11 particulate model (part 1)

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11 particulate model (part 1)

  1. 1. PARTICULATE MODEL OF MATTER Interactive Science Volume A Chapter 11
  2. 2. THINGS WE WILL LEARN... (a) What is matter made up of? (b) The 3 states of matter (c) What happens during phase change?
  3. 3. Part (a) What is matter made up of?
  4. 4. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of ATOMS! Atoms are little bits too small for us to see. They are so tiny you can’t break them down further.
  5. 5. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of very small things. These things can be broken down into smaller… and smaller… and smaller pieces.
  6. 6. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) John Dalton (1766 – 1844) English Chemist Matter is made up of small individual particles. These particles are like solid balls.
  7. 7. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Robert Brown (1773 – 1858) Scottish Scientist Pollen grains floating on water are moving about. It seems that matter is not only made up of small particles, the particles are constantly moving.
  8. 8. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German-born American Physicist Pollen grains are moving about because they are being bombarded by smaller, moving water particles. Not because they can move by themselves.
  9. 9. What is Matter made up of? Part (a)
  10. 10. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Hockey Puck Ball Bearings
  11. 11. The Particulate Model of Matter suggests that: 1. All matter is made up of small discrete particles . 2. The small discrete particles are in constant and random motion. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) * Discrete – individually separate and distinct.
  12. 12. Part (b) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… The 3 states of matter
  13. 13. STATES OF MATTER Solid Liquid Gas Part (b)
  14. 14. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  15. 15. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  16. 16. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  17. 17. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  18. 18. Particulate behaviour in each state Part (b) Solid Liquid Gas <ul><li>Fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed volume </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed volume </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes shape of container </li></ul><ul><li>No fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>No fixed volume </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes the shape and volume of container </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily compressible </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily compressible </li></ul><ul><li>Highly compressible </li></ul><ul><li>Does not flow easily </li></ul><ul><li>Flows easily </li></ul><ul><li>Flows easily </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Arrangement of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are packed closely together. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are arranged in a regular pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Very strong attractive & repulsive forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed volume & fixed shape . </li></ul><ul><li>Motion of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles vibrate vigorously about fixed positions. </li></ul>Particulate behaviour in each state <ul><li>Distance between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Little space between particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Incompressible . </li></ul>SOLID Part (b)
  20. 20. <ul><li>Arrangement of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are packed closely together. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles have no regular pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Strong inter -molecular forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed volume but no fixed shape . </li></ul><ul><li>Motion of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles vibrate vigorously and can slide past each other. </li></ul><ul><li>No fixed positions. </li></ul>Particulate behaviour in each state <ul><li>Distance between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Little space between particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are slightly further compared to solids. </li></ul><ul><li>Incompressible. </li></ul>LIQUID Part (b)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Arrangement of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are not closely packed. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles have no regular pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Weak inter -molecular forces. </li></ul><ul><li>No fixed volume and no fixed shape . </li></ul><ul><li>Motion of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles move freely & randomly in all directions at high speeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Fills up any container or space completely & quickly. </li></ul>Particulate behaviour in each state <ul><li>Distance between particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are far apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly empty space between particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Compressible. </li></ul>GAS Part (b)
  22. 22. Let’s Review
  23. 23. <ul><li>1. Which of the following has a fixed volume but no fixed shape? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Solid B) Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>C) Gas D) Liquid & Gas </li></ul><ul><li>2. Which of the following is made up of molecules arranged in a regular pattern? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Solid & Liquid B) Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>C) Gas only D) Solid only </li></ul><ul><li>3. A piece of ice is being heated to water and then to steam. Which of the following statement is true? </li></ul><ul><li>A) The particles expand as ice changes to steam. </li></ul><ul><li>B) The particles move faster as ice changes to steam. </li></ul><ul><li>C) The particles move closer to each other as ice changes to steam. </li></ul><ul><li> D) The forces of attraction between the particles increases as ice changes to steam. </li></ul>4. Substances in gaseous state have no fixed shape and size because A) they have bigger volume. B) the space between paricles is wider than when they are in solid state and liquid state. C) the intermolecular force between the particles is very weak compared to its kinetic energy. D) they are less dense than when they are at solid or liquid state. 5. Which of the following is true? 1 Particles in a solid are stationary. 2 Particles in a liquid are constantly in motion. 3 Particles in a gas move slowly. A) 2 only B) 2 & 3 only C) 1, 2 & 3 D) none of the above
