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Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx

More than 2000 years ago, Aristotle noted that citizenship involves participating in government through assemblies and holding public office. Political participation encompasses a wide range of activities that allow citizens to influence politics, beyond just voting. This includes activism, interest groups, community involvement, and online participation. Socioeconomic factors, political culture, and institutional design impact levels of participation. Elections translate public opinion into political authority through selecting representatives. Different types of elections include presidential, legislative, local, and referendums. Electoral systems, political parties, campaigns, and voter turnout all shape election outcomes.

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Political Participation
and Elections
Introduction: Aristotle's Notions
of Citizenship and Political
Participation
• More than two thousand years ago Aristotle noted
that a citizen is not a citizen because he lives in a
certain place, but the citizen is a member of a
community (Aristotelis, 1997: 133–134). Moreover,
he suggested that a citizen is someone who shares in
the administration of justice and the holding of public
office, i. e. in the polis, assemblies of citizens made
decisions in bodies whose modern equivalents are
law courts and city councils, and these assemblies
rotated membership so that every citizen served a
specific term. Aristotle ultimately argued that just
government works best when the masses are
allowed to participate.
Political Participation:
• Definition: Political participation, a cornerstone
of democratic societies, encompasses a spectrum
of activities through which individuals express,
influence, and shape political decisions. Beyond
the act of voting, it spans a wide array of actions,
reflecting the depth and diversity of citizens'
engagement with the political process.
Political Participation:
• Forms of Political Participation:
1. Voting: The bedrock of political involvement, where
citizens exercise their right to choose representatives
and influence policy decisions.
2. Political Activism: Organized efforts that range from
protests and demonstrations to advocacy campaigns,
aiming to impact the political, economic, or social status
quo.
3. Interest Group Participation: Collective action as
individuals join groups advocating for specific causes,
such as labor rights, environmental protection, or
business interests.
4. Community Engagement: Involvement at the local level,
contributing to community organizations, neighborhood
councils, and grassroots initiatives.
5. Online Political Participation: Leveraging the digital
realm, citizens engage in politics through social media,
online forums, and digital activism.
Political
Participation:
• Factors Influencing Political
Participation:
1. Socioeconomic Factors: Income,
education, and occupation play
a significant role, with higher
socioeconomic status often
correlating with increased
political engagement.
2. Political Culture: Shared values,
beliefs, and attitudes shape the
civic consciousness of a society,
influencing the level of political
participation.
3. Institutional Factors: The design
and accessibility of political
institutions impact the ease
with which citizens can engage,
contributing to varying levels of
participation.
Elections:
• Definition: Elections, as a formalized
mechanism, serve as the linchpin
translating popular will into political
authority. These dynamic events are
critical for shaping the composition of
representative bodies and determining
the trajectory of governance.

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Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx

  • 2. Introduction: Aristotle's Notions of Citizenship and Political Participation • More than two thousand years ago Aristotle noted that a citizen is not a citizen because he lives in a certain place, but the citizen is a member of a community (Aristotelis, 1997: 133–134). Moreover, he suggested that a citizen is someone who shares in the administration of justice and the holding of public office, i. e. in the polis, assemblies of citizens made decisions in bodies whose modern equivalents are law courts and city councils, and these assemblies rotated membership so that every citizen served a specific term. Aristotle ultimately argued that just government works best when the masses are allowed to participate.
  • 3. Political Participation: • Definition: Political participation, a cornerstone of democratic societies, encompasses a spectrum of activities through which individuals express, influence, and shape political decisions. Beyond the act of voting, it spans a wide array of actions, reflecting the depth and diversity of citizens' engagement with the political process.
  • 4. Political Participation: • Forms of Political Participation: 1. Voting: The bedrock of political involvement, where citizens exercise their right to choose representatives and influence policy decisions. 2. Political Activism: Organized efforts that range from protests and demonstrations to advocacy campaigns, aiming to impact the political, economic, or social status quo. 3. Interest Group Participation: Collective action as individuals join groups advocating for specific causes, such as labor rights, environmental protection, or business interests. 4. Community Engagement: Involvement at the local level, contributing to community organizations, neighborhood councils, and grassroots initiatives. 5. Online Political Participation: Leveraging the digital realm, citizens engage in politics through social media, online forums, and digital activism.
  • 5. Political Participation: • Factors Influencing Political Participation: 1. Socioeconomic Factors: Income, education, and occupation play a significant role, with higher socioeconomic status often correlating with increased political engagement. 2. Political Culture: Shared values, beliefs, and attitudes shape the civic consciousness of a society, influencing the level of political participation. 3. Institutional Factors: The design and accessibility of political institutions impact the ease with which citizens can engage, contributing to varying levels of participation.
  • 6. Elections: • Definition: Elections, as a formalized mechanism, serve as the linchpin translating popular will into political authority. These dynamic events are critical for shaping the composition of representative bodies and determining the trajectory of governance.
  • 7. Types of Elections: • Presidential Elections: Choosing the head of state, often with a separate ballot for legislative representation. • Legislative Elections: Selection of representatives for the legislative body, influencing the formulation and passage of laws. • Local Elections: Addressing issues at the grassroots level, from the election of mayors to local council members. • Referendums: Direct expressions of public opinion on specific policy issues or constitutional changes.
  • 8. Key Concepts in Elections: • Electoral Systems: Rules governing the casting, counting, and translation of votes into seats, influencing the nature of political representation. • Political Parties: Organized groups shaping electoral outcomes by nominating candidates and advocating for specific policy positions. • Campaigns and Political Communication: Strategies employed by candidates and parties through media, debates, and advertising to convey messages to voters. • Voter Turnout: The percentage of eligible voters participating in an election, a key metric reflecting the health of a democratic process.
  • 9. Challenges and Issues in Elections:
  • 10. Conclusion • This exploration into political participation and elections within the realm of comparative politics unveils the intricate dynamics that shape the functioning of diverse political systems. Through this comprehensive lens, we gain valuable insights into the mechanisms influencing governance, the vibrancy of citizen engagement, and the myriad factors contributing to the democratic fabric of nations worldwide.
  • 11. Prepared by: ROMMEL R. REGALA, Ph.D.