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Basic Concept of Tourism

Definitions- Tourism, Day Visitor, Tourist, Components and Characterstics of Tourism,

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Basic Concept of Tourism

  1. 1. TOURISM CONCEPTS Topic- Tourism Concept- Tourism in its modern form is not the same as travels of the early periods of human history. In the language of Jews, the word ‘Torah’ means study or search and ‘tour’ seems to have been derived from it. In ‘Latin’ the original word ‘Tornos’ stands close to it. ‘Tornos’ was a kind of round wheel-like tool hinting at the idea of a travel circuit or a package tour. In Sanskrit, ‘Paryatan’ means leaving one’s residence to travel for the sake of rest and for seeking knowledge. ‘Deshatan’ is another word which means travelling for economic benefits. ‘Tirthatan’ is the third equivalent which means travelling for religious purposes. Definition- First definition of tourism: It was given by Austrian economist Herman Van Scheullard in 1910. According to him- “The sum total of operation mainly of economic nature which is directly related to entry, stay and movement of foreigner inside or outside a certain city or region is tourism.” In order to prevent the disaccords to define "Tourism", UNWTO defined it as indicated below; "Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes." This definition includes the word ‘staying’ and suggests that tourists stay at least one night. Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of transportation (he might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more developed ones, and concerns pilgrims, hiking, etc.). Any travel for holidaying, business or professional trip becomes a part of tourism if it is temporary and is undertaken voluntarily, without an aim to earn any livelihood out of it. But, all travel is not tourism; rather travel is one of the important components of tourism.
  2. 2. Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism. The displacement must be such that;  It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of utmost importance and will be discussed later on;  Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast array of purposes;  Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. We shall discuss the particularity of in transit visits, from a conceptual and statistical point of view. Tourism is beneficial for not only tourist but also for the country where tourism opportunities are more. For example, the countries having hill stations and more historical places are very attractive for tourists. When tourists visit any country, the economy of that country is benefited. The value of that country increases and the world has a positive thinking about that region. Tourism enhances the economic and social value of a country. So, if a country is full of natural beauties and historical places, the government of that country must take steps to promote tourism to serve the world and its people. It is acknowledged by the World Tourism Organization that tourism is the fastest growing economic sector, bringing foreign exchange earnings to countries and creating jobs. Jobs are not only created directly in tourism but in related industries, for example in construction. Much tourism development occurs in developing countries, bringing economic opportunities to local communities.
  3. 3. Topic- Tourist Definition- UNWTO defined tourist as indicated below, Tourists are persons who are "travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". The following are to be considered tourists:  Persons traveling for pleasure, for health, etc;  Persons traveling in a representative capacity of any kind;  Persons traveling for business reasons;  Persons arriving in the course of a sea cruise, even when they stay less than 24 hours; The following are not to be regarded as tourists, and are considered traveler only:  Persons arriving to take up an accommodation or engage in any business activity in the country;  Persons coming to establish a residence in the country;  Students and young persons in schools;  Any person domiciled in one country and working adjoining country;  Travelers passing though a country without stopping, even if the journey takes more than 24 hours. Day Visitors We have already noted in the tourism definition that, strictly, people are only tourists if they stay in a place outside their usual environment. This means that people on day trips are not officially tourists, which statistics count as those who stay at least one night in a place. A day-tripper is also known as an excursionist. Day-trippers spend money in the tourism sector and boost the economy, so it is important to measure the value of their spending.
  4. 4. However, we must acknowledge that day visitors make a huge contribution to the tourist industry and some regions and organizations choose to include day visitors in statistics. Types of tourists On the basis of their movement tourists can categorize as the following: a. Domestic b. International (Inbound and Outbound) On the basis of nature of activity, they may be categorized as: a. Eco-tourists b. Adventure tourists c. Pilgrimage tourists d. Business tourists e. Medical/Health tourists f. Leisure tourists g. Backpackers etc, Plog's Tourist Classification Plog in the year 1972 proposed a model, which classifies tourists on a scale of psychological types, thus determining the destination that each type of tourist tends to choose. The five categories are 1. Psychocentric 2. Near-Psychocentric 3. Mid-centric 4. Near-Allocentric 5. Allocentric 1. Psychocentric- 'Psychocentric' is a focus on one’s self, whereas 'allocentric' is a focus on other people. Psychocentrics are characterized as being conservative, inhibited, and more safety conscious when they travel. They usually spend less money and travel to familiar places.
  5. 5. Psychocentrics would prefer travel to well-known, can be a nearby destinations and theme parks. 2. Allocentric- ‘Allocentric’ are more outgoing, willing to take risks, open to new experiences, and interested in travel to exotic places. Allocentric would more likely travel to Africa or Asia, 3. Mid-centric- tourists who go to places that have been popularized by the Allocentric, they are not so adventurous, neither are they afraid.
