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Reciprocating Machine Tools

Published in: Engineering
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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Planing, shaping and slotting machines constitute a class of machine tools in which a cycle of operation is complete by a cutting stroke, followed by a return stroke in which no metal removal takes place, As this latter stroke is non productive, means are provided to effect a rapid reversal to reduce the idle time.
  3. 3. INTRO….. Whereas in a slotter, the tool cuts while moving vertically up and down, in shaper and planer the direction of cutting action of the tool is horizontal. The shaper is unsuitable for generating flat surfaces on very large parts because of limitations on the stroke and over hang of the ram.
  4. 4. INTRO… This problem is solved in the planer where unlike shaper the large workpiece is moved past one or more stationary, single point cutting tools, Planers are used primary to produce horizontal, vertical or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces that are too large to be accommodated on shapers.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE  The workpiece is clamped onto the worktable rides on the grooves on the base of the planer and is accurately guided as it travels back and forth.  Cutting tools are held in tool heads that can travel in a direction at right angle to the direction of motion of the worktable. Tool heads are mounted on a horizontal cross rail that can be moved up and down.
  6. 6. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANER AND SHAPER (i) In shaper, the work is held stationary and the cutting tool on the ram is moved back and forth across the work, whereas in a planer, the tool is stationary and the workpiece travels back and forth under the tool. (ii) A planer is a rigid and heavy duty machine when compared to shaper meant for larger jobs as large as 6 metre wide and twice as long can be machined on a planer.
  7. 7. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANER AND SHAPER (iii) A shaper uses one cutting tool at a time, whereas several tools can cut simultaneously on a planer. (iv) The drive on the planer table is either by gears or by hydraulic means. The shaper ram can also be driven in this manner, but many times a quick return link mechanism is used.
  8. 8. PLANER SIZE AND SPECIFICATION  The size of a planer is specified from the measurement of the largest job that can be held on its table and pass under and between housings.  Distance between the vertical housings in mm  The distance from the table to the rail in its uppermost position in mm,  The maximum length of the table travel in metres.
  9. 9. PLANER PARTS 1.Bed 2.Table 3.Crossrail 4.Vertical toolhead 5.Cable of control panel 6.Upright 7.Feed gear box 8.Table drive
  10. 10. PLANER PARTS (i) Bed (ii) Work table (iii) Column or housing (iv) Cross rail (v) Saddle (vi) Tool head (vii) Driving and feed mechanism.
  11. 11. PLANER PARTS…  (i) The Bed of a planer must be a weldment or casting twice as long as the table. The other parts are attached to, or supported by the bed. The bed has accurately finished ways on which the worktable slides. The gearing or hydraulic cylinder for driving the table is housed under the bed.
  12. 12. PLANER PARTS…. (ii) The table is a heavy rectangular casting. It travels on vee or flat ways of the bed. The table is driven either by a hydraulic cylinder or by a pinion gear driving a rack which is fastened under the center of the table. The motor driving the pinion gear is of reversible type with variable speed.
  13. 13. PLANER PARTS…. The upper surface of the table has T slots to facilitate the clamping of the work or vises and special fixtures. The top surface of the table also has accurate holes for supporting the stop pins etc. The side of the table has a groove for clamping planer reversing dogs at different positions.
  14. 14. PLANER PARTS…. (iii) Column or Housing The frame of the planer is of hollow box type. The frame is basically two heavy columns fastened together at the top with a large bracing section and fastened at the bottom to the machine bed.
  15. 15. PLANER PARTS…. It is a very strong rigid structure which will handle heavy loads without deflection. On a double housing planer, two columns rise vertically at the sides of the machine. They support the crossrail and house the elevating screws and controls for the machine.
  16. 16. PLANER PARTS…. (iv) The Crossrail is a heavy box construction. It is mounted on the vertical ways of the housing. It slides up and down on vee or flat ways, controlled by hand or by power operated screws. These cross rails are so heavy that they are counterweighted, with either cast iron weights or hydraulic cylinders, in order that they may be moved easily and positioned accurately.
  17. 17. PLANER PARTS…. The purpose of the crossrail is to carry the vertical tool heads which by means of feed screws may be moved from left to right. It is very essential that the crossrail, when clamped, be parallel to the table for obtaining accurate machined surfaces.
  18. 18. PLANER PARTS…. (v) The saddle is fitted to the ways of the crossrail. On its front surface are ways to which the toolhead is fitted, together with a vertical feed screw that provides for a vertical movement of the toolhead. There are two saddles one for the left toolhead, the other for the right toolhead. Each one may be operated independently of the other.
  19. 19. PLANER PARTS…. (vi) The toolhead contains the tool post which in turn, holds the cutting tool. The tool post is hinged to the head so that on the return movement of the table the cutting tool will be raised and ride on the top of the work. This saves the cutting edge of the tool from being damaged and permits the automatic traverse feed to operate without interference.
  20. 20. PLANER PARTS…. The toolhead can be swiveled for taking angular cuts. There are four toolheads, two in vertical position on the crossrail, and the other two known as side tool heads mounted one each on the two columns below the crossrail.
