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  1. 1. Reading<br />ALAYON, Anncelin<br />GO, Gianne Justine<br />GOCELA, Ivory<br />ORELLANO, Mary KhrisFleur<br />TANUCAN, Hazel Jean<br />
  2. 2. By Definition…<br />What is READING?<br />… is defined as a visual-auditory task that involves obtaining meaning from symbols (letters and words).<br />Includes tow basic processes: DECODING process and COMPREHENSION process<br />
  3. 3. DECODING process<br /> - involves understanding the phoneme-grapheme relationships <br /> - translating printed words into a representation similar to oral language.<br /> - enables to pronounce words correctly.<br />
  4. 4. COMPREHENSHION process<br /> - enable the learner to understand the meaning of words in isolation and in context.<br />
  5. 5. Assessment in Reading<br />Reading assessment involves both word recognition and reading comprehension.<br />
  6. 6. Organization of Reading Skills<br />Seven commonly used strategies of Word Recognition (Ekwall & Shanker, 1985; Guszak, 1987):<br />
  7. 7. CONFIGURATION<br /> - refers to the outline or general shape of a word.<br />CONTEXT ANALYSIS<br /> - the skill of the words and meanings surrounding an unknown word or phrase to determine element.<br />SIGHT WORDS<br /> - the reader recognizes without applying phonetic analysis.<br />PHONICS ANALYSIS<br /> - refers to the decoding words by symbol-sound associations. <br />
  8. 8. SYLLABICATION<br /> - the process of dividing a word into its component parts.<br />STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS<br /> - the reader perceives meaningful units such as root words, prefixes, suffixes, etc.<br />DICTIONARY ANALYSIS<br /> - seldom used for word recognition; however it does provide the reader with an independent means of pronouncing unknown words.<br />
  9. 9. Five major areas in Reading Comprehension (Ekwall & Shanker, 1985; Smith & Barett, 1974):<br />
  10. 10. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT<br /> - essential for the reader to understand the words used by the writer.<br />LITERAL COMPREHENSION<br /> - refers to the recognition and recall of explicitly stated information.<br />INFERENTIAL COMPREHENSION<br /> - requires the reader to make conjectures or hypotheses bade on the stated information, its intuition, and personal experiences. <br />
  11. 11. EVALUATION or Critical Reading<br /> - deals with the judgments based on the reader’s experiences, knowledge, or values.<br />APPRECIATION<br /> - deals with the student’s emotional and aesthetic sensitivity to the written selection.<br />
  12. 12. Developmental Approaches<br />Reading developmental approaches emphasize sequential instruction on a daily basis. <br /> The following developmental approaches are:<br /><ul><li>Basal
  13. 13. Phonics
  14. 14. Linguistics
  15. 15. Language Experience
  16. 16. Individualized Reading</li></li></ul><li>Informal Assessment Approach<br />Probes<br />Miscue (for error analysis)<br />Cloze Procedure<br />Written description <br />Checklists and Questionnaire<br />Interviews<br />Conferences<br />
  17. 17. Student Journals and Notebooks<br />Performance-based Assessments<br />Sharing portfolios<br />Exhibitions<br />Self-Assessment<br />Peer assessment<br />
  18. 18. ACTIVITIES<br />Word Attack:<br /> EXAMPLE: Have a student practice phrase cards. After he/she mastered short, easy phrase, longer and more difficult phrases may be introduced. The phrase cards may be arranged to tell the continuous story. Phrase reading also may be encourageed by giving the student a reading passage in which the words to be read together are underlined.<br />
  19. 19. Comprehension:<br /> EXAMPLE: Write several riddles or short stories that describe a specific word or object. The student must focus on descriptive details in order to answer each riddle. If the riddle is written on card, the activity can be made self correcting by writing the answer on the back of each card.<br />
  20. 20. END<br />Thank you for listening<br />