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Mac129 Med102 journalism and the internet

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Level 1 notes: updated November 2012

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Mac129 Med102 journalism and the internet

  1. 1. Journalism and the InternetMAC129 MED102robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk 1
  2. 2. • “The internet is the new printing press. It’s the mass medium that is changing how we read and digest content”• (Tom Anderson, IT Blogger)?!?! 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. The end of “BIG MEDIA”• “In the 20th Century making the news was almost entirely the province of journalists… The economics of publishing and broadcasting created large, arrogant institutions – call it Big Media…• “Big media … treated the news as a lecture. We told you what the news was…. Tomorrow’s news reporting and production will be more of a conversation, or a seminar… • (Gillmor, 2004:xiii) 4
  5. 5. We the media?• July 7th 2005 5 http://moblog.net/view/77571/
  6. 6. Helen Boaden, BBC director of news• Minutes after the bombings occurred in London last Thursday, newsrooms around the capital were being deluged with pictures and video clips sent directly from the scene. The long-predicted democratisation of the media had become a reality, as ordinary members of the public turned photographers and reporters.• Julia Day, July 11th 2005, We had 50 images within an hour’ http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2005/jul/11/mondaymedia section.attackonlondon 6
  7. 7. We the media?• “As cameras become just one more thing we carry everyday, everyone’s becoming a photographer (Gillmor, 2004:34) 7
  8. 8. Scale• 2000: 200 million web users with over 800 million pages of content (Hall, 2001)• 2008: 1.46 billion web users• 2010: 1.97 billion web users• 2012: 2.41 billion web users • http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm 8
  9. 9. The Internet• ‘For all its global range and its millions of users it refuses to fit neatly into the category of mass media. For media producers and the advertisers who underwrite them new paradigms seeking junctions and commonalities of geography, age, gender, income, race and niche interests are required. How do they deliver news to an audience that is at once local and global?’ • (Jim Hall, 2001: 2) 9
  10. 10. History: news online• 1994: TIME magazine used web to communicate between journalists and readers• For overview see Stuart Allan, 2006. 10
  11. 11. Breaking News?• Oklahoma City bombing, April 19th 1995, was of major importance 11
  12. 12. Content included:• Maps of Oklahoma City• The latest AP news feed• Graphics of terrorist bombs• Emotional eyewitness accounts of the excavation• Listings of survivors and hospital phone numbers• Newsgroups expressing ‘rage’• Dedicated chat-rooms• ISPs (AOL) offering aggregated news feeds and wire services 12
  13. 13. AOL: Timothy ‘Mad Bomber’ McVeigh• Sunday Mirror: • HELLO, I’M THE MAD BOMBER … BOOM!; SICK MESSAGE FLASHED WORLDWIDE; OKLAHOMA BOMB SUSPECT LEAVES MESSAGE ON INTERNET• Later revealed as a fake 13
  14. 14. More ‘teething problems’• 1996 July 17th• TWA flight from New York to Paris exploded• Conspiracy theories• November: former ABC journalist, Pierre Salinger, claimed to have evidence proving US forces shot down plane 14
  15. 15. Obvious advantages:• Immediacy – updates can be added as and when more info is available• No limit to the amount of content• Interactivity – capacity for questions to be asked and for greater accountability 15
  16. 16. Alexa Stats (News)Nov 2011 Nov 20121. Yahoo News 1. Yahoo News2. CNN Interactive 2. CNN Interactive3. The Huffington Post 3. The Huffington Post4. New York Times 4. New York Times5. BBC News 5. BBC News6. Google News 6. The Weather Channel7. The Weather Channel 7. Google News8. Reddit 8. Reddit9. My Yahoo 9. FoxNews.com10. NBC News and MSNBC 10. The Guardian News 16
  17. 17. Alexa Stats (Global)20121. Yahoo News2. CNN Interactive3. The Huffington Post4. New York Times5. BBC News6. The Weather Channel7. Google News8. Reddit9. FoxNews.com10. The Guardian 17
  18. 18. Alexa Stats (Global)Total News producers only1. Yahoo News 1. CNN Interactive2. CNN Interactive 2. The Huffington Post3. The Huffington Post 3. New York Times4. New York Times 4. BBC News5. BBC News 5. FoxNews.com6. The Weather Channel 6. The Guardian7. Google News 7. The Times of India8. Reddit 8. The Wall Street Journal9. FoxNews.com Interactive Edition10. The Guardian 9. Washington Post 10. NBC News 18