  21. 21. PLANER TYPES  Double housing planer  Open side planer  Pit planer  Edge or Plate planer  Divided table planer
  22. 22. Double Housing Planer  Length of the bed is little over twice the length of the table  Two massive vertical housings mounted on the base  Two tool heads on the horizontal cross slide  Two tool heads on the vertical face
  23. 23. Double Housing Planer
  24. 24. Open side Planer  Has housing only on one side of the base  Allows large and wide jobs to be machined  Since only one column no limitation to width of the jobs  Consist of three tool heads
  25. 25. Pit Planer  Table is stationary  Column carrying the cross rail reciprocates on massive horizontal rails mounted on both sides of the table.  This design saves much of floor space  Pit planers are used only for very large work, where the weight of the workpiece and the required table would make reciprocation difficult and severely limit cutting speeds.
  26. 26. Edge or Plate Planer  Intended for squaring and beveling the edges of steel plates.  One end of the long plate which is stationary is attached to the frame of the machine and the carriage carrying the tool reciprocates past the edge of the plate
  27. 27. Plate Planer
  28. 28. Divided Table Planer  Two tables present, which can be reciprocated separately or together  For continuous production, one table is used to set the job and other table on which the job is already fixed reciprocates past the tool.
  29. 29. PLANER DRIVING MECHANISM  A planer driving mechanism provides the longitudinal to and fro motion of the planer worktable. The following methods are employed for the said purpose. (a) Open and cross belt drive. (b) Gear drive (c) Reversible motor drive. (d) Hydraulic drive.
  30. 30. Open Drive Mechanism with Rack and Spur Gears  A - Crossed Belt  B - Crossed Belt  C - Rack  D - Table  E - Bull Gear  F - 2 ND Intermediate  G - 1 ST Intermediate  H - Drive Pinion
  31. 31. CLOSED BELT DRIVE  A - Counter Shaft, B - Crossed Belt  C - Open Belt, D - Belt Shifter  E - Table, F - Rack  G - Drive pinion and Tight pulley Shaft  H - Bull Gear  I - 2 ND intermediate  J - 1 ST Intermediate,  K - Tight pulleys(outer), L - Loose Pulleys
  32. 32. OPEN AND CROSS BELT  Two belts, one open and one crossed operate on loose and tight pulleys. Crossed belt is used for forward or cutting stroke and the open belt for return motion. The crossed belt making a greater arc of contact on the pulley is considered better for driving the table on the cutting stroke.
  33. 33. OPEN AND CROSS BELT  Crossed belt drive mechanism permits operation of the gear train in such a manner that the table will travel slowly on the cutting stroke and travel faster on the return stroke. Pulleys keyed to the drive pinion shaft are called tight pulleys and those which turn freely on the shaft are called loose pulleys.  There are two tight pulleys and two loose pulleys. Larger tight pulley - Cutting stroke smaller tight pulley - quicker return stroke.
  34. 34. Drive Mechanism  For obtaining continuous forward and return motion of the planer table both the open and crossed belts run continually and are shifted back and forth by the belt shifter which is linked to the reverse lever.  During cutting stroke the crossed belt is on the tight pulley, the open belt is on the loose pulley and the position is reverse during the return stroke.
  35. 35. Drive Mechanism  Trip dogs are provided, one each at both ends of the planer table. At the end of each stroke, the trip dog meets against the reverse lever, actuates the belt shifter and thus the table movement is reversed.
  36. 36. PLANER
  37. 37. PLANER REVERSIBLE MOTOR WITH RACK AND WORM  Commonly used on modern planers as it provides a wider range of table speeds and a better control. Most planers are driven direct by a coupled motor in place of the old method of open and crossed belt drive.  The reciprocating motion of the planer table is obtained by driving through a worm on to a rack attached to the length of the underside of the table. The reversal of the drive is obtained by reversing the motor itself either by field or phase changing.
  38. 38. PLANER FEED MECHANISM  The feed may be given by hand or by power. The methods employed for power feed are: (i) Friction disc mechanism (ii) Electrical drive (iii) Hydraulic drive.
  39. 39. NEED FOR FRICTION DISC MECHANISM  In shaper when bull gear rotates through one revolution, the ram completes one double stroke. Using pawl and ratchet mechanism, for one half revolution of bull gear, feed is imparted and other half no feed is given.  In planer since the length of the table is long, bull gear will make large number of revolutions in forward and return stroke.
  40. 40. 16. Feed Disc 5. Shaft 6. Leather washer 3. Projecting pin 4. Flange on shaft 15. Connecting rod FRICTION DISC
  41. 41. FRICTION DISC  Driving disc 16 rotates  The disc consists of two parts having a cylindrical opening which encloses flange 4 connected to shaft 5.  Leather washers 6 are placed between the flange 4 and disc openings.  Hence a flexible connection is made between the shaft 5 and disc 16.
  42. 42.  Shaft 5 rotates during the forward stroke and motion is transmitted to disc 16 by flange 4 and the disc 16 starts rotating.  The motion of the disc is limited by the projecting pin 3 hitting against a fixed pin 17.
  43. 43. FRICTION DISC  Thus when disc 16 rotates through a part of the revolution, flange 4 connected to the shaft 5 continues to rotate within the disc 16 slipping over the leather washers 6 throughout the cutting stroke.
  45. 45. FEED MECHANISM  Rotary movement of the disc 16 is transmitted to rack 14 through the connecting rod 15 and a pinion mounted on shaft 12 meshes with the rack.  Thus gear 11 will rotate through a part of the revolution in one direction only during a complete double stroke.
  46. 46. FEED MECHANISM  The direction of the feed may be reversed by changing the position of the double pawl 10.  Amount of feed movement may be varied by shifting the position of block 1 with respect to centre.