MAC281 r [email_address]   @rob_jewitt
<ul><li>Brief history of copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy: rhetoric of filesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Policy: UK governme...
<ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and ...
<ul><li>Vocal critics of copyright </li></ul>
History of copyright law <ul><li>Statute of Anne 1709 </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing Act 1662 </li></ul><ul><li>Statute of Mo...
History of copyright law <ul><li>Statute of Anne 1709 </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive copyright to last 21 years </li></ul>
History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Act 1842 </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet music copyright = life of author + 7 years </l...
History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright (Musical Compositions) Act 1882  </li></ul><ul><li>Include public recital or pe...
History of copyright law <ul><li>Berne Convention 1886 </li></ul><ul><li>International protection </li></ul>
History of copyright law <ul><li>Musical Copyright Act  1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Act 1911  </li></ul>
History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA)  </li></ul>
History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of copyright in...
History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Directive 2001/29/EC (aka...
Year Copyright Term Began
Implementation <ul><li>RIAA  (Recording Industry Association of America) </li></ul><ul><li>IFPI  (International Federation...
Let ’ s go crazy <ul><li>February 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephanie Lenz and her 13 month old son Holden </li></ul><ul><li>...
Let ’ s go crazy <ul><li>Quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Detracting from sales? </li></ul><ul><li>EFF took up the case and file...
Technology transformed our relationship to culture
Technologies of consumption <ul><li>Culture would be  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less inclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less...
Copyright law is… <ul><li>… powerful and far-reaching in the rights it grants copyright holders </li></ul><ul><li>… is con...
<ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and ...
Singles market <ul><li>1970s until 1999: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>annual UK singles sales = 70 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
UK music market 1997-2009 (millions) Data supplied by The Official Charts Company (BPI Press Release: 7 th  Jan 2009)
UK music industry is growing <ul><li>Revenues up by 4.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in secondary markets </li></ul>
7 million filesharers? Sources:  UK National Statistics ;  SABIP
Policy: Gowers Review <ul><li>Chapter 2 cited BPI figures claiming that the music industry had lost £414 million in lost s...
Policy: Gowers Review <ul><li>Chapter 5 – Recommendation 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage co-operation between rights holder...
Policy: Digital Britain (Interim) <ul><li>‘ a fundamental change in consumer expectations, particularly among the young’ (...
Policy: Digital Britain  <ul><li>Chapter 4: Actions 12 and 13 covered the possibilities of rights holders and ISPs  ‘fundi...
Policy: public consultation <ul><li>France: HADOPI </li></ul><ul><li>3 strikes and disconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Accusat...
UK? <ul><li>Ofcom powers regarding media regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Filesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 4 ’s remit </l...
<ul><li>3 readings in the House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Puttnam:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Bill was being rushed ...
<ul><li>Clauses 17 and 18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web blocking powers </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>&quot;a bill of this size would probably have a one-day second reading debate and then  about 60 to 80 hours  in c...
<ul><li>“ A participatory culture is a culture with relatively  low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement ,...
Summary <ul><li>ISPs won a judicial review against the Act </li></ul><ul><li>Filesharing is not decreasing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>‘ Instead of exploring P2P exchange as a business opportunity, they defined it as a piratical threat.  In doing so...
<ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and ...
<ul><li>S1, ToobyDoo, 2008,  “Piracy”,  http://www.flickr.com/photos/toobydoo/2476286356/ </li></ul><ul><li>S8-10, Liako, ...
Image sources <ul><li>P1,2, 5, Automania, 2005,  “Christmas Music”,  http://www.flickr.com/photos/automania/74037479/ </li...
