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Time Management




                  1
Learning Objectives

• When you have completed this module you
  will be able to define the key concepts
  associated with Time Management and you
  will be able to:

• Identify the main obstacles to effective Time
  Management in your daily role

• Understand the nature of Time Management

                                                  2
Learning Objectives

• Understand a range of tools, techniques and
  concepts for Time Management

• Use these techniques to build an effective
  Time Management process that will enhance
  your productivity and lower your stress

• Explain the benefits of having an effective
  Time Management process


                                                3
Introduction




               4
Time Management & The Organization

 • Looking at time management from the perspective of
   the organization what are the benefits:

    – Improved productivity through improved use of time by the
      personnel

    – Better performance in terms of on time delivery to customers

    – Increased profitability through better use of the human and
      non-human resources




                                                                    5
Time Management & The Organization

   – Improved planning and control of business
     systems through time based management

   – Better alignment of activities by
     incorporating a time bound system for co-
     ordination of tasks and projects in the
     business

   – Reduction of stress that arises due to crisis
     management by reducing the incidence of
     crises by better planning
                                                 6
Introduction

           What is Time
           Management?
            Time as a
            Commodity

          Essential Habits


           Types of Time

           Over & Under
         Estimation of Time
                              7
What is Time Management?

• Time management has five main aspects:

  –   Planning & Goal Setting
  –   Managing Yourself
  –   Dealing with Other People
  –   Your Time
  –   Getting Results

  – The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generate
    the fifth - results

                                                        8
Time as a Commodity

• Time is the most precious thing we have

• Time is ultimately the most valuable resource

• Time and how we spend it within the
  organization must be managed effectively

• Time is totally perishable

• Time cannot be stored up for use later
                                              9
Essential Habits

• Essential habits for good time management
  are:
  –   Know where the hours are going
  –   Keep focused on the end result
  –   Work to defined priorities
  –   Schedule time for important issues
  –   Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them
  –   Confront your own indecision and delay
  –   Take the stress out of work
  –   Keep applying the essential habits!

                                                      10
Types of Time
• Time can be categorized into two types:

  – Fast time
    • when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity



  – Slow time
    • when bored with an activity or having a bad
      time
    • when scared
                                                    11
Over- & Under-estimating Time

• Time for tasks or activities can be over-
  or under-estimated due to

  – Intensity of activity
  – Level of brain function
  – Length of gaps between enjoyments
  – Fear or ecstasy


                                          12
Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly

  • Under-estimation of time
       • Stress due to committing to too many tasks
       • Poor quality output
       • Deadlines may be missed


  • Over-estimation of time
       • Stress due to people pressing to have
         activities completed
       • Poor quality output
       • Deadlines set may not match requirements
                                                      13
Time Management Principles




                         14
Time Management Principles


      Time Management Principles


          Spent Time Matrix


             Quadrant 2

             Time-Based
             Management


                                   15
Time Management
      • Covey identified 4 waves in time
        management

               – 1 Notes and Checklists
                                – Recognition of the demands on energy & time
               – 2 Calendars and appointment books
                                – Scheduling with some focus on the future
               – 3 Prioritization
                                – Comparison of the relative worth of activities
               – 4 Self management
                                – Realization that time cannot be managed - it is ourselves
                                  that we have to manage!
The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989                                       16
Spent Time Matrix


                 Urgent                    Not Urgent
            Q1   Crises               Q2   Prevention
Important        Deadlines                 Relationship Building
                                           Planning
                                           Recreation

            Q3   Interruptions        Q4   Pleasant Activities
  Not            Some Meetings             Busy Work
Important        Popular Activities        Time Wasters
                                           Trivia




                                                                   17
Quadrant 1
• Being in Quadrant 1 brings

   – Stress

   – Burnout

   – Crises management

   – Firefighting

   – Focus on the immediate


                               18
Quadrant 3
• Being in Quadrant 3 brings

   – Short term focus

   – Crises management

   – Low value on goals

   – Feeling of victimization / lack of control

   – Shallow relationships


                                                  19
Quadrants 3 & 4

• Cycling between Quadrants 3 & 4
  brings:

  – Total irresponsibility

  – High dependency on others for basics

  – Short career path in the organization

                                            20
Quadrant 2

                 • Being in Quadrant 2 brings:
                         – Vision

                         – Perspective

                         – Balance

                         – Discipline

                         – Control
The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989

                                                          21
Characteristics of a Quadrant 2 Person

 • There are six basic criteria to allow a
   person to function in Quadrant 2:

   – Coherence
   – Balance
   – Focus
   – An ability to get on with people
   – Flexibility
   – Portability
                                             22
Quadrant 2 Requirements
The basic requirements to reach Quadrant 2 are:

• Clear definition of organizational roles and specifically
  your own role

• Selection of and focus on SMART goals

• Development and utilization of schedules

• The practice of daily adapting in work role


                                                         23
Saying No and Quadrant 2

• To stay within Quadrant 2, there is a
  requirement that you must say no:

  – In a professional manner

  – When items are associated with Quadrant 3 or
    Quadrant 4 activities
     • Not important not urgent
     • Not important but urgent
     • Will not deliver competitive advantage


                                                   24
Time-Based Management

• Fundamentals:
  – Focus is on time and resources

  – Pre-analysis of performance

  – Analysis of goals and objectives

  – Systemization of processes

                                       25
Focus on Time & Resources
•   For effective management of time there needs to be a reasonable
    attempt made to look at the time and resources required to
    complete a task:
                           Quality




        Resources                           Time

•   The quality of the outcome is directly influenced by the resources
    and time constraints involved

                                                                   26
Pre-Analysis Of Performance
• The ability to learn from past experience allows time
  management to improve performance

• The discipline of reviewing past performance allows
  the organization to:
   – Debug projects before initiation and subsequent waste of
     resources
   – Define critical points in processes which need to have
     particular attention paid to them
   – Improve the overall utilization of resources by capturing and
     implementing best practice




                                                                27
Analysis of Goals & Objectives

• By setting goals that relate to business
  performance and conform to SMART criteria
  the organization will improve productivity:

  – S -- specific and well defined objectives
  – M -- measurable outputs and inputs
  – A -- achievable in terms of resources available
         and expectations
  – R -- relevant to the overall business strategy
  – T -- time bound with an operational schedule
                                                      28
Systemization of Processes
• The ability to design and implement
  processes that allow consistency of

  – Input
  – Output
  – Training and skill transfer

  – Consistency allows for time to be gauged
    accurately for activities which assists in the
    scheduling aspect of capacity planning in the
    organization
                                                     29
Time-based Management

• Need to look at

  – Is the allotted time for completion of plans realistic
    for the person / team?
  – In the effort to achieve results, is efficient use
    made of the available time?
  – For teams - how can the time available be used to
    generate the optimal results?
  – Is task-related time management appropriate and
    realistic in the situation?

                                                         30
Productive Work




                  31
Productive Work

        Busy V’s Productive


        Indecision & Delay


            Overwork


       Urgency V Importance

           Prioritization

                              32
Busy Work

• Just because you are busy does not
  mean that you are productive

• Differentiate between

  – Effectiveness -- doing the right things

  – Efficiency -- doing the right things correctly

                                                33
Busy v Productive Work

• Problem No 1: Procrastination
• Putting off doing the things that you should be
  doing at this point!

• Solution
     •   List all tasks that you are currently putting off
     •   Remove two from the list by doing them now!
     •   Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest
     •   Reward when tasks are completed
     •   Punish when tasks are not completed on schedule



                                                             34
Dealing with Indecision or Delay

 • When faced with a task - decide to deal with it
   according to one of the following actions:

    – Do it

    – Delegate it

    – Dump it

    – Deadline it

    – Dissect it

                                                     35
Busy v Productive Work
• Problem No 2: Paralyzing perfectionism
   – This is a failure to recognize the difference between
     excellence and perfection
• Excellence
       •   Achievable
       •   Healthy
       •   Satisfying
       •   Realistic
• Perfection
       • Unattainable
       • Frustrating
       • Unrealistic


                                                             36
Busy v Productive Work

• Problem No 3: Setting unchallenging objectives
   – Objectives need to be set that challenge you in a realistic
     manner and take heed of resource availability Otherwise
     you are busy without any possibility of success

• Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are:
   –   Specific
   –   Measurable
   –   Attainable
   –   Realistic
   –   Time-bound
   –   Supported by the organization


                                                               37
Overwork

• Overwork can have effects that may be
  classified as
  – Psychological
  – Physiological


