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  1. 2. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT <ul><li>an impairment in vision that even with correction, adversely affects an individual’s educational performance </li></ul><ul><li>Includes partial sight and blindness </li></ul>
  2. 3. LEGALLY BLIND <ul><li>The person has visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye even with correction. </li></ul>
  3. 4. PARTIALLY SIGHTED <ul><li>The person has visual acuity falling between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye. </li></ul>
  4. 5. CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT <ul><li>CATARACT – a clouding of the lens of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (ROP) – occurs most commonly to premature babies suffering from respiratory distress syndrome. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>GLAUCOMA – occurs when fluid within the eye cannot drain properly, resulting in a gradual increase of pressure within the eye and damage to the optic nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>DIABETES (which can result in a condition known as DIABETIC RETINOPATHY) – the circulation problem associated to diabetes can result in damage to the retinal blood vessels, resulting in loss of vision. </li></ul>
  6. 7. CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT <ul><li>CORTICAL VISION LOSS - results from damage to the brain rather than to the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>REFRACTIVE ERRORS – decrease the eye’s ability to focus the sharpest image on the back of the retina and result in blurred vision. </li></ul><ul><li>NYSTAGMUS is a “repetitive involuntary, rhythmic tremor-like oscillating movement of the eyes”. </li></ul>
  7. 8. SIGNS OF POSSIBLE EYE TROUBLES <ul><li>APPEARANCE: </li></ul><ul><li>* Crossed or misaligned eyes </li></ul><ul><li>* Red-rimmed, encrusted or swollen eyelids </li></ul><ul><li>* Inflamed or watery eyes </li></ul><ul><li>* Recurring styes (infections) on eyelids </li></ul><ul><li>* Color photos of eyes show white reflection instead of typical red or no reflection </li></ul>
  8. 9. SIGNS OF POSSIBLE EYE TROUBLES <ul><li>COMPLAINTS: </li></ul><ul><li>* Eyes itch, burn or feel scratchy </li></ul><ul><li>* Cannot see well </li></ul><ul><li>* Dizziness, headaches or nausea following close-up work </li></ul><ul><li>*Blurred or double vision </li></ul>
  9. 10. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Unusual turning of the head, body or eye </li></ul><ul><li>Holding reading material extremely close to the face </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive rubbing of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Watery eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Eye fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent eye pain </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Squints or shades the eye to view objects </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly having difficulty in keeping up when reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty copying from the board or transparencies </li></ul>
  10. 11. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Confusion in writing letters and numbers appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clumsy” movement from one environment to another </li></ul><ul><li>Poor posture in both standing and sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to participate in social and physical activities </li></ul><ul><li>Poor grades </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with color identification or coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory perceptual coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Misaligns columns when writing math problems </li></ul><ul><li>Requires additional time to complete a task </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to make eye contact when talking to people </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior problems </li></ul>
  11. 12. SNELLEN CHART <ul><li>The most common visual screening test </li></ul><ul><li>The person being examined is positioned twenty feet from the chart, on which eight rows of letters ranging from large to small are printed, and is asked to read the letters with each eye. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Effects of Visual Impairment <ul><li>Distance Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Central Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Functioning </li></ul>
  13. 14. Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairment <ul><li>The Existing Core Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>English language arts other languages, to the extent possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Fine arts social studies </li></ul><ul><li>Economics business education </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational education history </li></ul>
  14. 15. Curriculum <ul><li>The Expanded Core Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory or functional academic skills, including communication modes </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction skills </li></ul><ul><li>Independent living skills </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation and leisure skills </li></ul><ul><li>Career education </li></ul><ul><li>Use of assistive technology </li></ul><ul><li>Visual efficiency skills </li></ul>
  15. 16. BRAILLE <ul><li>A tactile code of raised dots </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Braille is essential for students who are so severely visually impaired that they cannot read print, and is recommended for students who are legally blind as well. </li></ul>
  16. 17. LOW VISION AIDS AND TRAINING <ul><li>Persons with visual impairment can learn to use large print or even regular print with magnification or low-vision aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions in the use of low vision touches on 3 areas: </li></ul><ul><li>1. environmental adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>2. enhancement of visual skills </li></ul><ul><li>3. integration of vision into activities </li></ul>
  17. 18. Teaching Students with Visual Impairment <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>a. Seating </li></ul><ul><li>b. Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>c. Blackboards </li></ul><ul><li>d. Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>e. Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>f. Safety </li></ul><ul><li>School Environment </li></ul>
  18. 19. Teaching Students with Visual Impairment <ul><li>Equipment and Technological Support </li></ul><ul><li>Large Print </li></ul><ul><li>Braille </li></ul><ul><li>Magnification software </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist software </li></ul><ul><li>Audio tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Library Resources </li></ul>
  19. 20. Teaching Students with Visual Impairment <ul><li>Human Support </li></ul><ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Notetakers </li></ul><ul><li>Amanuenses </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility Trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Non medical helpers </li></ul>
  20. 21. Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Special Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Use of concrete objects and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Unified multisensory instruction approach </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-activity </li></ul>
  21. 22. Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Give clear and precise instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop activities which foster independence </li></ul><ul><li>Assist students to develop organizational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Develop listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use a range of teaching approaches which cater for different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative reading and writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative near and distance activities </li></ul><ul><li>Promote self-advocacy </li></ul>
  22. 23. Working with Visually Impaired people. <ul><li>General Points </li></ul><ul><li>Always introduce yourself by name as the visually impaired student may not recognise your voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the student when you are leaving the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the student if a room they are familiar with has been rearranged. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't leave obstructions where they may be walked into. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the student is aware of any venue changes. An unfamiliar room may be difficult to find at the last minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't worry about using phrases that refer to sight, e.g. 'see you later', as most visually impaired people would not be offended. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't pet or feed guide dogs when they are wearing their harness - they are working animals 'on duty'. </li></ul><ul><li>When working in a group of people that includes a blind person, for example a seminar, ask everyone to introduce themselves so the blind person knows who is in the room. </li></ul>