Networked Journalism and the Arab Spring


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Slides used in undergraduate media studies module at University of Sunderland
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  • Networked Journalism and the Arab Spring

    1. 1. Networked journalism and the Arab Spring#mac309@rob_jewitt 1
    2. 2. 2 John Gilmore  “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it”  TIME magazine (6 Dec 1993)
    3. 3. 3Outline 1. Networked journalism 2. The Twitter revolution? Lessons from Iran 3. The Arab Spring and activism
    4. 4. 4Transformation of journalism“In the 20th Century making the news was almostentirely the province of journalists… The economicsof publishing and broadcasting createdlarge, arrogant institutions – call it Big Media…Big media … treated the news as a lecture. Wetold you what the news was…. Tomorrow’s newsreporting and production will be more of aconversation, or a seminar…” (2004: xiii)
    5. 5. 5 US Airways #1549 2009 Mumbai 2008Asian Tsunami 2004 London 7/7 2005
    6. 6. 6Networked journalism A term that has been floating around for some time… Jeff Jarvis (2006)  Journalism professor at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism; blogger; writer Charlie Beckett (2008)  Director of Polis, at the London School of Economics; writer; former broadcast editor at BBC, ITN & C4
    7. 7. 7Networked journalism Jeff Jarvis (2006)  “Networked journalism” takes into account the collaborative nature of journalism now: professionals and amateurs working together to get the real story, linking to each other across brands and old boundaries to share facts, questions, answers, ideas, perspectives. It recognizes the complex relationships that will make news. And it focuses on the process more than the product.
    8. 8. 8Networked journalism Charlie Beckett (2008)  The idea that traditional journalism opens itself up to the public. It shares the production process from start to finish. It uses new technologies to include the citizen in every aspect of news- gathering, production and publication. It means using a lot of jargon like crowd-sourcing, social networking, wikis and Twittering. Many of these techniques build on existing journalism methods and are already out there. But it will also require a participatory revolution in the way we make the news.
    9. 9. 9Networked journalism Charlie Beckett (2010)  By „Networked Journalism‟ I mean a synthesis of traditional news journalism and the emerging forms of participatory media enabled by Web 2.0 technologies such as mobile phones, email, websites, blogs, micro-blogging, and social networks
    10. 10. 10Social media revolutions? Twitter revolution Facebook revolution
    11. 11. 11 #iranelection  A disparate series of events, reports, protests, accounts, links, stories, et c across multiple media platforms by social agents seeking to redress a perceived and actual danger
    12. 12. 12 Top Twitter Trends of 2009  “The terms #iranelection, Iran and Tehran were all in the top-21 of Trending Topics, and #iranelection finished in a close second behind the regular weekly favorite #musicmonday.”  Abdur, Dec 15 2009
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14. 14 10th Iranian election, aka:  Green Revolution  Sea of Green  Twitter Revolution  Persian Awakening
    15. 15. 15 June 12: The Election  Official (disputed!) results:  Ahmadinejad = 24.5 million votes (62.6%)  Mousavi = 13.2 million votes (33.7%)  Over 80% voter turnout  Both claimed they had secured majority of (58-60%) vote
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. 17Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr
    18. 18. 18June 13-14: Protests Mainstream media fingered for poor coverage = #CNNFail Al Jazeera English charges Iranian government of direct censorship Al Arabiya‟s Tehran office shut down NBC News in Tehran raided BBC World Service claim signal jammed
    19. 19. 19Twitter Search #IranElection
    20. 20. 20Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr
    21. 21. 21June 15-18: Escalation Rumours of Mousavi‟s arrest flood the web Supreme Ayatolla Khomeini initiates partial recount of votes Iranian football team wear green armbands in game vs South Korea US Govt asks Twitter to postpone its scheduled downtime Ministry of Culture issues a directive banning foreign media from leaving their offices
    22. 22. 22Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr Facebook
    23. 23. 23June 19-21: Violence Bloodiest days of violence across the weekend Social media becomes the main way for citizens to communicate and organise in face of media censorship Shooting of Neda Soltani by Basij forces becomes a rallying cry against the government State run television reports 10 killed in Tehran over the weekend
    24. 24. 24June13-20th: Censorship
    25. 25. 25Twitter Search #IranElection
    26. 26. 26Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr Facebook
    27. 27. 27Some dangers for users Twitter being used for misinformation Twitter being monitored by state authorities (retweet function)
    28. 28. 28Remediation = retweet?
    29. 29. 29The Arab Spring Revolutionary wave of protests throughout the MENA region, beginning on 18th Dec 2010 following self- immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi
    30. 30. 30Tunisia Corrupt officials under rule of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali High unemployment, inflation, police brutality, and lack of free speech Mainstream media censorship
    31. 31. 31Sidi BouzidMohammed Bouazizi
    32. 32. 32Sidi BouzidMohammed Bouazizi
    33. 33. 33Tunisia 17th Dec 2010 – Mohamed Bouazizi‟s self- immolation in Sidi Bouzid
    34. 34. 34The role of Facebook
    35. 35. 35 John Gilmore  “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it”  TIME magazine (6 Dec 1993)
    36. 36. 36Tunisia 17th Dec 2010 – Mohamed Bouazizi‟s self- immolation in Sidi Bouzid 18th-24th street protests result in public being shot in Bouziane Protests spread nationally, engulfing Tunis by 27th 14th Jan 2011 – President Ben Ali flees into exile
    37. 37. 37Egypt Jan 25th 2011 - Popular uprising began
    38. 38. 38Egypt
    39. 39. 39Net neutrality? Small team of engineers from Twitter and SayNow created a voice-to-tweet service  @speak2tweet
    40. 40. 40Egypt Jan 25th 2011 - Popular uprising began 26th Jan – Internet and mobile services shut down 28th Jan – Hundreds of thousands protest across Egypt after Friday prayers 29th Jan – Military presence in Cairo increased 2nd Feb – “Battle of the Camel” in Tahrir Square 11th Feb – Mubarak resigns, Armed Forces take over
    41. 41. 41Revolutions were tweeted On Sunspace Focus on Tunisa and Egpyt protests Analyses different „information flows‟ Measuring different actors impact and influence “news on Twitter is being co-constructed by bloggers and activists alongside journalists”
    42. 42. 42Conclusion Civic activism can be supported by coordinated internet activism Internet “revolutions” may be somewhat problematic Depending on circumstances, social media and networked journalism contributes to a hybrid and dynamic flow of information.
    43. 43. 43In seminars1. Identify an example whereby networks have been used to break a news story before the mainstream news media (it doesnt have to be about the Arab Spring!)
2. Identify any advantages or disadvantages of information bypassing mainstream media channels
    44. 44. 44In seminars “One possible reading of the current situation on the ground in Tehran is that, despite all the political mobilisation facilitated by social media, the Iranian government has not only survived, but has, in fact, become even more authoritarian”  Evgeny Morozov, 2010, Prospect Magazine1. Listen to the interview (link) with Evgeny Morozov (from 7 mins)  To what extent is he right (or wrong) to be skeptical about the power of social media?