://dwmw.wordplus/2011/09/03 media-an-internet-concentration-in canada-1984-%E2%80%93–2010/ 52
  53. 53. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jeroen Elfferich, 2006, Big Brother Congestion - IMG_3280 Gaelx, 2010, Anonymous en la operación Goya Nick Leonard, 2002, Short Track Seth Stoll, 2009, network Steven Depolo, 2009, Green Whistle Blowing 8-16-09 1 Kevyn Jacobs, 2011, Free Bradley Manning sticker Ani Od Chai, 2009, IMG_0845 P Talk Radio News Service, 2010, Sec. of State Hillary Clinton Discusses on Internet Freedom On Being, 2010, Julian Assange of WikiLeaks at Press Conference on Afghanistan War Diary Leaks JD Lasica, 2008, Jay Rosen Ben Bryant, 2010, Julian Assange (1) Koen Colpaert, 2011, NSA Teufelsberg (De) Jacon Bøtter, 2004, Enjoy Capitalism Anna Fox, 2009, Monopoly in the Park David Maddison 2005 Big Brother WAS Watching! A. Diez Herrero, 2007, creative commons -Franz Patzig- All attempts made to attribute sources but if I’m missed one, get in touch please 53

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