• People are overloaded for two main reasons

  – The person or team does too much

  – The person or team have too much to do

                                               38
Overwork

• To deal with over-work, try the following
  – Understand your pressures
  – Don’t get worked up or panicked
  – Don’t blame everything on yourself
  – Walk away
  – Estimate time as well as possible
  – Agree priorities and keep them
  – Remind yourself that there is a limited
    amount of time available to you
                                              39
Urgency V Importance

• Differentiating between
  – Urgent tasks
     • assume importance as they demand immediate
       attention
  – Important tasks
     • May become urgent if left undone
     • Usually have a long term effect

  – To judge importance v urgency, gauge tasks
    in terms of
     • Impact of doing them
     • Effect of not doing them


                                                    40
Prioritization Grid


Importance


             Priority 2   Priority 1


             Priority 4   Priority 3


                                 Urgency


                                           41
Prioritization
• The main aim of prioritization is to avoid a crisis

• To do this then you must


       Schedule your Priorities
             as opposed to
      Prioritizing your Schedule

                                                        42
Crisis Management




                    43
Crisis Management



        Proactive V Reactive


         Why Crises Occur

      Anticipating & Preventing
                Crises




                                  44
Proactive v Reactive Work

• Reactive work - concentrates on getting things
  done

  – Handling daily routines

  – Dealing with urgency

  – Resolving crises

  – Handling interruptions
                                             45
Proactive v Reactive Work

• Proactive work - concentrates on making
  things happen

  – Developing plans and schedules

  – Focusing on key tasks

  – Achieving deadlines & targets

  – Managing projects
                                            46
Why Crises Occur
• Checklist of reasons:

  – Failure to recognize the crisis

  – Underestimation of time required

  – No contingency plan is ready

  – No follow-up on delegated tasks
                                       47
Anticipating & Preventing Crises

• The most effective way to anticipate
  and prevent crises is to:

  – Set deadlines and stick with them

  – Use interim targets and milestones to
    break the task or project into manageable
    chunks

  – Build the schedule so that it is realistic
                                                 48
Planning




           49
Planning

             What is a Plan?

       Information & Planning

      Time Management Systems

           Goals & Time Spans

               Cascading

             The Daily Plan


                                50
Planning in Time Management


         Rule No 1

        Failing to Plan
     is Planning to Fail

                           51
What is a Plan?


 A plan is a road map set in
     real time to reach an
 objective or set of objectives
  through the use of defined
           resources
                              52
Information & Planning

Essential information:

• You need to know what you have to plan

• Once this is established
  – Break the task into manageable chunks
  – Gauge the time required for each chunk
  – Schedule each chunk into a logical sequence


                                                  53
Time Management Systems

• There are certain key criteria that need to be
  applied to a time management system:

  – Functional

  – Portable

  – Intelligible



                                                   54
Time Management Systems
Pitfalls

• Totally dis-organized ‘system’
   – Nothing can be located when required


• Perfectly maintained system
   – Too much time is spent keeping the system
     in perfect condition as opposed to
     actioning the items contained within it
                                            55
Time Management Systems

• Key components
  –   Appointments
  –   Dated deadlines
  –   Tasks - to do and work in progress
  –   Ideas and notes
  –   Key task identification
  –   Personal information
  –   Financial planning records
  –   Crises log
  –   Project log
  –   Contact list
                                           56
Goals & Time-spans
• A time management system is ineffective if defined
  goals are not available to work towards

   – Strategic Goals - long term goals, perhaps out to five years

   – Tactical Goals - medium term goals, from 3 - 12 months
     ahead

   – Operational Goals - short term goals defining the exact
     action to be taken The schedule may cover hours or days




                                                                57
Checklist for Goals

• Checklist for Goals
  – Are they realistic and challenging?
  – Have they been agreed with the manager and
    linked to the performance appraisal system?
  – Do you know what it will look like when you have
    achieved the goal (visualization)?
  – Are the goals important to you?
  – Is there a time bound aspect to the goals?
  – Are the goals SMART?
  – What will the reward be once the goals have been
    achieved?
                                                   58
Cascading

• Planning levels should cascade as follows:
  – Yearly overview plan

  – Monthly Plan

  – Weekly Plan

  – Daily Plan
     • Note that in the cascade, the time span decreases whereas
       the level of complexity increases


