The sail has seven strips of cloth, encoding the next, seven dynasties. It appears, that the upper
strip provides the approximate date of the glyph. It corresponds to the 6+7= 13th Dynasty (c.
1794-1641 BC). The date of the glyph appears to coincide with the end of this dynasty, c.1640
BC.- Note, that the top of the mast peaks in two layers, which correspond to the 12th and 13th
Dynasties. It is correct, that the culture of the Middle Kingdom started to decline at the end of the
12th Dynasty, a process which continued in the 13th Dynasty. Note also, that the bottom of the
mast was placed on the fourth layer of the hull. It is correct, that the culture of the Old Kingdom
started to decline at the end of the 5th Dynasty, a process which continued in the 6th Dynasty.
Because of the dynasty encodings, it appears that the sailing voyage started at the Nile Delta of
Egypt, at 30°N. Including the lower part of the mast, the hull consists of 5+1= 6 elements, cor-
responding to the Strait of Gibraltar, 6° to the north, at 30+6= 36°N. The carving of the ship is
applied on the rock in such a way, that the top of the mast is pointing south. So, it appears, that
people choose for the Southern Crossing of the Ocean, which is most convenient, indeed
The whole ship has 6+7= 13 elements, corresponding to the mouth of the Gambia River, West
Africa, at 13°N. However, it also consists of two big parts (the hull and the sail), encoding the
southern Cape Verde Islands, 2° to the north, at 13+2= 15°N. The sailing direction from these is-
lands, with the wind and the current, corresponds to the latitude of the Nile Delta, 30°SSW. The
sailing boat consists of two parts, encoding the sailing distance of 2 (Egyptian) Moiras= 20°. The
hull has 5 layers, encoding the place of arrival, Cape São Rock (the Holy Rock), Brazil, at 5°S.
Including the mast the hull consists of 5+1= 6 elements, corresponding to the north coast of Suri-
name (former Dutch Guyana), at 6°N. The whole ship has 6+7= 13 elements, encoding the North
Cape of South America, at 13°N. It has two big parts, corresponding to Cape Gracias à Dios, the
east cape of Honduras, at 13+2= 15°N. The whole ship has 13 elements, encoding the sailing
direction from Cape Catoche, Yucatan, to the SE Cape of Cuba, 13°ENE. The ship consists of
two parts, corresponding to the sailing distance of 2 moiras= 2°, equal to the distance from the
north coast of Cuba to Florida. Finally, one sailed to the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N, the same
latitude as the Nile Delta.
The glyph of the sailing boat is located at Copper Harbor, one of the most important natural har-
bors for the transport of copper ingots in the area. It consists of 6+7= 13 elements, encoding both
the latitude of 30+13= 43°N, and the complementary latitude of 90-43= 47°N, exactly at the le-
vel of Copper Harbor. Most ingots were shipped along the Mississippi River to the south. The
sail consists of 7 strips of cloth, encoding the important confluence with the Ohio River, 7° abo-
ve the Mississippi Delta, at 30+7= 37°N (Refs.8,14). The sailing boat consists of two parts, also
encoding the island of Bermuda in the Ocean, 2° above the Delta, at 30+2= 32°N. So, part of the
copper was transported via Bermuda to the Azores.
The hull of the boat has 5 layers, corresponding to Cape Hatteras South, at 30+5= 35°N. Inclu-
ding the lower part of the mast, it contains 5+1= 6 elements, corresponding to Cape Hatteras
North, at 30+6= 36°N. Both are the east capes of the US. The whole ship has 13 elements, enco-
ding America’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, and the south point of Nova Scotia, at 30+13=
43°N. America’s Stonehenge is the most important megalithic monument of North America
(c.2400 BC). It was a training center for learning how to cross the Ocean. Part of the copper
ingots arrived here from the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River (Refs.8,15,16).