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Mac281 Copyright in the Digital Era

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Mac281 Copyright in the Digital Era

  1. 1. MAC281 r [email_address] @rob_jewitt
  2. 2. <ul><li>Brief history of copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy: rhetoric of filesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Policy: UK government 2006-present </li></ul><ul><li>Participation: public responses </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology in its stateliness. Technology advances in … lunging jerks, like the punctuation of biological evolution grotesquely accelerated. Real world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will get further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch is permanent” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Perry Barlow, 1993 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Vocal critics of copyright </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of copyright law <ul><li>Statute of Anne 1709 </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing Act 1662 </li></ul><ul><li>Statute of Monopolies 1656 </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of copyright law <ul><li>Statute of Anne 1709 </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive copyright to last 21 years </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Act 1842 </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet music copyright = life of author + 7 years </li></ul>
  8. 8. History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright (Musical Compositions) Act 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>Include public recital or performance of their work </li></ul>
  9. 9. History of copyright law <ul><li>Berne Convention 1886 </li></ul><ul><li>International protection </li></ul>
  10. 10. History of copyright law <ul><li>Musical Copyright Act 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Act 1911 </li></ul>
  11. 11. History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of copyright in most literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works until 70 years after the death of the creator </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of copyright law <ul><li>Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Directive 2001/29/EC (aka European Copyright Directive) </li></ul><ul><li>Injunctions against ISPs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Year Copyright Term Began
  15. 15. Implementation <ul><li>RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) </li></ul><ul><li>IFPI (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry) </li></ul><ul><li>BPI (British Phonographic Industry) </li></ul><ul><li>UK Music </li></ul><ul><li>FAC (Featured Artists Coalition) </li></ul>
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Let ’ s go crazy <ul><li>February 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephanie Lenz and her 13 month old son Holden </li></ul><ul><li>U ploaded video to YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Within 4 months an employee of Universal Music Group saw it and wrote to YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Video was taken down </li></ul>
  18. 18. Let ’ s go crazy <ul><li>Quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Detracting from sales? </li></ul><ul><li>EFF took up the case and filed a counter-notice against Universal ( see link ) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal ’ s lawyers refused to back down </li></ul><ul><li>Risk fine of $150,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Is this worth Universal ’ s while? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Technology transformed our relationship to culture
  20. 20. Technologies of consumption <ul><li>Culture would be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less inclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less participatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the preserve of an elite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruments were traditionally taught </li></ul><ul><li>Love of music developed through learning </li></ul>
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Copyright law is… <ul><li>… powerful and far-reaching in the rights it grants copyright holders </li></ul><ul><li>… is confusing and often contradictory when applied across regions </li></ul><ul><li>… protects the interests of established rights holders in perpetuity and prevents creative entering the public domain </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology in its stateliness. Technology advances in … lunging jerks, like the punctuation of biological evolution grotesquely accelerated. Real world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will get further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch is permanent” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Perry Barlow, 1993 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Singles market <ul><li>1970s until 1999: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>annual UK singles sales = 70 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1999, this has more than halved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(BPI, 2005: p8) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2008: growth of 33% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>115 million + sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(BPI, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. UK music market 1997-2009 (millions) Data supplied by The Official Charts Company (BPI Press Release: 7 th Jan 2009)
  28. 28. UK music industry is growing <ul><li>Revenues up by 4.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in secondary markets </li></ul>
  29. 29. 7 million filesharers? Sources: UK National Statistics ; SABIP
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Policy: Gowers Review <ul><li>Chapter 2 cited BPI figures claiming that the music industry had lost £414 million in lost sales (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>£278 million (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Uptake in broadband internet </li></ul>
  33. 33. Policy: Gowers Review <ul><li>Chapter 5 – Recommendation 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage co-operation between rights holders and ISPs </li></ul>
  34. 34. Policy: Digital Britain (Interim) <ul><li>‘ a fundamental change in consumer expectations, particularly among the young’ (2009: p41) </li></ul><ul><li>BPI: £180 million </li></ul><ul><li>IFPI: £1.1 billion by 2012 </li></ul>
  35. 35. Policy: Digital Britain <ul><li>Chapter 4: Actions 12 and 13 covered the possibilities of rights holders and ISPs ‘funding a new approach to civil enforcement of copyright’ </li></ul><ul><li>70% reduction in filesharing </li></ul>
  36. 36. Policy: public consultation <ul><li>France: HADOPI </li></ul><ul><li>3 strikes and disconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Accusation vs conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State power of secondary legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Over 220 responses – no consensus </li></ul>
  37. 37. UK? <ul><li>Ofcom powers regarding media regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Filesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 4 ’s remit </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial TV licences </li></ul><ul><li>Regional TV news </li></ul><ul><li>Radio spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>3 readings in the House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Puttnam: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Bill was being rushed through without sufficient scrutiny and that legislators were subject to an ‘ extraordinary degree of lobbying ’ from copyright holders </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Clauses 17 and 18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web blocking powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written by the industry </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>&quot;a bill of this size would probably have a one-day second reading debate and then about 60 to 80 hours in committee, where it would be scrutinised line by line, clause by clause &quot;. However, under the current accelerated schedule, &quot;it will receive one day for second reading and at the very most, two hours in a committee of the whole house. The government will programme the debate so huge chunks of the bill might not receive any scrutiny at all... ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cited by Doctorow, 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41.