  6. 6. HISTORY OF TOURISM Topic- Ancient History Travel as a wanderlust in some form or the other has attracted human beings from the earliest periods in history. The sages in India travelled to the Himalaya, sea shores, views or lake side’s and close to forests for meditation. People of all faiths have since been visiting shrines established in every nook and corner of India. 2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation. 600 BC and thereafter The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings. In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha. 500 BC, the Greek civilisation The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers' needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered. This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds' first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta, and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.
  7. 7. The Roman Empire With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality. Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing. Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.
  8. 8. Topic- Medival History In the Middle Ages Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty. Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word. Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty. Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature. The Grand Tour From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to the continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for the education of gentleman to be completed by a 'Grand Tour' accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure-seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of the eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour. The development of the spas The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as the pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society. In the nineteenth century, they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.
  9. 9. Topic- Modern History The sun, sand and sea resorts The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors, therefore, drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new seaside resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in the 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west The rapid urbanization due to industrialization led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs at a leisurely pace in countryside. Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century  The advent of railway initially catalyzed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.  Package tours organized by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.  The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.  The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.  The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.  Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.
  10. 10.  Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.  The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.  The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East. Tourism in the Twentieth Century The First World War gave first-hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well-off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west. The seaside resort became an annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations. The birth of air travel and after The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organized mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism. A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of worldwide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION TOURISM Tourism may be classified into the following types:  Inbound international tourism : Visits to a country by nonresident of that country  Outbound international tourism : Visits by residents of a country to another country  Internal tourism : Visits by residents of a country to their own  Domestic tourism : Inbound international tourism + internal tourism  National tourism : Internal tourists + outbound international tourism Topic- Special forms of tourism Cultural tourism: It includes urban tourism, visiting historical or interesting cities, such as Berlin, London, Paris, Delhi, Rome, Prague, Beijing, Kyoto, Warsaw, and experiencing their cultural heritages. This type of tourism may also include specialized cultural experiences, such as art museum tourism where the tourist visits many art museums during the tour, or opera tourism where the tourist sees many operas or concerts during the tour. Dark tourism: it is the travel to sites associated with death and suffering. Ecotourism: sustainable tourism which has minimal impact on the environment, such as safaris (Kenya), Rainforests (Belize) and hiking (Lapland), or national parks. Educational tourism: may involve travelling to an education institution, a wooded retreat or some other destination in order to take personal interest classes, such as cooking classes with a famous chef or crafts classes.
  12. 12. Heritage tourism: visiting historical (Athens, Cracow) or industrial sites, such as old canals, railways, battlegrounds, etc. Health tourism: usually to escape from cities or relieve stress, perhaps for some 'fun in the sun', etc. Often to "health spas". There are two different subforms of Health tourism-  Medical Tourism- It can be undertaken by a tourist Post ailment. It can also be undertaken for what is illegal (in terms of medical practices) in one's own country, e.g. abortion, euthanasia; for instance,euthanasia for non-citizens is provided by Dignitas in Switzerland.  for advanced care that is not available in one's own country  in the case that there are long waiting lists in one's own country  for use of free or cheap health care organizations  Wellness Tourism- Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities. Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities. It can be undertaken by a tourist in both Pre and Post ailment. Inclusive tourism: tourism marketed to those with functional limits or disabilities. Referred to as "Tourism for All" in some regions. Destinations often employ Universal Design and Universal Destination Development principles. Perpetual tourism: wealthy individuals always on vacation; some of them, for tax purposes, to avoid being resident in any country. Adventure tourism: tourism involving travel in rugged regions, or adventurous sports such as mountaineering and hiking (tramping). Agritourism: It is a farm-based post harvesting tourism, helping to support the local agricultural economy.
  13. 13. Ancestry tourism: (also known as genealogy tourism) is the travel with the aim of tracing one's ancestry, visiting the birth places of these ancestors and sometimes getting to know distant family. Sport tourism: skiing, golf and scuba diving are popular ways to spend a vacation. Also in this category is vacationing at the winter home of the tourist's favorite baseball team, and seeing them play every day.
