Normalization• The key principle toward more integration of people with disabilities into society• Espoused in Scandinavia in 1969• means a philosophical belief in SPED that every individual, even the most disabled, should have an educational and living environment as close to normal as possible.• both means and ends for disabled children should be as much like those for nondisabled students.
Deinstitutionalization• A social movement of the 1960’s• Based on a pictorial essay “Christmas on Purgatory” on the squalid conditions of institutional life of students with mental retardation• this caused more and more children with disabilities to be raised by their families.
The Regular Education Initiative• Introduced by former Assistant Sec. Of Education, Madeline C. Will (1986)• A philosophy that maintains that general education rather than special education should be primarily responsible for educating students with disabilities.• The result of advocates’ view regarding the half-hearted attempt to integrate students with disabilities (mainstreaming)
Full Inclusion• Advocated by REI• Elements of Full Inclusion – All student with disabilities no matter the types or severities of disabilities attend all classes in general education – All students with disabilities attend their neighborhood schools – General education not special education, assumes responsibility for students with disabilities
Premises of Full Inclusion• Labelling people is harmful• Special education pull-out programs have been ineffective• People with disabilities should be viewed as a minority group• Ethics should take precedence over empricism
Arguments against Full Inclusion• General educators, special educators, and parents are largely satisfied with the current continuum of placements• General educators are unwilling and /or unable to cope with all students with disabilities• Justifying full inclusion by asserting that people with disabilities are a minority is flawed
Arguments against Full Inclusion• Full-inclusion proponents’ unwillingness to consider empirical evidence is professionally irresponsible• The available empirical evidence does not support full inclusion• In the absence of date to support one service delivery model, special education must preserve the continuum of placements
Early Intervention• A term used to refer to a range of services provided to children, parents, and families during pregnancy, infancy and/or early childhood.• Previously known a nursery schools or preschools in 1930’s• Supported by PL 99-457 IFSP for children ages 5 yrs. old and below including infants
Why Early Intervention?• The early the program of intervention the more complex skills the child will learn• Avoiding developmental delays• Preventing additional delays• Help families adjust to having a child with disabilities thus giving parents the skills they need to handle the child
What Puts Children at Risk?• Genetic disorder• Events during pregnancy and birth• Child abuse or neglect• Lower socioeconomic condition• Substance abuse
What are Early Intervention Programs• IFSP – A statement of infant’s or toddler’s present level of physical development – A statement of the family’s resources, priorities, and concerns relating to enhancing the development of the family’s infant/toddler – Statement of major outcomes expected to be achieved for the infant/toddler – Statement of specific early intervention services necessary to meet the unique needs of the infant/toddler
What are Early Intervention Programs• IFSP – Statement of natural environment in which early intervention services shall appropriately be provided – Projected dates for initiation of services and the anticipated duration – Identification of the service coordinator from the profession most immediately relevant to the infant/toddler services – Steps to be taken to support the transition of the toddler with a disability to preschool and other appropriate services
Education Programs• Early Childhood Intervention Center• Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)• Day-Care and Early Childhood Centers• Assessment and Curriculum• Curriculum Options