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Roann Mmm


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Roann Mmm

  1. 1. Medical technology is today a feature not just of hospitals, clinics and GP surgeries but also of homes. The practice of medicine has been revolutionised by computers, digitisation, new materials and good old-fashioned laboratory research. Yet this has been accompanied by increased patient anxiety about the risks and consequences of medical intervention. The introduction of new medical technology has not been so rapid in developing countries, but the sense of ambivalence is the same – technology represents both progress and threat. In countries with multiple healing systems patients can choose whom to consult, depending on their illness. In these countries a technological approach may be chosen as a first or last resort. Palliative care is a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure. Medicine is the art and science of healing. It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research, and medical technology todiagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form oftherapy. The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing.[1][2] Though medical technology and clinical expertise are pivotal to contemporary medicine, successful face-to-face relief of actual suffering continues to require the application of ordinary human feelingand compassion, known in English as bedside manner. 2008-02-22. In clinical practice doctors personally assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed a medical
  2. 2. interview[31] and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscope,tongue depressor) are typically used. Medical education and training varies around the world. It typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice or internship, and/or residency. This can be followed by postgraduate vocational training. A variety of teaching methods have been employed in medical education, still itself a focus of active research. Many regulatory authorities require continuing medical education, since knowledge, techniques and medical technology continue to evolve at a rapid rate. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. (…..) (TM is the sum of knowledge, skills and practices based on indigenous cultures, used to treat physical and mental illnesses) TRADITIONAL MEDICINE "TM" refers to ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of modern medicine. As the term implies these approaches to health belong to the traditions of each country and, have been handed down from generation to generation. In practice the term "TM" refers to the following components: acupuncture (China), ayurveda (India), unani (Arabic countries), traditional birth attendants medicine, mental healers medicine, herbal medicine, and to various forms of indigenous medicine. COMPLEMENTARY/ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM) "Complementary medicine" or "alternative medicine" refer to a broad set of health care practices that are not part of that country's own tradition and are not integrated into the dominant health care system. (…) TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND COMPLEMENTARY/ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM) "Traditional medicine" is a comprehensive term used to refer both to TM systems such as traditional Chinese medicine, Indian ayurveda and Arabic unani medicine and, to various forms of indigenous
  3. 3. medicine. TM therapies include medication therapies and non-medication therapies. Medication therapies involve use of herbal medicines, animal parts and/or minerals. Non-medication therapies are carried out primarily without the use of medication, as in the case of acupuncture, manual and spiritual therapies. (summary: TM refers to various forms of indigenous medicine). In countries where the dominant health care system is based on allopathic medicine, or TM has not been incorporated into the national health care system, TM is often termed "complementary", "alternative" or "non-conventional" medicine. TM remains widespread in developing countries, while CAM is increasing rapidly in developed countries. (WHO TM strategy 2002-2005; WHO 2002) (Summary: TM is part of CAM) HERBAL MEDICINES Traditional use of herbal medicines THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY Therapeutic activity refers to the successful prevention, diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental illnesses; improvement of symptoms or illnesses; as well as beneficial alteration or regulation of the physical and mental status of the body. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS Active ingredients refer to ingredients of herbal medicines with therapeutic activity. In herbal medicines where the active ingredients have been identified, the preparation of this medicines should be standardized to contain a defined amount of the active ingredients, if adequate analytical methods are available. In cases where is not possible to identify the active ingredients, the whole herbal medicine may be considered as one active ingredient. 2003 While it’s true that the implementation of the Cheaper Medicines Act will further make high-quality medicines available to the masses, one local pharmaceutical company feels that the executive order covering maximum drug retail prices is unnecessary because Filipinos have been enjoying greater access to safe and reasonably priced generic medicines for over 20 years now. In the early part of 2009, the company launched an advocacy program called Pharex Economix, which aims to provide Filipinos greater access to a wider range of premium-quality, affordable medicines. ‘Gentle’ action also means that these ‘simple’ medicinal plants do not as a rule have any appreciable toxic effects, and may therefore be safely taken over an extended period of time. Side Effects It is generally assumed by the public, and also by some medical practitioners, that plant