From the south point of Nova Scotia people sailed in the direction of the Azores. One oriented at
Cape Race, Newfoundland, which is the East Cape of North America, at the complementary la-
titude of 90-43= 47°N. This is the latitude of Copper Harbor, where the glyph of the sailing boat
is situated. The two big parts of the ship correspond to the initial sailing direction (ISD) from Ca-
pe Race to the two islands of the West Azores, 20°ESE, with the wind and the current, as well as
the sailing distance of 2 Moiras= 20°. The two parts also encode the Central Azores, 2° above the
Strait of Gibraltar, at 36+2= 38°N, as well as the two islands of the East Azores, and finally, the
two islands of Madeira.
When studying the glyph of the sailing boat, it turns out that both ends of the ship are different.
The left end is high, protecting the sailors and the cargo from the waves of the sea. So, the left
end is the stem or the fore-part of the ship, and the right end is the stern or the hind-part. The top
of the mast is pointing south, as mentioned earlier, so the ship is sailing to the east. This means
that the ship is sailing home, fully loaded with copper ingots (Refs.4,5,8,13)! Note, that the rec-
tangular sail closely resembles a copper ingot, to illustrate this statement. The ship has a total of
13 elements, corresponding to the latitude of America’s Stonehenge, N.H., and the south point of
Nova Scotia, at 30+13= 43°N (Refs.8,15,16). It is the complementary latitude of Copper Harbor,
at 90-47= 43°N. So, the boat is leaving the East Coast of North America to cross the Atlantic O-
There are two important trade routes in North America: one going south to the Mississippi Delta,
and one going east to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. The carving of the ship is applied
on the rock in such a way, that the top of the mast is pointing south. On top of the mast are two
arrows, each consisting of two pieces of line. The mast and the sail contain together 1+7= 8 ele-
ments, and the hull contains 5 elements. The mast and the sail point south. So, it appears that
8/13x100= 62% of the copper was shipped to the Delta. The hull of the ship is pointing to the
east. The length of the hull equals five times the height of the sail, confirming the 5 elements. So,
5/13x100= 38% of the copper was transported to the Bay of Saint Lawrence.- A source from c.
1458 BC reports percentages of 61%, and 39%, respectively, at this later date (Ref.17).
The dynasty encodings suggest, that the boat is an Egyptian trading vessel from the Nile Delta, at
30°N. This latitude corresponds with the 30 days of a month. The 5 rows of planks and the 7
strips of cloth form together 5+7= 12 elements, corresponding to the 12 months of a year. The
height of the mast equals six times the width (or height) of the lower part of it. It emphasizes the
latitude of the Strait of Gibraltar, at 30+6= 36°N. However, it also stresses the c.360 days of the
year. These time encodings suggest that the petroglyph provides information about the yearly
transport of copper to the Old World. This transport is expressed in copper ingots, of course, be-
cause the sail resembles a copper ingot.
Note, that an extra, vertical piece of line runs from the hull to the sail at the left side of the mast.
The ship consists of two big parts (the hull and the sail), and the hull has five rows of planks, en-
coding a yearly transport of 20,000 copper ingots to the Old World (a number of five figures).
The length of the sail equals the height of the mast, and both equal twice the height of the sail.
The zigzag all the way to the top of the sail cuts the surface area of it in half. It stresses the im-
portance of the number two, at least twice.- The lower part of the mast joints both parts. It also
has a height of two elements, and a width of two elements. It is situated on the four lower rows
of planks of the hull, encoding another 2,000 copper ingots (a number of four figures). So, the to-
tal yearly export was 22,000 copper ingots (c.1640 BC).- A source from c.1458 BC reports a
yearly export of 25,000 ingots at this later date (Ref.17). So, it appears that the order of magni-
tude is correct, and, probably, also the exact figure.
The next question might be: How many ships were involved in this trade? The upper layer of the
hull is most important, because it is the deck of the ship. It bends via the hind-part into the lowest
layer. The deck layer symbolizes the whole ship, and the lowest layer symbolizes the hull. Both
layers represent the circumference of the hull. The ship consists of two big parts, and the cir-
cumference of the hull consists of two layers, encoding 20 ships (a number of two figures). The
hull has five layers, and the keel, at the bottom of the hull, consists of one layer, encoding anoth-
er 5 ships (a number of one figure). At the fore-part of the ship the upper layer bends around the
hull, confirming it. So, a total of 25 ships were involved in the trade (c.1640 BC).- A source from
c.1458 BC reports a number of 27 ships at this later date (Ref.17).
