Information security principles


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General overview of CIA, and Risk Management.

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Information security principles

  1. 1. CIS 264Highline Community College Dan Morrill
  2. 2.  CIA is:  Confidentiality  Integrity  Availability The entire information security industry is based on this concept for Defense  Offense is a totally different matter, we want to corrupt CIA as much as possible for the other person There are entire manuals on this subject  33/sp800-33.pdf is a good start
  3. 3.  Confidentiality refers to preventing the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals or systems. For example, a credit card transaction on the Internet requires the credit card number to be transmitted from the buyer to the merchant and from the merchant to a transaction processing network. The system attempts to enforce confidentiality by encrypting the card number during transmission, by limiting the places where it might appear (in databases, log files, backups, printed receipts, and so on), and by restricting access to the places where it is stored. If an unauthorized party obtains the card number in any way, a breach of confidentiality has occurred. Confidentiality is necessary (but not sufficient) for maintaining the privacy of the people whose personal information a system holds
  4. 4.  In information security, data integrity means maintaining and assuring the accuracy and consistency of data over its entire life-cycle. This means that data cannot be modified, unauthorized, or undetected. This is not the same thing as referential integrity in databases, although it can be viewed as a special case of Consistency as understood in the classic ACID model of transaction processing. Integrity is violated when a message is actively modified in transit. Information security systems typically provide message integrity in addition to data confidentiality.
  5. 5.  For any information system to serve its purpose, the information must be available when it is needed. This means that the computing systems used to store and process the information, the security controls used to protect it, and the communication channels used to access it must be functioning correctly. High availability systems aim to remain available at all times, preventing service disruptions due to power outages, hardware failures, and system upgrades. Ensuring availability also involves preventing denial- of-service attacks.
  6. 6.  Identification – am I who I say I am when I log in? If I know your router operating system – I know how to hack it and fake the router out Authentication – same thing – if I can fake it I can make it do my own thing Accountability – if I can log in as someone else, no one will hold me accountable Authorization – if I am root, I can do anything I want to do  How long does it take to crack a Cisco Password using IOS 12.0(10)W5(18g)
  7. 7. Oh really?Thanks Google andShodanIf I own two routerson the internetWhat can I do?Where are the limitsCan I get caught?
  8. 8. And this is why they have formal development and management processes
  9. 9.  IATF (Information Assurance Technical Framework)  People  There must be a commitment to the process  Training, Roles and Responsibilities, Policies and Procedures, Commitment, Penalties for violating  Technology  That the organization has the proper technologies in place  Risk Assessment, Patching, Architecture, Validated products in use, Configuration  Operations  Day to Day activities promote effective security  Enforcement, certification and accreditation, key management
  10. 10.  System Characterization Threat Identification Vulnerability Identification Control Analysis Likelihood determination Impact analysis Risk determination Control determination Results documentation
  11. 11.  Risk Assumption Risk Avoidance Risk Limitation Risk Planning Research and Development Risk Transference Supporting, Preventative, Detection and Recovering Controls