                                                             59
The Daily Plan
• The Daily Plan should cover three main
  areas:

  – Scheduled activities for the day showing time
    allocated to each

  – Identification of key tasks for the day to allow them
    to be prioritized

  – Indication of who you need to contact during the
    day to allow you to complete tasks
                                                       60
The Daily Plan
• When setting out the daily plan pay
  attention to the following points:
  – When do you perform best, suit your bio-
    rhythm

  – Build in planning time at the start and end
    of the day

  – Prioritize actions into ‘musts, shoulds and
    coulds and focus on the ‘musts’
                                                  61
The Daily Plan

• Guidelines continued
  – Leave room for unexpecteds

  – Don’t stack meetings back to back

  – Batch telephone calls

  – Build in quality time


                                        62
Tips & Techniques




                    63
Tips & Techniques

             Time Logs

            Quality Time

        Managing Documents

       Managing Interruptions

        Managing Workspace

        Managing your Phone

                                64
Time-logs

• A time-log is an effective way to see where your time
  actually goes to during the working day Record the
  information for about 2 weeks to get a representative
  picture of time spent

• By logging activities and the time taken to complete
  them, the time-log provides useful information that
  can identify
      •   Accuracy of estimating time for tasks
      •   Time stealing activities
      •   Level of interruption
      •   Loading during the day
      •   Crises points / tasks

                                                         65
Quality Time

• Quality time is where you can plan to do the
  most important high priority tasks

• It allows for deep concentration through
  eliminating interruptions

• It imposes a structure on work

• It allows you to move away from reactive
  work to proactive work
                                                 66
Dealing with Documents

• Document handling can steal a vast quantity
  of time from our working day

• Improve your document handling by:
     • Handling documents only once by :

        – Act on what is required by the document

        – File the document for reference later

        – Dump the document


                                                    67
Dealing with Documents

• Have a good system for handling your documents
  that allows you to:

   – Define what you need to keep and for how long

   – Allows you to file materials easily and logically

   – Facilitates access to materials

   – Purge the files on a regular basis



                                                         68
Managing Interruptions

• Try to reduce the number of interruptions by
  applying the following techniques:
     • Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the
       incidence of ‘drop-in’ visits

     • Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace - people do
       not hang around as long if they must stand

     • For important work - move to another space so the
       potential interruptors can’t find you!

     • Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange
       to contact them at a more suitable time

                                                                 69
Managing Your Workspace

 • How our workspace is organized has an impact
   on how efficient we are - try the following to
   improve efficiency

    – De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each
      working day

    – File documents once they have been used

    – Purge files regularly

    – Organize a work flow system in your space


                                                               70
Managing Your Phone

• The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities
  of time - control the phone by using:

   – Batch your outward calls

   – Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of your
     team

   – Terminate calls once the business has been done

   – Set up a rota in your team for handling incoming calls



                                                                  71
Summary




          72
Summary
•   Have a great planning system and use it

•   Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately

•   Do not over-commit

•   Set and agree priorities to distinguish between urgent and
    important tasks

•   Build in some flexibility to cope with anything unexpected

•   Control your documents, workspace and phone



                                                                 73
Summary

• Don’t procrastinate – Manage Your Time Today

• Define and use periods of quality time in your
  schedule

• Learn to say No in a professional manner

• Stay away from perfectionism and aim for excellence

• Build in time for personal development

                                                    74

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10087184 time-management-training-ppt