  19. 19. • 1997: UK = 4 million web users• 1998: 8.17 million page impressions• 2006: BBC one of the largest news-gathering organizations in the world: • 42 foreign bureaus • 13 domestic news centres. • annual budget of around £350 million • expertise of over 2000 journalists • 250 correspondents around the world • online team composed of 40 journalists• 2012: facing huge DQF cuts and crisis in public trust (Newsnight affair) 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Key issues:• Do newspapers have a future?• Does paper have a role in the future of news?• Will there be such a thing as ‘print journalism’ in a decade’s time?• Do the answers to these questions even matter as long as there is something called journalism available to the British public on some platform in a few years time? 21
  22. 22. Newspaper circulation: 2000s
  23. 23. Tabloid/mid-market circulation: 2000s
  24. 24. Quality & specialist circulation: 2000s
  25. 25. The newspaper industry: business trends in the last 2 decades May 2007- % change on Oct-07 Oct-06 % change Sep-07 October 2007 last yearThe Sun 3,126,866 3,107,412 0.63 3,213,756 3,124,134 -1.64Daily Mirror 1,525,477 1,600,452 -4.68 1,584,742 1,563,023 -4.56Daily Star 771,197 770,834 0.05 803,726 798,024 -0.01Daily Mail 2,353,807 2,350,730 0.13 2,365,499 2,342,613 -1.44Daily Express 789,867 788,719 0.15 814,921 793,924 -3.99Daily Telegraph 882,413 900,043 -1.96 890,973 889,491 -1.14The Times 642,895 656,278 -2.04 654,482 640,682 -3.99Financial Times 449,385 439,774 2.19 441,219 440,335 1.47The Guardian 364,513 384,701 -5.25 367,546 364,275 -3.77The Independent 240,134 257,427 -6.72 251,470 242,685 -4.61 June 2007- November % change on Nov-07 Nov-06 % change Oct-07 2007 last yearThe Sun 3,078,388 3,072,828 0.18 3,126,866 3,129,071 -1.11Daily Mirror 1,518,881 1,549,573 -1.98 1,525,477 1,577,401 -4.13Daily Star 753,476 769,226 -2.05 771,197 794,034 -0.18Daily Mail 2,327,507 2,295,101 1.41 2,353,807 2,347,381 -0.63Daily Express 766,874 774,665 0 789,867 793,884 -2.72Daily Telegraph 882,873 901,238 -2.04 882,413 887,747 -1.35The Times 636,946 653,780 -2.57 642,895 640,682 -3.77Financial Times 444,880 432,980 2.75 449,385 439,185 1.84The Guardian 356,789 382,393 -6.7 364,513 361,993 -4.42The Independent 233,423 253,737 -8.01 240,134 240,827 25 -5.14
  26. 26. Newspaper trends 2008 26
  27. 27. Newspaper trends 2010 27
  28. 28. Oct 2012 Monthly change % Yearly change %The Sun 2,445,361 -2.29 -10.27Daily Mirror 1,072,687 -1.47 -6.22Daily Star 586,743 -2.26 -13.87Daily Express 543,912 -1.2 -11.94Daily Mail 1,884,815 -1.53 -6.17Daily Telegraph 560,398 -4.06 -7.71The Times 406,711 -0.25 -5.32The Guardian 204,937 +0.33 -11.88The Independent 81,245 -0.68 -54.09i 282,995 +0.52 +53.47Financial Times 287,895 +2.77 -16.45 28
  29. 29. Newspaper trends• National newspapers have fallen by more than 50% in the last two decades (1988-2007), including the Mirror and the Express.• Some increases - Financial Times (overseas sales)• Total daily circulation of national daily newspapers has dropped from over 15 million to around 11.5 million, or 25% (McNair, 2007). 29
  30. 30. Ownership and control• Concentration of ownership• Impact on democracy?• Rupert Murdoch: • 1988 = 31% of UK paper market • 2007 = 32.3% • 140 of his publications around the world supported the war in Iraq 30
  31. 31. Against all this…• The Independent launches a sister paper, i, in October 2010• First UK paper launch since 1986 31
  32. 32. • Murdoch:• ‘power is moving away from the old elite in our industry – the editors, the chief executives and, let’s face it, the proprietors’ • (http://www.newscorp.com/news/news_285.html). 32
  33. 33. Technology and Trends• Dumbing down?• Murdoch: ‘many of us have been unaccountably complacent’ in the wake of the digital revolution• Citizen journalists?• Salem Pax? Where_is_Raed? • http://dear_raed.blogspot.com/ 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Murdoch (2005):• ‘There are of course inherent risks in this strategy -- chief among them maintaining our standards for accuracy and reliability. Plainly, we can’t vouch for the quality of people who aren’t regularly employed by us – and bloggers could only add to the work done by our reporters, not replace them. But they may still serve a valuable purpose; broadening our coverage of the news; giving us new and fresh perspectives to issues; deepening our relationship to the communities we serve, so long as our readers understand the clear distinction between bloggers and our journalists.’ 35
