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PS 202: An Economic History Of The Philippines

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17 August 2011 Report on the History of Philippine Economy, a book written by Onofre D. Corpuz.

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PS 202: An Economic History Of The Philippines

  1. 1. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 1
  2. 2. ONOFRE D. CORPUZ• A writer born in Camiling, Tarlac.• He became the Secretary of Education from 1968-1971 and 1979-1983.• He was the 13th UP President from 1975- 1979.Source:http://bayangmatangkilik.multiply.com/journal/item/82/ONOFRE_D._CORPUZ PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 2
  3. 3. Some of his publications include:1. The Roots of the Filipino Nation2. National Glories: The Events of 1872 (editor)3. Historia de Uno de los Iniciadores de la Revolucion Filipina (english translator)4. Keeping the Spirit of 1896 alive5. Saga and triumph: The Filipino Revolution against Spain6. An Economic History of the Philipines PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 3
  4. 4. OUTLINE:• 1565: Pre-colonial Native Society• 1570+300: Spanish Colonization• 1896-1903: War Economy• 1900-1940: The American Enterprise PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 4
  5. 5. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 5
  6. 6. 1565: PRE-COLONIAL NATIVE SOCIETYA little bit over half a million population (J.F. del Pan, Revista de Filipinas) – number is questionable because:1. It’s hard to count in an archipelago2. These are just the “tribute-paying” natives (tributary population)3. Parish or pueblo population by the friars which warns omissions PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 6
  7. 7. • Southeast Asia was penetrated by China, India, and Arabia by trade and small percentage of migrations. In all of it, religion went hand in hand with trade and politics.• Islam went upwards, towards the outskirts of Visayas, Palawan, Batangas up until Tondo- Manila.• No native writings, thus no native accounts of economy or politics. Even the Tarsila of the Sultante of Sulu or Maguindanao. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 7
  8. 8. BARANGAY• Native Indigenous settlement• According to Juan de Plasencia, the name was derived from the vessel that carried founding group in the island.• Barangay culture was the form of indigenous governance.• Small because the organizing principle was kinship.• Existence of particularism as illustrated by the hundred of languages spoken even up to the modern times. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 8
  9. 9. • Economy of the barangay was closely linked to water.• Technology: Boat-making, pottery, ornament –making, spinning and weaving, fish corral, fowl, swine, goat- raising, fermentation, rice culture.• Governance by the datu• No record of inter-barangay trade.• No coinage, just barter.• The archipelago was not a regular participant in the Southeast Asian trade, and did not supply high-value exotics, except for Jolo which supplied pearls and slaves. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 9
  10. 10. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 10
  11. 11. 1570+300: SPANISH COLONIZATION• The small barangays easily fell to the Spanish conquistadors.• Radical transformation of the pre-conquest barangay society, ie. Native barangay population had declined. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 11
  12. 12. RECOPILACION DE LEYES DE LOS REYNOS DELAS INDIAS- laws on Spanish possession. It declared that because of the cost of voyage and discovery, and all the expenses and support of the regime and church establishment in the Indias, the tributes formerly given to the datus are now to be given to the king. In addition, the conquistadors who supported the king are rewarded through the tribute system. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 12
  13. 13. • Unsatisfactory awardees – awards were given to the conquistadors in Maguindanao and Jolo, but the districts were still unconquered. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 13
  14. 14. PUEBLO SYSTEM• communities of the natives organized by the Spaniards, much larger than the old barangay.• Has 500 families• Has squarish plaza at the center with the church, convent, town hall and the houses• The idea is to keep the natives in and they must have adequate food and in addition, they are made to produce surpluses for their colonizers. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 14
  15. 15. • Pueblo lands, a new land system where each family has a house and strip of fields around their residential area.• Full-employment for the natives in agriculture, and they were required to utilize their lands by raising livestock. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 15
  16. 16. PUEBLO LAND TECHNOLOGY• The carabao was broken in and taught to pull the plow and the harrow• The plow was of Fukienese design• Plowmaking was made a monopoly• Friars desiminated the new technology by bringing trained farmers and their families with them when they transferred to other parishes. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 16
  17. 17. …PUEBLO LAND TECHNOLOGYThus, the pueblo system and pueblo agriculture combined to produce a profound socio- economic transformation: Pueblo families were all reduced to one occupational class. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 17
  18. 18. HACIENDAS• Haciendas of today (or at least for some) came from the huge land grants awarded by the king to the Church friar order, lay persons, conquistadors and the people who were good to the king.• Friars built manor houses built on the estate.• They brought natives and their families and Chinese meztisos as workers. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 18
