Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>means an acquired injury to the brain due to the effects of an external physical force, res...
Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more ar...
Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain ...
 
Causes of TBI <ul><li>Falls  </li></ul><ul><li>      Bicycle Crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Vehicle Crashes   </li></ul><...
There are two broad categories used to describe TBIs:  <ul><li>Penetrating Injuries:  In these injuries, a foreign object,...
These injuries cause two types of brain damage:  <ul><li>Primary brain damage,  damage that is said to be complete at the ...
These injuries cause two types of brain damage: <ul><li>Secondary brain damage  , damage that evolves over a period of hou...
Characteristics <ul><li>Physical Problems  </li></ul><ul><li>Physical problems may include hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing...
Characteristics <ul><li>Communication Problems </li></ul><ul><li>trouble  finding the words or grammatical constructions  ...
Cognitive Impairments <ul><li>memory loss (short and long term)  </li></ul><ul><li>problems in arousal, attention, and con...
Psychosocial-behavioral-emotional impairments   <ul><li>fatigue, mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>denial </li></ul><ul><li>se...
<ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>lack of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>inability to self-monitor </li></ul><ul><li>di...
3 Basic Principles To Accommodate Students with TBI <ul><li>Use others as resources </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible in your ...
It Requires: <ul><li>Classroom behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul...
Strategies for the classroom   <ul><li>Attention/Concentration Many students with brain injuries find it hard to pay atten...
Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Memory This is the ability to mentally record and store information and recall it whe...
Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Organization The ability to arrange information, materials and activities in an order...
Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Following Directions Formally defined as the ability to execute a series of steps to ...
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Traumatic brain injury

