Soils

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Soils

  1. 1. “The Soil is God’s Gift to the Living” - Thomas Jefferson
  2. 2. Soil Formation Factors and ManagementNatural Factors ClORPT Climate Organic Material Relief Parent Material TimeThe Human Factor
  3. 3. Soil Sampling and Mapping UnitsFigure 15.1
  4. 4. A nearly O mature profile…. A 10,000 years in E the making BFigure 15.2
  5. 5. Soil PropertiesColor  An indication of material in the soilTexture  An indication of the amount of weatheringStructure   An indication of its chemical and physical properties of the parent materialConsistence   An indication of its structural integrityPorosity   Related to texture – an indication of grain sizeMoisture An indication of the environment it is in
  6. 6. Soil Texture Triangle Figure 15.3
  7. 7. Types of Soil StructureFigure 15.4
  8. 8. Soil Colloids and Cation Exchange CapacityFigure 15.5
  9. 9. Soil Moisture andCation Exchange Capacity
  10. 10. pH Scale and SoilsFigure 15.6
  11. 11. Soil ClassificationSoil Taxonomy Classification of soils based on observed propertiesDiagnostic SoilHorizons Usually the O, A, E, B horizons
  12. 12. The 12 Major Soil Orders of the Soil Taxonomy Zonal Soils Azonal Soils Oxisols Entisols Ultisols Inceptisols Alfisols Andisols Mollisols Vertisols Aridisols Histosols Gelisols(Page 500 in your text)
  13. 13. Soil TaxonomyFigure 15.8
  14. 14. The Factors Forming the Koeppen SystemFigure 6.5
  15. 15. Pedogenic RegimesLaterization Movement of water freely through soilsSalinization Laterization Arid environments, water evaporates leaving salts to build up in soils GleizationCalcification Moisture Movement of calcium through the soil through capillary water PodzolizationPodzolization Slower movement of water through soils allowing for build-up of strongly zonal Calcification soils with water-logged lower horizonsGleization Salinization In cold environments, slow decomposition of organic material Temperature allowing it to build up over time.
  16. 16. Laterization Heavy Rainfall A – very little minerals left Hot temperatures allow decomposers and plant roots to remove organic material quickly B – only clay (sesquioxides) remain Orange to red color comes from rusting of ironNearly all minerals are leached out – even sands and silts are washedaway leaving only thick clay layer
  17. 17. Oxisols“Terra Rosa” Figures 15.9, 15.11
  18. 18. Ultisols Figure 15.19
  19. 19. Podzolization ProcessFigure 15.20
  20. 20. Alfisols Figure 15.18
  21. 21. Spodosols Figure 15.20
  22. 22. Calcification in soilFigure 15.17
  23. 23. Mollisols Figures 15.14, 15.15
  24. 24. Mollisols Figure 15.16
  25. 25. Aridisols Figures 15.12, 15.13
  26. 26. Vertisols – an azonal soil Figures 15.24, 15.25
  27. 27. Histosols – another azonal soilFigure 15.26
  28. 28. GelisolsFigure 15.22
  29. 29. Soil DegradationFigure 15.7

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