  42. 42. <ul><li>“ A participatory culture is a culture with relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement , strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations , and some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices. A participatory culture is also one in which members believe their contributions matter, and feel some degree of social connection with one another” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jenkins, 2006 </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Summary <ul><li>ISPs won a judicial review against the Act </li></ul><ul><li>Filesharing is not decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>Government has granted more punitive powers </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>‘ Instead of exploring P2P exchange as a business opportunity, they defined it as a piratical threat. In doing so, they inadvertently implied that they had the right to determine how people apply after-sales use of intellectual property by re-asserting commercial copyright in a set of relations that were effectively deregulated.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Rojek, 2005: 359) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>“ Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology in its stateliness. Technology advances in … lunging jerks, like the punctuation of biological evolution grotesquely accelerated. Real world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will get further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch is permanent” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Perry Barlow, 1993 </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>S1, ToobyDoo, 2008, “Piracy”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/toobydoo/2476286356/ </li></ul><ul><li>S8-10, Liako, 2009, “Piracy: it’s a crime”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/liako/3558668316/ </li></ul><ul><li>S12, Dr Stephen Dann, 2006, “piracyisacrime 29—09-2005 9-51-37 PM”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephendann/80725933/ </li></ul><ul><li>S13-15, c3o, 2006, “Anti piracy ads”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/c3o/244072083/ </li></ul><ul><li>S16, 40, Selma90, 2009, “Apple”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/selma90/3675162262/ </li></ul><ul><li>S41, Jamougha, 2009, “DVD Magic”, P47, Selma90, 2009, “Apple” http://www.flickr.com/photos/selma90/3675162262/ </li></ul><ul><li>S43-44, scribbletaylor, 2009, “20 th April: Technology and gadgets”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/64958688@N00/3463716076/ </li></ul><ul><li>S48, A. Diez Herrero, 2007, “creative commons -Franz Patzig-”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/21572939@N03/2090542246/ </li></ul>
  55. 55. Image sources <ul><li>P1,2, 5, Automania, 2005, “Christmas Music”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/automania/74037479/ </li></ul><ul><li>P6, hc gilje, 2007, “EMI Electola”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/hcgilje/501769056/ </li></ul><ul><li>P7, 8, aus_chick, 2006, “EMI”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/hcgilje/501769056/ </li></ul><ul><li>P10, 25, 34, myuibe, 2008, “copyright and digital culture”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/myuibe/2132305949/ </li></ul><ul><li>P11, 12, 16, 17, _ambrown, 2006, “Music Millenium, Portland Oregon”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/dietpoison/195288442/ </li></ul><ul><li>P18, p_kirn, 2007, “Handmade Music 8/23/07 with Etsy Labs, CDM, and Make”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/p_kirn/1218971167/ </li></ul><ul><li>P31-3, karola riegler photography, 2009, “Vinyl kills the mp3 industry”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/karola/3639759076/ </li></ul><ul><li>P35, 37, Ferrari + caballos + fuerza = cerebro Humano, 2009, “Musica comprimida – Compressed Music”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/gallery-art/3497849677/ </li></ul><ul><li>P38, GabryPk, 2008, “Music Is My Drug pt. 2”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/gabrypk/3107000631/ </li></ul><ul><li>P47, Selma90, 2009, “Apple” http://www.flickr.com/photos/selma90/3675162262/ </li></ul>

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