  • 2. Learning Objectives • When you have completed this module you will be able to define the key concepts associated with Time Management and you will be able to: • Identify the main obstacles to effective Time Management in your daily role • Understand the nature of Time Management 2
  • 3. Learning Objectives • Understand a range of tools, techniques and concepts for Time Management • Use these techniques to build an effective Time Management process that will enhance your productivity and lower your stress • Explain the benefits of having an effective Time Management process 3
  • 5. Time Management & The Organization • Looking at time management from the perspective of the organization what are the benefits: – Improved productivity through improved use of time by the personnel – Better performance in terms of on time delivery to customers – Increased profitability through better use of the human and non-human resources 5
  • 6. Time Management & The Organization – Improved planning and control of business systems through time based management – Better alignment of activities by incorporating a time bound system for co- ordination of tasks and projects in the business – Reduction of stress that arises due to crisis management by reducing the incidence of crises by better planning 6
  • 7. Introduction What is Time Management? Time as a Commodity Essential Habits Types of Time Over & Under Estimation of Time 7
  • 8. What is Time Management? • Time management has five main aspects: – Planning & Goal Setting – Managing Yourself – Dealing with Other People – Your Time – Getting Results – The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generate the fifth - results 8
  • 9. Time as a Commodity • Time is the most precious thing we have • Time is ultimately the most valuable resource • Time and how we spend it within the organization must be managed effectively • Time is totally perishable • Time cannot be stored up for use later 9
  • 10. Essential Habits • Essential habits for good time management are: – Know where the hours are going – Keep focused on the end result – Work to defined priorities – Schedule time for important issues – Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them – Confront your own indecision and delay – Take the stress out of work – Keep applying the essential habits! 10
  • 11. Types of Time • Time can be categorized into two types: – Fast time • when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity – Slow time • when bored with an activity or having a bad time • when scared 11
  • 12. Over- & Under-estimating Time • Time for tasks or activities can be over- or under-estimated due to – Intensity of activity – Level of brain function – Length of gaps between enjoyments – Fear or ecstasy 12
  • 13. Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly • Under-estimation of time • Stress due to committing to too many tasks • Poor quality output • Deadlines may be missed • Over-estimation of time • Stress due to people pressing to have activities completed • Poor quality output • Deadlines set may not match requirements 13
  • 15. Time Management Principles Time Management Principles Spent Time Matrix Quadrant 2 Time-Based Management 15
  • 16. Time Management • Covey identified 4 waves in time management – 1 Notes and Checklists – Recognition of the demands on energy & time – 2 Calendars and appointment books – Scheduling with some focus on the future – 3 Prioritization – Comparison of the relative worth of activities – 4 Self management – Realization that time cannot be managed - it is ourselves that we have to manage! The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989 16
  • 17. Spent Time Matrix Urgent Not Urgent Q1 Crises Q2 Prevention Important Deadlines Relationship Building Planning Recreation Q3 Interruptions Q4 Pleasant Activities Not Some Meetings Busy Work Important Popular Activities Time Wasters Trivia 17
  • 18. Quadrant 1 • Being in Quadrant 1 brings – Stress – Burnout – Crises management – Firefighting – Focus on the immediate 18
  • 19. Quadrant 3 • Being in Quadrant 3 brings – Short term focus – Crises management – Low value on goals – Feeling of victimization / lack of control – Shallow relationships 19
  • 20. Quadrants 3 & 4 • Cycling between Quadrants 3 & 4 brings: – Total irresponsibility – High dependency on others for basics – Short career path in the organization 20
  • 21. Quadrant 2 • Being in Quadrant 2 brings: – Vision – Perspective – Balance – Discipline – Control The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989 21
  • 22. Characteristics of a Quadrant 2 Person • There are six basic criteria to allow a person to function in Quadrant 2: – Coherence – Balance – Focus – An ability to get on with people – Flexibility – Portability 22
  • 23. Quadrant 2 Requirements The basic requirements to reach Quadrant 2 are: • Clear definition of organizational roles and specifically your own role • Selection of and focus on SMART goals • Development and utilization of schedules • The practice of daily adapting in work role 23
  • 24. Saying No and Quadrant 2 • To stay within Quadrant 2, there is a requirement that you must say no: – In a professional manner – When items are associated with Quadrant 3 or Quadrant 4 activities • Not important not urgent • Not important but urgent • Will not deliver competitive advantage 24
  • 25. Time-Based Management • Fundamentals: – Focus is on time and resources – Pre-analysis of performance – Analysis of goals and objectives – Systemization of processes 25
  • 26. Focus on Time & Resources • For effective management of time there needs to be a reasonable attempt made to look at the time and resources required to complete a task: Quality Resources Time • The quality of the outcome is directly influenced by the resources and time constraints involved 26
