A nearly O mature profile…. A 10,000 years in E the making BFigure 15.2
Soil PropertiesColor An indication of material in the soilTexture An indication of the amount of weatheringStructure An indication of its chemical and physical properties of the parent materialConsistence An indication of its structural integrityPorosity Related to texture – an indication of grain sizeMoisture An indication of the environment it is in
Soil ClassificationSoil Taxonomy Classification of soils based on observed propertiesDiagnostic SoilHorizons Usually the O, A, E, B horizons
The 12 Major Soil Orders of the Soil Taxonomy Zonal Soils Azonal Soils Oxisols Entisols Ultisols Inceptisols Alfisols Andisols Mollisols Vertisols Aridisols Histosols Gelisols(Page 500 in your text)
The Factors Forming the Koeppen SystemFigure 6.5
Pedogenic RegimesLaterization Movement of water freely through soilsSalinization Laterization Arid environments, water evaporates leaving salts to build up in soils GleizationCalcification Moisture Movement of calcium through the soil through capillary water PodzolizationPodzolization Slower movement of water through soils allowing for build-up of strongly zonal Calcification soils with water-logged lower horizonsGleization Salinization In cold environments, slow decomposition of organic material Temperature allowing it to build up over time.
Laterization Heavy Rainfall A – very little minerals left Hot temperatures allow decomposers and plant roots to remove organic material quickly B – only clay (sesquioxides) remain Orange to red color comes from rusting of ironNearly all minerals are leached out – even sands and silts are washedaway leaving only thick clay layer