  4. 4. drugs are harmless and therefore preferable. Put in such general terms this clearly is not true. The view is based on the assumption that all phytotherapeutic agents are drugs with gentle action. Yet even these cannot always be said to have no side effects. It is necessary to define the role which medicinal plants have to play in modern medicine. The easiest way may be to look back at similar situations in the past and see how they apply today. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis (within the frequentist context of statistical hypothesis testing) that might be falsified using a test of observed data.[1] Such a test works by formulating a null hypothesis, collecting data, and calculating a measure of how probable those data were, assuming the null hypothesis were true. If the data appear very improbable (usually defined as a type of data that should be observed less than 5% of the time), then the experimenter concludes that the null hypothesis is false. n each problem considered, the question of interest is simplified into two competing claims / hypotheses between which we have a choice; the null hypothesis, denoted H0, against the alternative hypothesis, denoted H1. These two competing claims / hypotheses are not however treated on an equal basis: special consideration is given to the null hypothesis. We have two common situations: 1. The experiment has been carried out in an attempt to disprove or reject a particular hypothesis, the null hypothesis, thus we give that one priority so it cannot be rejected unless the evidence against it is sufficiently strong. For example, H0: there is no difference in taste between coke and diet coke against H1: there is a difference. 2. If one of the two hypotheses is 'simpler' we give it priority so that a more 'complicated' theory is not adopted unless there is sufficient evidence against the simpler one. For example, it is 'simpler' to claim that there is no difference in flavour between coke and diet coke than it is to say that there is a difference. The hypotheses are often statements about population parameters like expected value and variance; for example H0 might be that the expected value of the height of ten year old boys in the Scottish population is not different from that of ten year old girls. A
  5. 5. hypothesis might also be a statement about the distributional form of a characteristic of interest, for example that the height of ten year old boys is normally distributed within the Scottish population. The outcome of a hypothesis test test is "Reject H0 in favour of H1" or "Do not reject H0". Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis, H0, represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better, on average, than the current drug. We would write H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average. lternative Hypothesis The alternative hypothesis, H1, is a statement of what a statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug has a different effect, on average, compared to that of the current drug. We would write H1: the two drugs have different effects, on average. The alternative hypothesis might also be that the new drug is better, on average, than the current drug. In this case we would write H1: the new drug is better than the current drug, on average. The final conclusion once the test has been carried out is always given in terms of the null hypothesis. We either "Reject H0 in favour of H1" or "Do not reject H0". We never conclude "Reject H1", or even "Accept H1". If we conclude "Do not reject H0", this does not necessarily mean that the null hypothesis is true, it only suggests that there is not sufficient evidence against H0 in favour of H1. Rejecting the null hypothesis then, suggests that the alternative hypothesis may be true. Simple Hypothesis A simple hypothesis is a hypothesis which specifies the population distribution completely. Examples 1. H0: X ~ Bi(100,1/2), i.e. p is specified 2. H0: X ~ N(5,20), i.e. µ and are specified
  6. 6. See also composite hypothesis. Composite Hypothesis A composite hypothesis is a hypothesis which does not specify the population distribution completely. Examples 1. X ~ Bi(100,p) and H1: p > 0.5 2. X ~ N(0, ) and H1: unspecified See also simple hypothesis. <div style="width:477px" id="__ss_2430102"><strong style="display:block;margin:12px 0 4px"><a href=" decoction" title="Malunggay And Guava Leaves Decoction">Malunggay And Guava Leaves Decoction</a></strong><object width="477" height="510"><param name="movie" value=" malunggayandguavaleavesdecoction-091105120101- phpapp01&stripped_title=malunggay-and-guava-leaves-decoction" /><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"/><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"/><embed src=" doc=final-malunggayandguavaleavesdecoction-091105120101- phpapp01&stripped_title=malunggay-and-guava-leaves-decoction" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="477" height="510"></embed></object><div style="padding:5px 0 12px">View more <a href="">documents</a> from <a href="">Jay-D Man</a>.</div></div>