  • 27. Pre-Analysis Of Performance • The ability to learn from past experience allows time management to improve performance • The discipline of reviewing past performance allows the organization to: – Debug projects before initiation and subsequent waste of resources – Define critical points in processes which need to have particular attention paid to them – Improve the overall utilization of resources by capturing and implementing best practice 27
  • 28. Analysis of Goals & Objectives • By setting goals that relate to business performance and conform to SMART criteria the organization will improve productivity: – S -- specific and well defined objectives – M -- measurable outputs and inputs – A -- achievable in terms of resources available and expectations – R -- relevant to the overall business strategy – T -- time bound with an operational schedule 28
  • 29. Systemization of Processes • The ability to design and implement processes that allow consistency of – Input – Output – Training and skill transfer – Consistency allows for time to be gauged accurately for activities which assists in the scheduling aspect of capacity planning in the organization 29
  • 30. Time-based Management • Need to look at – Is the allotted time for completion of plans realistic for the person / team? – In the effort to achieve results, is efficient use made of the available time? – For teams - how can the time available be used to generate the optimal results? – Is task-related time management appropriate and realistic in the situation? 30
  • 32. Productive Work Busy V’s Productive Indecision & Delay Overwork Urgency V Importance Prioritization 32
  • 33. Busy Work • Just because you are busy does not mean that you are productive • Differentiate between – Effectiveness -- doing the right things – Efficiency -- doing the right things correctly 33
  • 34. Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 1: Procrastination • Putting off doing the things that you should be doing at this point! • Solution • List all tasks that you are currently putting off • Remove two from the list by doing them now! • Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest • Reward when tasks are completed • Punish when tasks are not completed on schedule 34
  • 35. Dealing with Indecision or Delay • When faced with a task - decide to deal with it according to one of the following actions: – Do it – Delegate it – Dump it – Deadline it – Dissect it 35
  • 36. Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 2: Paralyzing perfectionism – This is a failure to recognize the difference between excellence and perfection • Excellence • Achievable • Healthy • Satisfying • Realistic • Perfection • Unattainable • Frustrating • Unrealistic 36
  • 37. Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 3: Setting unchallenging objectives – Objectives need to be set that challenge you in a realistic manner and take heed of resource availability Otherwise you are busy without any possibility of success • Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are: – Specific – Measurable – Attainable – Realistic – Time-bound – Supported by the organization 37
  • 38. Overwork • Overwork can have effects that may be classified as – Psychological – Physiological • People are overloaded for two main reasons – The person or team does too much – The person or team have too much to do 38
  • 39. Overwork • To deal with over-work, try the following – Understand your pressures – Don’t get worked up or panicked – Don’t blame everything on yourself – Walk away – Estimate time as well as possible – Agree priorities and keep them – Remind yourself that there is a limited amount of time available to you 39
  • 40. Urgency V Importance • Differentiating between – Urgent tasks • assume importance as they demand immediate attention – Important tasks • May become urgent if left undone • Usually have a long term effect – To judge importance v urgency, gauge tasks in terms of • Impact of doing them • Effect of not doing them 40
  • 41. Prioritization Grid Importance Priority 2 Priority 1 Priority 4 Priority 3 Urgency 41
  • 42. Prioritization • The main aim of prioritization is to avoid a crisis • To do this then you must Schedule your Priorities as opposed to Prioritizing your Schedule 42
  • 44. Crisis Management Proactive V Reactive Why Crises Occur Anticipating & Preventing Crises 44
  • 45. Proactive v Reactive Work • Reactive work - concentrates on getting things done – Handling daily routines – Dealing with urgency – Resolving crises – Handling interruptions 45
  • 46. Proactive v Reactive Work • Proactive work - concentrates on making things happen – Developing plans and schedules – Focusing on key tasks – Achieving deadlines & targets – Managing projects 46
  • 47. Why Crises Occur • Checklist of reasons: – Failure to recognize the crisis – Underestimation of time required – No contingency plan is ready – No follow-up on delegated tasks 47
  • 48. Anticipating & Preventing Crises • The most effective way to anticipate and prevent crises is to: – Set deadlines and stick with them – Use interim targets and milestones to break the task or project into manageable chunks – Build the schedule so that it is realistic 48
  • 49. Planning 49
  • 50. Planning What is a Plan? Information & Planning Time Management Systems Goals & Time Spans Cascading The Daily Plan 50
  • 51. Planning in Time Management Rule No 1 Failing to Plan is Planning to Fail 51
  • 52. What is a Plan? A plan is a road map set in real time to reach an objective or set of objectives through the use of defined resources 52