  24. 24. <ul><li>6. In general, the density of a substance increases from </li></ul><ul><li>A) solid to liquid to gas. </li></ul><ul><li>B) gas to liquid to solid. </li></ul><ul><li>C) gas to solid to liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>D) solid to gas to liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Which of the following shows in ascending order, the kinetic energy of the particles when a substance is at different states? </li></ul><ul><li>A) solid, liquid, gas. </li></ul><ul><li>B) gas, liquid, solid. </li></ul><ul><li>C) gas, solid, liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>D) solid, gas, liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Which of the following is true when particles are held in fixed positions? </li></ul><ul><li>1 The substance has a fixed shape. </li></ul><ul><li>2 The substance has a fixed size. </li></ul><ul><li>3 The substance has a high density. </li></ul><ul><li>A) 1 only B) 1 and 2 only. </li></ul><ul><li>C) 3 only D) 1, 2 and 3 </li></ul>9. An airtight tin can is heated over a pot of boiling water. Which of the following is going to happen after some time? A) The tin can melts. B) The lid of the can flies out. C) The tin can collapses. D) The density of the tin can increases. 10. A balloon gets bigger when it is left under the hot sun because A) the air particles inside it are moving outwards. B) the air particles expand when the balloon is heated. C) the air particles inside it move faster and push each other away at greater force. D) the air particles inside it are exerting greater force onto each other without increase in their kinetic energy.
  25. 25. Part (c) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… What happens during phase change?
  26. 26. <ul><li>What do you think is the state of pure water at the following temperatures? </li></ul>Part (c) {Answer only “solid”, “liquid” or “gas”  } The standard room temperature is at 31 o C. Temperature/ o C State of water - 20 10 65 120
  27. 27. <ul><li>Whether a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas depends on the temperature it is in. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is lower than its melting point, it will remain as a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is higher than its melting point but lower than its boiling point, it will remain as a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is higher than its boiling point, then it will remain as a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>When a substance is at gaseous state, it will not undergo any further change in state even if temperature continues to increase. Nothing happens above boiling point . </li></ul><ul><li>Simiarly, when a substance is at solid state, it will not undergo any further change in state even if temperature continues to decrease. Nothing happens below melting point. </li></ul>Part (c)
  28. 28. <ul><li>Change of state is also known as phase change . </li></ul><ul><li>Change of state occurs without a change in temperature . </li></ul><ul><li>Matter exists in three states (phases): solid, liquid and gas . In changes of state (phase), energy is either absorbed (taken in) or released (given out). </li></ul>Part (c)
  29. 29. Part (c) <ul><li>Change of state occurs without a change in temperature. This means that when a substance is changing from the solid to liquid state, the temperature stops increasing until everything turns into liquid. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Melting is a process in which the substance changes its state from solid to liquid . </li></ul>Part (c) <ul><li>For a pure substance , melting occurs at a constant temperature . This temperature is called the melting point of the substance. </li></ul><ul><li>During melting, the substance is in both solid & liquid state. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Part (c) Interaction - > Forces between particles are being overcome. Collapse of molecular structure -> Particles lose their fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - > Solid & Liquid states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is absorbed to break bonds, not to increase internal energy of substance.
  32. 32. Part (c) <ul><li>Freezing also occurs at a fixed temperature and is the same as the melting temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>During freezing, the substance exists in both solid & liquid state. </li></ul><ul><li>The reverse process of changing from liquid to solid is called freezing . </li></ul>
  33. 33. Part (c) Formation of molecular structure -> Particles arrange themselves in fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - > Solid & Liquid states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is given out to form bonds. Interaction - > Attractive forces increase between particles
  34. 34. Part (c) <ul><li>Change of state occurs without a change in temperature. This means that when a substance is changing from the liquid to gaseous state, the temperature stops increasing until everything turns into liquid. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Boiling is a process in which the substance changes its state from liquid to gas . </li></ul>Part (c) <ul><li>For a pure substance , boiling occurs at a constant temperature . This temperature is called the boiling point of the substance. </li></ul><ul><li>During boiling, the substance exists in both solid & liquid state. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Part (c) Interaction - > Forces between particles are being overcome . Weak intermolecular forces between particles. Particle Behaviour-> Particles move randomly at high speeds . No fixed shape, no fixed volume. Fill up empty space quickly. State of matter - > Liquid & Gaseous states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is absorbed to break bonds, not to increase internal energy of substance.
  37. 37. Part (c) <ul><li>Condensation also occurs at a fixed temperature and is the same as the boiling temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>During condensation, the substance exists in both liquid & gaseous state. </li></ul><ul><li>The reverse process of changing from gas to liquid is called condensation . </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Whether a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas depends on the temperature it is in. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is lower than its melting point, it will remain as a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is higher than its melting point but lower than its boiling point, it will remain as a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>If the temperature of the substance is higher than its boiling point, then it will remain as a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>When a substance is at gaseous state, it will not undergo any further change in state even if temperature continues to increase. Nothing happens above boiling point. </li></ul><ul><li>Simiarly, when a substance is at solid state, it will not undergo any further change in state even if temperature continues to decrease. Nothing happens below melting point. </li></ul>Part (c)
  39. 40. <ul><li>Change of state is also known as phase change. </li></ul><ul><li>Change of state occurs without a change in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter exists in three states (phases): solid, liquid and gas. In changes of state (phase), energy is either absorbed (taken in) or released (given out). </li></ul>Part (c)
  40. 41. Complete the following table to indicate the changes of states that take place and whether energy has to be absorbed or removed from the substance. Solid to Liquid Energy (heat) absorbed Liquid to Solid Energy (heat) removed Liquid to Gas Energy (heat) absorbed Part (c)                                         Process Change of state Energy absorbed or removed? Melting Freezing Boiling
  41. 42. The melting points of the following substances are given in the table. What is the state of each of the substances at room temperature? LIQUID LIQUID or GAS SOLID Part (c) Substance Melting point State of substance at room temperature X 0 o C Y - 39 o C Z 1063 o C

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