Social skill<br />A social skill is any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways. <br />Social skills are a manifestation of social knowledge. A student's social intelligence is not directly contingent upon his or her academic intelligence as measured through psycho-educational testing. <br />
Cooperation, Sharing, Participation, Being a Friend, Helping Others, Being Patient, Following Directions, Taking Turns, Remaining on Task, Accepting Differences, Listening, Praising Others and Refraining from Put Downs, Positive Communication and Interactions, Being Polite and Courteous, Using Good Manners, Respecting Ourselves and Others, Being Respectful<br />
Social Training<br /><ul><li>Manipulation of antecedent and consequent events associated with the target social behavior.</li></ul> - the use of cooperative goal structures<br /> - delivery or withholding of particular consequences contingent upon the occurrence of social responses<br /> - the application of group contingencies <br />
- use of home-based contingency management systems<br /><ul><li>Cognitive training aimed at teaching self control of personal behaviors.</li></ul>examples are self-recording and self evaluation of behaviors.<br />
4 types of instructional intervention (Schumaker and Hazel)<br />Description – oral techniques in which the teacher describes how to perform a skill appropriately.<br />Modeling – demonstrations of the social skill either by live models or by film, audiotape or pictorial models<br />
3. Rehearsal – verbal rehearsal of required skill steps to ensure that the individual has memorized the steps in sequence and can instruct himself in what to do next and structures practice.<br />4. Feedback – verbal feedback following rehearsal to inform the individual on what steps he performed well and which behavor need improvement.<br />
Social skills curriculum<br />Conversation skills – using body basics, greeting, introducing oneself, applying active listening, answering questions, interupting correctly, asking questions, using goodbye skills and conversing.<br />Friendship skills – making friends, saying thanks, giving compliments, accepting thanks, accepting compliments, joining group activities and giving help<br />
3. Skills for difficult situations – accepting and giving criticisms, accepting “no”, following instructions, responding to teasing.<br />4. Problem-solving skills – negotiating, giving rationales, persuading, problem solving, getting help and asking for feedback.<br />
Bibliotherapy<br /><ul><li>Is a teaching technique in which reading materials are used to help the student better understand himself and his problems.
To be effective Hoagland suggests</li></ul>Identification <br />Catharsis <br />Insight<br />
Projective Technique<br />Is used by teachers to encourage students to project or express their feelings and emotions.<br />Creative activities such as Role playing and Puppetry provides are suggested student activity.<br />
Role playing <br /><ul><li>Students assume the role of a character and act out a brief episode that involves a problem.</li></ul>4 steps in the process<br />A specific problem is identified<br />After the problem is described. The roles must be established and assigned to various students<br />
3. The actual role playing takes place and should be brief.<br />4. A discussion follows, focusing on the role or behavior <br />
Puppetry<br />Puppets help children experience different events and express feelings and emotions. <br />Some of the teaching techniques that can be used are: modeling, role-play activities, videos, coaching, and games.<br />
Problem areas <br />Academic behavior problems - some social emotional behavior problems result in lowered academic performance.<br />A child whose tolerance for frustration is low may become frustrated easily when attempting to complete academic tasks that require great effort<br />
The problem behavior of task avoidance and task interference also hamper the completion of academic work.<br />The student who seldom completes timed assignments within his capabilities may have a problem in slowness in work.<br />
Activities <br /><ul><li>Allow the student who avoids academic tasks to choose from a variety of activities within a skill area.
Shortly after assigning an academic task, provide a reward for those students who have started the work and completed several problems.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>To increase the student’s speed in performing academic task, have him work against a timer and chart his progress.
To discourage slowness in work, draw up a contingency contract.
When a student showa a task interference behavior, such as looking at the window, move physically closer to him so he is aware of your presence.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Prepare a series of tasks at different levels of difficulty.
Provide the student who avoids the tasks with an incentive to start working.
Use assistance cards to help manage requests for assistance.
Use feedback charts for managing student behavior.</li></li></ul><li>Disruptive classroom behavior<br />Disruptive behavior in the classroom includes actions that interfere with instruction or activities of an individual or group.<br />Inappropriate talking out and out-of-seat behaviors are frequently disruptive.<br />
<ul><li>Ignore disruptions and reward the student’s complying behaviors.
Ignore out-of-seat behaviors and give verbal praise to students who remain in their seats.
Use a timer to see how long an active child can stay in his seat.
Give the active child periodic breaks that allow him to get out of his seat.
Contingency contracts may be advised.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cut out a figure of the student which includes a large pocket and tape it to the wall.
To reduce swearing, suggests to the students other words that may be used.
Use a graph to record the number of swera words or sarcastic remarks made by the students during the specific time period.
When a child starts a temper tantrum, immediately remove him to a time-out area in which he is isolated from the teacher and peers.</li></li></ul><li>Problems with authority figures<br />Some students have inappropriate reactions to school personnel or authority figures.<br />The students may resist coming to school and may frequently challenge the authority of his teacher and principal by constantly arguing and disobeying school rules.<br />The negative reaction needs to be changed to promote a healthy attitude toward school and authority figures.<br />
<ul><li>Provide the student with positive reinforcement for attending school.