  36. 36. • July 2006, Patrick Barkham:• ‘the first big British political story to be driven by bloggers’• deputy-PM John Prescott’s sex life 36
  37. 37. Bloggers and Aggregators• Mike Drudge: The Drudge Report• Since February 1995• Republican supporter• Faced a $30 million libel lawsuit• January 13th 1998 he broke the story of Clinton’s affair with Monica Lewinsky. 37
  38. 38. Mike Drudge:• I’m a citizen first and a reporter second … The people have a right to know, not the editors who think they know better. You should let people know as much as you know when you know’ (cited in AP, 1 February 1998) 38
  39. 39. The Future?• Kim Fletcher (2005)• ‘In all this talk about the end of papers, no one suggests that people dont want news or information or entertainment any more. On the contrary, they seem to want more and more of all three. That demand will be met by an expansion rather than a retraction in journalistic output.’ 39
  40. 40. National newspaper website traffic October 2007 Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations 40
  41. 41. National newspaper website traffic September 2008 Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations 41
  42. 42. National newspaper website traffic October 2010 Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations 42
  43. 43. National newspaper website traffic October 201 Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations Daily Monthly Monthly Yearly browsers browsers change % change %Mail Online 6,671,641 106,095,618 +4.48% +34.31%Guardian 3,909,514 71,766,288 +9.84 n/aTelegraph 2,887,948 56,919,647 +10.72% +25.62%Sun Online 1,544,721 25,926,115 -2.07% +3.85%Independent 825,861 17,900,904 9.78% +29.02%Mirror Group 764,277 16,319,000 +3.67% +3.31%Metro 276,478 6,971,225 -6.62% -14.74% 43
  44. 44. Funding issues…•BBC and license fee•Guardian owned by Scott Trust charity 44
  45. 45. Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger (2007)• ‘Weve moved from being in competition with a small pool of British broadsheets to being in competition with just about everyone, but its true. Were no longer a once-a-day text medium for a predominantly domestic audience. Increasingly - around the clock - we use a combination of media in telling stories, and in commentary, to millions of users around the globe’ 45
  46. 46. Ex-Guardian editor, Peter Preston (2007):• The thought of a news collection and distribution organisation without print or paper raises the prospect of a quite different future for journalists: one where few of the old skills and few of the new convergences are particularly relevant, one where a start-up news gathering operation on the net would train and hire web people, not converts from print with ink on their hands.’ 46
  47. 47. Sources• Stuart Allan, 2006, Online News, Maidenhead: Open University Press.• Patrick Barkham, September 22nd 2006, ‘Giving it all away’, The Guardian, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/sep/22/pressandpublishing.lifeandhealth• Peter Cole, 2007, ‘The paradox of the pops’, The Guardian, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/aug/27/mondaymediasection.pressandpublishing• Dan Gillmour, 2004, We The Media, Sebastopol, CA.: OReilly• Kim Fletcher, December 19th 2005, ‘A bright picture for newspapers’, The Guardian, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2005/dec/19/mondaymediasection• Jim Hall, 2001, Online journalism : a critical primer, London: Pluto Press• Brian McNair, 2007, ‘The British Press, 1992-2007’ unpublished conference paper presented at Future of Newspapers conference, Cardiff, September 2007.• Rupert Murdoch, 2005 speech given at the American Society of Newspaper Editors, available at http://www.newscorp.com/news/news_247.html• Rupert Murdoch, 2006, speech given at the Annual Livery Lecture at the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, available at http://www.newscorp.com/news/news_285.html• Salem Pax, 2003-4 ‘Where is Raed?’ available at http://dear_raed.blogspot.com/• BBC, Reuters & Media Centre, 2006, ‘Trust in the Media’, May, available at 47 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/02_05_06mediatrust.pdf

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