  14. 14. TOURISM SYSTEM Topic- Leiper Model Tourism happens only when people travel from their residence to the destinations to enjoy the beautiful landscapes or the historical interests. Otherwise, tourism cannot be considered as tourism and a tourist not as the tourist. For example, a person who visits the Forbidden City in Beijing cannot be regarded as a tourist if he lives and works in Beijing. Therefore, a tourist has to leave his residence for a certain destination by means of transport. The spatial movement from his residence to the destination plays an important role in realizing his travel desire. What is more, while traveling, a tourist will consume the tourism product. On the other hand, he also helps to produce it in that he can choose his destination, route, and service freely according to his own likes and dislikes. This can help improve the design and quality of the tourism product. As mentioned above, the spatial movement is very important and worth our attention. Moreover, it is necessary to provide an organizing framework in order to study tourism. To do so, we have adopted Leiper’s model, which was suggested in 1979 and adapted in 1990 (Figure 1). In the model, he points out three aspects of the tourism- tourists, the tourism sectors, and the geographical element.
  15. 15. 1. Geographical elements Leiper outlines three geographical elements in his model: (a) Traveller-generating region; (b) Tourist destination region; and (c) Transit route region.  The traveller-generating region (or home region), refers to the place where the tourists come from. It is the generating market, which stimulates and motivates travel.  The transit route region includes both the short period of travel from their home region to the destination and other places on the way that the tourists may stop to visit.  The tourist destination is one of the most important elements in the whole tourism system. It emphasizes what the suppliers can do for the tourists. Of course, this includes not only the physical equipments which are crucial to attract tourists, but also the management and service which are helpful to enhance its images and motivate the visit. In other words, the tourist destination functions as a ‘pull’ factor in the market and provide an area for most of the tourism activity. It attracts different kinds of tourists with such tourism products as attractions and the quality of management and service. The tourist destination region is where the tourists can realize their temporary goal of travel and go through a memorable tourism experience. It provides them with attractions of various types and creates a stage on which planning and management strategies can be carried out. So, it is the core of the tourism. 2. Tourists After studying the geographical elements of the tourism system, students may understand that the spatial movement from the traveler-generating region through the transit route to the destination region is an essential and indispensable part of the tourism experience. The following are to be considered tourists:  Persons traveling for pleasure, for health, etc;  Persons traveling in a representative capacity of any kind;  Persons traveling for business reasons;  Persons arriving in the course of a sea cruise, even when they stay less than 24 hours;
  16. 16.  The following are not to be regarded as tourists, and are considered traveler only:  Persons arriving to take up an accommodation or engage in any business activity in the country;  Persons coming to establish a residence in the country;  Students and young persons in schools;  Any person domiciled in one country and working adjoining country;  Travelers passing though a country without stopping, even if the journey takes more than 24 hours. There are different types of tourism such as holiday tourism, business tourism and common interest tourism. Business tourism can further be classified into incentive travel, conference tourism and business travel. According to the time the tourism takes, we also have day trips or excursions which do not involve an overnight stay and tourism which often refers to journeys or stays at destinations for at least 24 hours. Now we are clear about what the distinct characteristics of tourism are and what a tourist is expected to experience in order to travel. As a matter of fact, tourism is a complete and comprehensive system in which the tourists play an important role. On the one hand, tourism can enrich tourists’ experience, widen their horizon and increase their knowledge. On the other hand, tourists can help to improve the tourism environment, to enhance the images of the destinations to push the tourism industry forward and to energize the whole tourism system. In one word, without tourists there would be no tourism. Therefore, it is worthwhile to attach great importance to the study of the tourists. Besides, there are other factors which have an influence on the tourism demand. They are economic, social and cultural factors. 3. Tourism Industry. The tourism industry refers to the businesses and organizations that help to promote the tourism product. According to Leiper, various industrial sectors can be located in different places. In the traveler-generating region, we can find travel agents and tour operators. In the destination region, we can find attractions and hospitality industry and in the transit route region, we have the transport sector.
  17. 17. The tourism system is made up of three elements: the tourist, the destination and the tourism intermediaries. Among them, the tourist is the most crucial one. It is the starting point of the tourism and gives impetus to the development of it. The destination functions as the tourism object. It is the area in which various kinds of tourism product are delivered, such as the accommodations, restaurants, leisure facilities and other ancillary services. The tourism intermediaries help to connect the traveler-generating region and the tourist destination. It mainly includes the transport and the travel agents, tour operators, etc who help the tourists to realize their travel desire and obtain a tourism experience worth memorizing. The primary tourism industry is composed of travel trade, transport, accommodation and catering, as well as catering facilities and tourist attractions, etc. Different sectors or companies to suit all budgets and tastes provide these products and services. The hospitality industry provides accommodation and entertainments for travelers. The tour wholesaler and travel agency sell and promote the products and services of the other sectors to travelers. Now students may have a clearer idea of the tourism system. But we also should keep in mind that the tourism system is not an independent system. Its development relies on the support of other external or environmental systems, such as sociocultural, economic, political, physical, etc. These systems are interdependent. For example, without agriculture, no one can supply food for the restaurant; without the oil industry, no vehicle can move and help tourists realize their spatial movement. And the tourism system, in turn, is also important to the development of other systems.