Pair the student who is absent frequently with a well-liked peer who has regular attendance.
Allow xlass members to establish some of their own rules of behavior and consequences for disobeying a rule.
When the student repeatedly disobeys rules and instructions from his teacher, give several courses of action to choose from.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Ignore the student whenever he argues with the teacher or disobeys instructions.
Invite various authority figures in the community to speak to the class and share some of their problems and experiences during their school years.
Use an “emotion box” in the classroom. </li></li></ul><li>Poor self concept<br />Self concept refers to a person’s perception of his abilities and of how others important to him feel about him.<br />A person with a poor self concept has feelings of inferiority and inadequacy and may express these feelings – “I cant do that” “I'm not very smart”.Such students a student may lack self confidence and be reluctant to interact with others.<br />
<ul><li>To make the student feel special and important, select him to be “Student of the week”
To develop self awareness, have students collect items that tell something about themselves.
Write short, personal notes to the student to provide him with encouragement and to let him know you have an interest in him.
Use the student as a tutor in peer tutoring situations.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Make some academic tasks look more difficult than they really are.
Provide success activities and limit failure as much as possible.
Help the student compile a scrapbook about himself.
Set realistic goals with the student on selected tasks.
Emphasize the importance of student effort on academic tasks.</li></li></ul><li>Social immaturity<br />The socially immature student lacks the ability to get along with his peers and lacks other social skills common to his age group.<br />Student may engage in antisocial behavior, failing to recognize his responsibilities and the rights of others.<br />Social withdrawal may result from lack of academic success.<br />
<ul><li>Pair a withdrawn student with a competent, socially mature peer for various activities.
If a child frequently teases another student, ask the teased child to ignore the child who is teasing him.
Use the socially withdrawn or rejected child in peer teaching situations as either the tutor or student being tutored.
Use modeling techniques to teach various social skills.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Encourage the withdrawn student to use a tape recorder when he feels like talking.
Use role playing to present a variety of possible social situations.
When a student frequently is aggressive toward a peer, ignore him and pay attention to the child who was his victim.
Encourage the student to develop a vocabulary that expresses feelings.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Have each student express his mood or feeling at different happenings.
Conduct class meetings during which the student s discuss any questions that seems relevant to them at the time.</li></li></ul><li>Assessing social skills<br />Mandatory components of an assessment of high-level student's social skills include:<br />observing the student with his peers, across different aspects of his environment<br />relating with the student without facilitating the student's social success<br />informal assessment tools<br />administering carefully considered standardized measures<br />interviewing teachers and parents about a student's daily functioning<br />
Informal assessment<br />Using picture sequences to explore Gestalt processing<br />The socially themed picture sequencing task provides information about how the student is able to create a gestalt from contextual cues in the pictures combined with the students' own life experiences. <br />This type of information helps to reveal how well a student is able to organize themselves around conceptual thinking, which is a critical skill for school related tasks such as reading comprehension, written expression and playing games with others on the playground.<br />
The sequence task for younger or lower functioning students<br />It is important to make the distinction between sequencing functional tasks and sequencing socially themed information, since gaps in a student's knowledge can significantly impact reading comprehension regardless of the student's ability to decode text, written expression and social play. <br />Interpreting social scenarios through photographs<br />Isolated photographs that depict social scenarios can also provide valuable information on how a student interprets visually presented information to infer the social understanding. <br />
I LAUGH<br />The I LAUGH Framework was developed to provide an overall model of social cognitive deficits. "I LAUGH" is an acronym that represents the following concepts:<br />I= Initiation:<br />difficulty initiating language or action for interactions or tasks that are not routine.<br />L=Listening with one's eyes and brain:<br />difficulty with auditory processing as well as visual processing of the subtle cues provided in social interactions that facilitate social knowledge.<br />
A=Abstract and inferential:<br />difficulty deciphering meaning from abstract language and non-verbal cues provided both through student's curriculum tasks as well as through social interaction.<br />U=Understanding the perspective of others:<br />difficulty interpreting the motives, emotions and intents of others, which is fundamental for successful social interpretation and social regulation.<br />G=Getting the big picture or gestalt processing:<br />difficulty recognizing and comprehending underlying concepts<br />H=Humor:<br />these students often demonstrate a lovely sense of humor but may fail to use humor appropriately given particular contexts.<br />
The intent of the framework is to demonstrate how complex social skills, such as maintaining a conversation or personal problem solving, actually require a symphonic coordination of the I LAUGH Framework's cognitive components for a person to behaviorally demonstrate social the use of appropriate social skills.<br />
Picture Puzzle Game<br />Encourage the student to show appropriate behavior over a period of time by rewarding the child with something the child wants. The student and the teacher agree on the desired behavior to be reinforced and the type of reward. Each time the student the student shows the desired behavior, the teacher gives him a piece of the picture puzzle. Each time the student shows in appropriate behavior, the teacher takes away a puzzle piece. If the student received all the puzzle pieces, the student will receive the reward.<br />