  • 53. Information & Planning Essential information: • You need to know what you have to plan • Once this is established – Break the task into manageable chunks – Gauge the time required for each chunk – Schedule each chunk into a logical sequence 53
  • 54. Time Management Systems • There are certain key criteria that need to be applied to a time management system: – Functional – Portable – Intelligible 54
  • 55. Time Management Systems Pitfalls • Totally dis-organized ‘system’ – Nothing can be located when required • Perfectly maintained system – Too much time is spent keeping the system in perfect condition as opposed to actioning the items contained within it 55
  • 56. Time Management Systems • Key components – Appointments – Dated deadlines – Tasks - to do and work in progress – Ideas and notes – Key task identification – Personal information – Financial planning records – Crises log – Project log – Contact list 56
  • 57. Goals & Time-spans • A time management system is ineffective if defined goals are not available to work towards – Strategic Goals - long term goals, perhaps out to five years – Tactical Goals - medium term goals, from 3 - 12 months ahead – Operational Goals - short term goals defining the exact action to be taken The schedule may cover hours or days 57
  • 58. Checklist for Goals • Checklist for Goals – Are they realistic and challenging? – Have they been agreed with the manager and linked to the performance appraisal system? – Do you know what it will look like when you have achieved the goal (visualization)? – Are the goals important to you? – Is there a time bound aspect to the goals? – Are the goals SMART? – What will the reward be once the goals have been achieved? 58
  • 59. Cascading • Planning levels should cascade as follows: – Yearly overview plan – Monthly Plan – Weekly Plan – Daily Plan • Note that in the cascade, the time span decreases whereas the level of complexity increases 59
  • 60. The Daily Plan • The Daily Plan should cover three main areas: – Scheduled activities for the day showing time allocated to each – Identification of key tasks for the day to allow them to be prioritized – Indication of who you need to contact during the day to allow you to complete tasks 60
  • 61. The Daily Plan • When setting out the daily plan pay attention to the following points: – When do you perform best, suit your bio- rhythm – Build in planning time at the start and end of the day – Prioritize actions into ‘musts, shoulds and coulds and focus on the ‘musts’ 61
  • 62. The Daily Plan • Guidelines continued – Leave room for unexpecteds – Don’t stack meetings back to back – Batch telephone calls – Build in quality time 62
  • 64. Tips & Techniques Time Logs Quality Time Managing Documents Managing Interruptions Managing Workspace Managing your Phone 64
  • 65. Time-logs • A time-log is an effective way to see where your time actually goes to during the working day Record the information for about 2 weeks to get a representative picture of time spent • By logging activities and the time taken to complete them, the time-log provides useful information that can identify • Accuracy of estimating time for tasks • Time stealing activities • Level of interruption • Loading during the day • Crises points / tasks 65
  • 66. Quality Time • Quality time is where you can plan to do the most important high priority tasks • It allows for deep concentration through eliminating interruptions • It imposes a structure on work • It allows you to move away from reactive work to proactive work 66
  • 67. Dealing with Documents • Document handling can steal a vast quantity of time from our working day • Improve your document handling by: • Handling documents only once by : – Act on what is required by the document – File the document for reference later – Dump the document 67
  • 68. Dealing with Documents • Have a good system for handling your documents that allows you to: – Define what you need to keep and for how long – Allows you to file materials easily and logically – Facilitates access to materials – Purge the files on a regular basis 68
  • 69. Managing Interruptions • Try to reduce the number of interruptions by applying the following techniques: • Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the incidence of ‘drop-in’ visits • Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace - people do not hang around as long if they must stand • For important work - move to another space so the potential interruptors can’t find you! • Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange to contact them at a more suitable time 69
  • 70. Managing Your Workspace • How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are - try the following to improve efficiency – De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day – File documents once they have been used – Purge files regularly – Organize a work flow system in your space 70
  • 71. Managing Your Phone • The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities of time - control the phone by using: – Batch your outward calls – Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of your team – Terminate calls once the business has been done – Set up a rota in your team for handling incoming calls 71
  • 72. Summary 72
  • 73. Summary • Have a great planning system and use it • Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately • Do not over-commit • Set and agree priorities to distinguish between urgent and important tasks • Build in some flexibility to cope with anything unexpected • Control your documents, workspace and phone 73
  • 74. Summary • Don’t procrastinate – Manage Your Time Today • Define and use periods of quality time in your schedule • Learn to say No in a professional manner • Stay away from perfectionism and aim for excellence • Build in time for personal development 74