Piranesi and Marc Antonie

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Piranesi and Marc Antonie

  1. 1. Presented by : Ar.Shruti
  2. 2. •  Giovanni  Battista   (also   Giambattista)   Piranesi  (4   October  1720  –  9   November  1778)   was  an  Italian  artist   famous  for  his   etchings  of  Rome   and  of  fictitious  and   atmospheric   "prisons"  
  3. 3. —  Giovanni  Ba)sta  Piranesi  was  a  mul3-­‐ talented  and  accomplished  man  of  the   enlightenment  who  combined  supreme   ar3s3c  ability  and  historical  scholarship   with  an  entrepreneurial  business  sense.     —   He  was  at  once  an  ar3st,  architect,   archeologist,  designer,  collector,  and   print  and  an3qui3es  dealer.    Many   consider  him  one  of  the  most   influen3al  ar3sts  in  the  development   and  populariza3on  of  the  neoclassical   style  of  the  late  18th  century.     —  Characteris3cs  of  Piranesi’s  early  works   were  “the  unorthodox  combina3on  of   classical  mo3fs,  the  manipula3on  of   superhuman  scale,  the  organiza3on  of   powerfully  receding  perspec3ves  upon   diagonal  axes,  and  the  modula3on  of   space  by  means  of  skilful  ligh3ng.”     —  Piranesi  etched  and  published   numerous  folio  print  sets  of  art,   architecture  and  archaeology  of  Rome   and  environs,  that  served  as  source   material  for  other  architects  and   designers.    
  4. 4. —  Born  January  22,  1713  in   Manosque,  Provence   —  Family  of  upper-­‐class   bourgeoisie   —  Studied  at  ages  14-­‐17  at   college  at  Avignon     to  become  a  Jesuit  priest,  then   on  to  Lyons,  Province.   —  Par3cipated  in  public   educa3on  with  the  Jesuits   —  Developed  interest  in   architecture  and  began     discovering  buildings  on  his  own.   —  Spoke  publicly  to  the  king  and   his  consorts     regarding  religious  and  poli3cal   problems   —  .       —  Died  April  5,  1769  in  Paris,   France    
  5. 5. —  Interna3onal,  intellectual  movement  likely  beginning  with  the  poli3cal,   economical,  moral  and  religious  struggles  in  Britain  and  France.   —  Believed  in  reason  (science  and  thinking),  rather  than  faith  or  tradi3on:  The   Ra3onalist  movement   —  The  Enlightenment’s  Creed:  “Sapere  aude!”  (“Dare  to  know!)   —  Enlightenment  is  man’s  release  from  his  self-­‐incurred  tutelage.    Tutelage  is   man’s  inability  to  make  use  of  his  understanding  without  direc3on  from   another.”  Immanuel  Kant,  1784     Denis  Diderot   Immanuel  Kant   Jean-­‐Jacques  Rosseau  Voltaire   “…it  is  above  all  important  to  think.”    -­‐Laugier  
  6. 6. —  Chapter  I:  General  Principles  of   Architecture   —  Ar3cle  I:  The  Column   —  Ar3cle  II:  The  Entablature   —  Ar3cle  III:  The  Pediment   —  Ar3cle  IV:  The  Different  Stories  of  a   Building   —  Ar3cle  V:  Windows  and  Doors   •  Chapter  II:  The  Different  Architectural   Orders   –  Article  I:  What  All  Orders  Have  in   Common   –  Article  II:  The  Doric  Order   –  Article  III:  The  Ionic  Order   –  Article  IV:  The  Corinthian  Order   –  Article  V:  The  Different  Kinds  of   Composite   –  Article  VI:  How  to  Enrich  the  Various   Orders   –  Article  VII:  On  Buildings  without  any   Orders   •  Chapter  III:  Observations  on  the  Art  of   Building   –  Article  I:  On  the  Solidity  of  Buildings   –  Article  II:  On  Convenience   –  Article  III:  On  How  to  Observe  Bienseance   in  Buildings   •  Chapter  IV:  On  the  Style  in  Which  to   Build  Churches   •  Chapter  V:  On  the  Embellishment  of   Towns   –  Article  I:  On  Entries  of  Towns   –  Article  II:  On  the  Layout  of  Streets   –  Article  III:  On  the  Decoration  of   Buildings     •  Chapter  VI:  On  the  Embellishment  of   Gardens  
  7. 7. —  Founded  on  simple  nature.    Nature  indicates  its  rules.   —  Example:  The  Primi3ve  Hut   —  Tells  story  of  primi3ve  man  seeking  shelter  and  building  out  of   necessity.   —  What  this  man  built  became  the  basis  for  all  architecture     —  The  Hut  is  made  of  the  following  architectural  elements:   —  The  column     —  The  entablature   —  The  pediment  