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Traumatic brain injury

  1. 1. Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>means an acquired injury to the brain due to the effects of an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><li>The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Causes of TBI <ul><li>Falls </li></ul><ul><li>     Bicycle Crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Vehicle Crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Sporting Activities </li></ul><ul><li>    Sports Concussions </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li> Shaken Baby Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Violence </li></ul>
  5. 6. There are two broad categories used to describe TBIs: <ul><li>Penetrating Injuries: In these injuries, a foreign object, e.g., a bullet, enters the brain and causes damage to specific brain parts. This focal , or localized, damage occurs along the route the object has traveled in the brain. Symptoms vary depending on the part of the brain that is damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Head Injuries: Closed head injuries result from a blow to the head as occurs, for example, when the head strikes the windshield or dashboard of a car </li></ul>
  6. 7. These injuries cause two types of brain damage: <ul><li>Primary brain damage, damage that is said to be complete at the time of impact </li></ul><ul><li>Primary injuries may include some or all of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Skull fracture : Breaking of the bony skull </li></ul><ul><li>Contusions/bruises : Often occur right under the location of impact or at points where the force of the blow has driven the brain against the bony ridges inside the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Hematomas/blood clots: Occur between the skull and the brain or inside the brain itself </li></ul><ul><li>Lacerations: Tearing of the frontal (front) and temporal (on the side) lobes or blood vessels of the brain (The force of the blow causes the brain to rotate across the hard ridges of the skull causing the tears). </li></ul><ul><li>Diffuse axonal injury: Arises from a cutting, or shearing, force from the blow that damages nerve cells in the brain's connecting nerve fibers. </li></ul>
  7. 8. These injuries cause two types of brain damage: <ul><li>Secondary brain damage , damage that evolves over a period of hours to days after the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary injuries may include: </li></ul><ul><li>brain swelling ( edema ) </li></ul><ul><li>increased pressure inside of the skull ( intracranial pressure ) </li></ul><ul><li>epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>intracranial infection </li></ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>Hematoma </li></ul><ul><li>low or high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>low sodium </li></ul><ul><li>anemia </li></ul><ul><li>too much or too little carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal blood coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac changes </li></ul><ul><li>lung changes </li></ul><ul><li>and nutritional changes. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Characteristics <ul><li>Physical Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Physical problems may include hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears), headaches, seizures, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, decreased smell or taste, reduced strength and coordination in the body, arms, and legs. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Characteristics <ul><li>Communication Problems </li></ul><ul><li>trouble finding the words or grammatical constructions </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties with spelling, writing, and reading, skills that presented no problem prior to their injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in social communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>functioning of speech muscles may also be affected. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Cognitive Impairments <ul><li>memory loss (short and long term) </li></ul><ul><li>problems in arousal, attention, and concentration </li></ul><ul><li>problems in initiating action, planning action, and follow up </li></ul><ul><li>problems in judgment </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty in recognizing own cognitive deficits/limits </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty with abstract thinking (needs simple, concrete direction) </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty in generalizing from a specific time, place, or idea </li></ul><ul><li>spatial disorientation (problems with perception, direction, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>slowness of thought process </li></ul><ul><li>slowness and/or difficulty with speech </li></ul>
  11. 12. Psychosocial-behavioral-emotional impairments <ul><li>fatigue, mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>denial </li></ul><ul><li>self-centeredness </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul><ul><li>lowered self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>sexual dysfunction </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>lack of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>inability to self-monitor </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty with emotional control </li></ul><ul><li>inability to cope </li></ul><ul><li>Agitation </li></ul><ul><li>excessive laughing or crying </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty relating to others </li></ul>
  13. 14. 3 Basic Principles To Accommodate Students with TBI <ul><li>Use others as resources </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible in your planning </li></ul><ul><li>Be ingenious and creative </li></ul>
  14. 15. It Requires: <ul><li>Classroom behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>Family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication training </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive personal counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior modification program </li></ul><ul><li>Physical modification of the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational training </li></ul><ul><li>Academic and personal support system </li></ul>
  15. 16. Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Attention/Concentration Many students with brain injuries find it hard to pay attention or concentrate, especially over an extended period of time. They may not remember the question that was asked or all the parts of the homework assignment. A task may not be finished, because the student is distracted easily or moves onto something else. Strategies for improving attention and concentration can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce distractions in the student's work area (i.e., remove extra pencils, books) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide work into smaller sections (i.e., have the student complete one section at a time; suggest times and expectations for completion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the student to summarize information orally that has just been presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cue words to alert the student to pay attention (e.g., &quot;listen,&quot; &quot;look,&quot; &quot;name&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a nonverbal cueing system (e.g., eye contact, touch) to remind the student to pay attention </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Memory This is the ability to mentally record and store information and recall it when needed. Yet short-term memory often is affected by a brain injury. Strategies for teachers to help improve students' memory skills include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently repeat information and summarize it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the student carry an assignment sheet to each class and check that it is correctly filled out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the student to use devices such as post-it notes, calendars and assignment books as self-reminders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the student to categorize or chunk information to aid retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate techniques such as mental rehearsal and use of special words or examples as reminders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link new information to the student's relevant prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide experiential presentations of instructional materials </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Organization The ability to arrange information, materials and activities in an orderly way is essential to learning. Otherwise, the student may seem hopelessly lost and unable to sort things out. When organizational abilities are affected by brain injury, teachers can help by providing the student with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional time for review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written checklists of steps for complex tasks with instructions for checking off each completed step in an assignment or task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written schedule of daily routines and reinforcements for referring to schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An assigned person to review the schedule at the start of the school day and organize materials for each class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written cues for organizing an activity (i.e., first you do this, next you do this) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice sequencing material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline based on class lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color-coded materials for each class (i.e., book, notebook, supplies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help planning a class activity, party or after school event to practice organizing an activity </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Strategies for the classroom <ul><li>Following Directions Formally defined as the ability to execute a series of steps to accomplish a task or assignment, following directions is critical for completing class assignments and homework. Teachers can help the student who has difficulty in this area by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing oral and written instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking the student to repeat instructions back to the teacher or a peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlining or highlighting significant parts of directions or written assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewriting complex directions into simple steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving directions, asking student to perform the task, checking for accuracy and then providing immediate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing down the pace of instruction </li></ul></ul>

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