  18. 18. NATURE OF WORLD TOURISM Topic Tourism Now-a-Days World Tourism Industry is an industry which is flourishing all over the world. The scenario of the World tourism industry is always in a state of flux, ever changing. It is reckoned that end of 2007 will see the World tourism industry generating as many as 234 million job opportunities for the people. It is also assumed that the contribution towards the GDP by the World tourism industry will be approximately 10.3%. People can afford overseas travel. However, in order to meet the requirements, constant changes in the travel and tourism policies need to be reframed and restructured. World tourism industry and the environment: The impact of the World tourism industry on our environment cannot be overlooked. While global tourism industry is expanding manifold, every effort is being made to protect the heritage of historically significant places. With every passing year, world tourism industry is experiencing new changes to adapt to the needs of time. Increase in the world tourism activities mean more consumption of energy and the natural resources. Alternative sources of energy are being worked out. Global warming, rise in sea levels pose to be a great threat to all the nations worldwide. Concepts of Eco tourism is fast catching up with the common people. World tourism industry and economy: In order to find out the contribution of the travel and tourism industry to a particular country, the Travel And Tourism Account or the TSA(Tourism Satellite Accounting) is an important tools to determine the economics in detail. The TTSA throws light on matters related to travel, tourism job opportunities, comparing related tourism industries including hotels, transport etc.,TSA furnishes information about global travel, tourism pertaining to growth, demand, export, GDP, employment opportunities, capital investment etc.,.
  19. 19. CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM INDUSTRY/SECTOR Topic- Characteristics of tourism Tourism have several unique characteristics as follows; 1. Intangible nature of services- The essential difference between goods and services is that goods are produced but services are performed. 2. Inseparability- This means that the act of production and consumption is simultaneous and takes place in the same environment, not in the consumer’s home environment. It also means that most of the staff of the service companies have some consumer contact and are seen by the customer. 3. Perishability- Products can be stored for future sale; services cannot. Services are perishable “like a running tap in a sink with no plug”. The sale of an empty hotel room, airline seat is lost forever. Services, more importantly, the time available to experience them, cannot be stored. For example, there is only one chance to enjoy a summer vacation in 1990. 4. No possibility of creating and holding stocks- Linked with the inseparability and perishability that it is not possible for a service producer to create a stock of products to be used to satisfy daily fluctuations in demand. 5. Heterogeneity- This means that every service performance is unique to each customer. 6. Particular Characteristics of Travel and Tourism Services- Besides the basic characteristics common to all services, there are three further features that are particularly relevant to travel and tourism services. These are; 7. Seasonality and demand fluctuations- It is a characteristic of most leisure tourism markets that demand fluctuates greatly between seasons of the year. As a result, the occupancies in many tourism businesses increase to 90 to 100 per cent in the high season but drops to 30 per cent or less in the low season. In addition, seasonal closure of many leisure tourism
  20. 20. businesses is common as well. These demand variations in tourism is more important because of perishability. That is why, generating demand when there is less demand, is always the major preoccupation for marketing managers. 8. Interdependence of tourism products- The fortunes of tourism attractions in a destination are linked. Since a vacationer chooses attractions at a destination together with the products of accommodation, transport, catering etc., all organizations should function in coordination. 9. High fixed costs of service operations- In the travel and tourism industry, it is generally the case that the operations have high fixed costs and relatively low variable costs. This fact focuses all service operators’ attention on the need to generate extra demand. Since most large scale businesses are obliged to operate on a very narrow margin between total cost and total revenue because of intense competition, plus or minus one percentage point in average load factors makes the difference between profit or loss.
  21. 21. COMPONENTS OF TOURISM Topic- Elements of Tourism 1. Natural Environment a. Tourist b. Physiographic c. Climate 2. Built Environment a. Infrastructure b. Tourism Superstructure (Infrastructure developed especially for tourism purposes) c. Technology d. Information e. Governance f. Culture 3. Operating Sectors a. Transportation agencies b. Tour operators/Travel agencies c. Accommodation providers d. Food and restaurant facilities e. Entertainment and event organizers/providers 4. PPDCOs (Planning, Promotion, Development and Catalyst organizations) a. Public bodies: Global organizations like UNWTO, ICAO, and NTOs like ITDC, RTOs like RTDC, MTDC, and other local governing bodies. b. Private bodies: WTTC, IATA, TAAI, PATA etc and NGOs.