  8. 8. —  Marc-­‐Antoine  Laugier’s  Essay  on  Architecture  (1755)  had  a  profound  impact  on  all   architectural  theories  from  the  moment  of  publica3on.  Within  its  pages  Laugier   called  for  the  simplifica3on  of  architecture.  To  remove  all  the  ornate  Baroque  and   Rococo  elements  and  create  architecture  that  everyone  can  understand  and  read   the  structure  with  ease.     —  He  turned  to  the  Classical  architecture  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  world;  here  he  saw   a  perfect  reference  to  the  ideal  of  the  primi%ve  hut.   —   The  primi%ve  hut  in  Laugier’s  mind  stood  on  columns  of  tree  trunks  with  a  simple   gable  (pediment)  roof.  Columns  were  a  key  factor  to  his  idea  of  architectural   perfec3on;  they  had  to  be  ver3cal,  free  standing,  and  they  had  to  be  round,  for  as   he  states  “as  nature  forms  nothing  square.”   —   Laugier  fails  to  look  beyond  Europe  when  he  speaks  of  an  ideal  architecture,  and   he  surveys  no  further  then  the  forest  for  the  ‘natural’;  one  of  nature’s  simplest   compound  NaCl,  or  salt,  as  well  as  other  crystalline  rocks,  grow  square.  
  9. 9. • Architecture  was  founded  on  simple   nature.         • Laugier  wanted  a  "more  rigorous"   understanding  of  architecture  and   ornament:  look  for  precedents  for  classical   architecture  at  the  absolute  roots  of   history.     • He  searched  for  absolute  beauty,  which  in   his  primitive  hut  came  from  nature.   Was  rooted  in  functional  or  structural   basis.  (This  theory  was  the  basis  of   the  so-­‐called  Rationalist  movement.)       • Little  basis  in  archeology  or  fact,  and   tangental  basis  in  historical  text    
  10. 10. •   Like  Vitruvius,  Laugier  places  the  origins  of   architectural  forms  in  nature:  the  first   dwelling  was  built  in  the  forest,  with   branches  and  trees.     •   This  differs  from  the  previous  theories  of   Vitruvius  in  one  important  aspect:  the  hut  is   an  abstract  concept  as  much  as  it  is  a  material   construction.     •   The  Primitive  Hut  represents  the  first   architectural  idea.   •   Shows  beginnings  of  an  understanding  of   column,  entablature,  and  pediments.    Future   architecture  is  based  on  these  principles.  
  11. 11. Article  I:  The  Column   • Columns  must:   – Be  strictly  perpendicular  to  the  ground   – Be  free-­‐standing,  to  be  expressed  in  a   natural  way   – Be  round,  because  nature  makes   nothing  square   – Be  tapered  from  bottom  to  top  in   imitation  of  plants  in  nature   – Rest  directly  on  the  floor     • The  faults:   – “Being  engaged  in  the  wall”  is  a  fault   because  it  detracts  from  the  overall     beauty  and  aesthetic  nature  of  columns.   – The  use  of  pilasters  should  strictly  be   frowned  upon  especially  since  in  nearly   every  case  columns  could  be  used   instead.     – Setting  columns  upon  pedestals  is  “like   adding  a  second  set  of  legs  beneath  the   first  pair.”    
  12. 12. Article  II:  The  Entablature   • The  Entablature  must:   – always  rest  on  its  columns  like  a  lintel   – In  its  whole  length  it  must  not  have  any   corner  or  projection     • The  Faults:   – Instead  of  a  beam-­‐like  structure  it   becomes  an  arch   • Against  nature  because:     – require  massive  piers  and  imposts   – They  become  pilasters     – Force  columns  to  give  lateral   support;  columns  are  meant  to   give  vertical  support  only.   – Not  straight,  but  broken  with  angles  and   projections   • Why?    “Never  put  anything  into  a   building  for  which  one  cannot  give  a   sound  reason.”    Nature  is  so,   buildings  should  also  be.    
  13. 13. Article  III:  The  Pediment   • The  Pediment  must:   – represent  the  gable  of  the  roof     – never  be  anywhere  except  across  the   width  of  a  building.       – be  above  the  entablature       • The  faults:   – To  erect  the  pediment  on  the  long  side   of  a  building.   – To  make  non-­‐triangular  pediments   • Should  not  be  curved,  broken  nor   scrolled   – To  pile  pediments  on  top  of  each  other    
  14. 14. —  THANK  YOU  

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