  19. 19. HACIENDAS• These haciendas later on became pueblos.• The farmers were called inquilinos or renters. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 19
  20. 20. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 20
  21. 21. TRIBUTE• Basic contribution• Rate was 8 reales (12.5 per real)• Exempted: gobernadorcillo, cabezas, soldiers, sick and the cripples, those whose crops failed during the year, 60 years old and over.• Commodities that went into the tribute were generally food and provisions: rice or palay, salt, chicken, eggs, meat, swine, liquor. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 21
  22. 22. POLO Y SERVICIOS• This system designated the natives or qoutas of men to do compulsory labor services.• Usually domestic services in the house of encomendero.• Men are ordered to be of service as bearers or rowers or fighting men and get a daily rice ration in exchange for their services. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 22
  23. 23. DOMESTIC TRADE1. Legal – Chinese and the lay Spanish encomenderos2. Prohibited by law – comprised of the trading of the friars and provincial alcaldes PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 23
  24. 24. GALLEON TRADE• Trade of Chinese and Spanish through Manila as a funnel.• 2 galleons were allowed to sail from Manila each year with a cargo not exceeding 250,00 pesos each• 1813 the Galleon Trade officially ended PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 24
  25. 25. FOREIGN TRADEThere is no produce in foreign trade. So the economy was shaped by:1. The archaic institution of the king’s estate2. The conditions of land tenure and pueblo agriculture3. The serious decline in the work force through a protracted loss in the tributary population PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 25
  26. 26. 1835 – Manila opened to trade of all nations without restrictions.1844 – The rich natives and the mestizos took over the lead role in domestic trade- Trade were limited to agricultural produce1863 – annual 40 days of polo was decrease to 24.- Foreigners were allowed to reside and engage in any occupation1884 – tribute was replaced by fees paid for identity –cedula PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 26
  27. 27. DUAL ECONOMY• because of the absence of strong manufacturing and industry sector, agriculture and land divided the society and economy into poverty sector and rich class. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 27
  28. 28. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 28
  29. 29. 1896-1903: WAR ECONOMYFour wars broke:1. Christian Filipino revolution against Spain2. Spanish-American war3. US began the hostilities in the Christian Filipino- American War on 18994. US against the Muslim Filipinos in Mindanao from 1899-1912 PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 29
  30. 30. “The fighting men were overwhelmingly rural workers, small farmers, hacienda tenants ”“The delivery of provincial produce and the businesses servicing the export and import trade ground to a halt and the ports were closed” “Fighting in the provinces disrupted local economies” PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 30
  31. 31. “In scores of provinces the cedula and other taxes could not be collected”“The friar haciendas were taken over and thus disposed landless families, the kasama and the tulisan” PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 31
  32. 32. ECONOMIC DISLOCATION!• Severest dislocations were in pueblo agriculture.• The carabao, disappeared and was reported to have been slaughtered for food.• Rice output became only 25% of the pre-war output PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 32
  33. 33. POLITICAL ECONOMY “no formal national and provincial administrative experience during the Spanish era” PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 33
  34. 34. KATIPUNAN• Secret society by the Filipinos• Evolved as a grouping of pueblo chapters loosely united at the provincial level.• The organizing factor was the common goal which is independence. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 34
  35. 35. MAJOR <MAJOR> MOVE!1. The autonomy and authority of the people to manage their own affairs and resources2. Taxation of domestic trade was adopted a rational fiscal and economic policy3. A modern cadastral system with titling and registration was designated and a land reform policy adopted PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 35
  36. 36. • A new approach in land was historically necessary and inevitable since the fighting men were just disposed from their holdings by the friar haciendas.• The 1899 Consti settled the issue on friar hacienda that “all the lands, buildings and other properties in possession of religious corporations in these islands will be deemed to the Filipino” PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 36
  37. 37. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 37
  38. 38. INSULAR GOVERNMENT• The US’ occupation government in Manila.• The main item on its agenda is the expansion of American trade in the Philippines by making the Phil a market for US exports and a source of cheap raw materials for its industry• The growth of foreign trade from P63 779 640 in 1985 to P515 995 136 in 1940 wade the country subject to sharp economic changes PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 38
  39. 39. • Filipino participation in the government as political leaders• A modern civil service was established. <yaaay! > PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 39
  40. 40. REVENUE SYSTEM• The obligatory contribution from the Spanish friars were abolished.• The absolute autonomy of provincial and municipal governments in fiscal administration was given.1. Land tax2. Customs revenues3. Local government revenues PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 40
  41. 41. PS 202 1ST SEM SY 2011-2012. SALVADOR, RAISA NEITH 41

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