The next, important question might be: What was the duration of the round trip? During sailing
on the Ocean people oriented on the sky. The two upper layers of the sail point to this sky
(Fig.1). It appears, that the time period is expressed in days. The two upper elements suggest,
that the 30 days of the month (a number of two figures) are important, because these are deter-
mined by the Moon. The mast consists of two arrows on top, and a bottom part below the sail,
forming together three elements, which encode a duration of the round trip of 300 days (a num-
ber of three figures).- The ship now consists of 3 parts: the hull, the sail, and the mast. The ele-
ments which form the circumference of the hull symbolize a round trip. Within this circumfe-
rence are three layers, confirming the 300 days (a number of three figures) (c.1640 BC).
The carved line within the sail makes a long zigzag all the way to the top (and back). It illustrates
the importance of the duration of sailing back and forth across the Ocean. The two upper layers
of the sail, which point to the sky, may also suggest that the 12 months of the year (a number of
two figures) are important. These are determined by both the Sun and the Moon. The quantity
may also be expressed in months. The whole ship, and the two arrows on top, also encode a du-
ration of the round trip of 10 months (a number of two figures). These 10 months are equal to the
10x30= 300 days, just mentioned (c.1640 BC).- A source from c.1458 BC reports a duration of
290 days at this later date (Ref.17).
In a year the 25 ships have to transport a total number of 22,000 ingots across the Ocean. If the
round trip would have lasted a year, or 365 days, the metal cargo of each ship would have been
22,000/25= 880 ingots. However, the round trip last shorter, only 300 days. So, on the average,
the cargo of each ship equals (300/365)x880= 723 copper ingots (c.1640 BC).- A source from c.
1458 BC reports 736 ingots at this later date (Ref.17).
The last, important question might be: What was the overall export of copper ingots to the Old
World before c.1640 BC? The bottom of the mast is placed on the four lower layers of the hull. It
means, that copper trade began at the end of the Fourth Dynasty when America was discovered.
The rectangular sail, with four sides, resembles a copper ingot, confirming it. So, copper trade
began at the start of the Fifth Dynasty, c.2500 BC. It coincided with the discovery of America via
the Atlantic (Refs.8-13). This glyph dates from c.1640 BC, about 860 years later. If the year-ly
transport of copper ingots would have been all the time the same, the total copper export would
have been 860x22,000= 19 million ingots. However, this is not realistic, of course. It may be
expected, that the (yearly) copper export slowly increased as time progressed. So, the real, o-
verall copper export will be much lower.
It is probable, that the petroglyph of the sailing boat was made, because the overall copper export
reached a nice, round figure. The lower part of the mast and the seven strips of cloth of the sail
form together 1+7= 8 elements. The lower part of the mast encodes an export of 10 million in-
gots (a number of eight figures). The four layers of planks below the mast, and the seven ele-
ments of the sail, encode another 4 million ingots (a number of seven figures). So, it appears, that
the overall export was 14 million copper ingots (c.1640 BC). This is a nice, round figure, indeed.
It is 74% of the roughly estimated number of 19 million ingots, shown above.
A source from c.1458 BC reports an overall export of 18 million copper ingots at this later date
(Ref.17). If it is assumed, that the yearly export of ingots remained the same in the short time pe-
riod between c.1640 BC and c.1458 BC, an additional (1640-1458)x22,000= 4 million copper in-
gots are predicted. It confirms the overall export of 14+4= 18 million copper ingots in c.1458
BC. It appears, that the order of magnitude is correct, and, probably also, both exact figures.
Fig.1 The glyph of this Sailing Boat gives a description of the copper trade with the Old World
during the Bronze Age. (Copper Harbor, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, c.1640 BC. Photo by
K. Hoenke, Ref.3)
To obtain an accurate picture of the international copper trade, knowledge of the mass of the
Standard Ingot is required. Fortunately, this mass is known from several external sources
(Ref.17-19). However, the sailing boat of Copper Harbor also provides this figure. The mass of
the Standard Ingot is related to the trade of noble metals (silver and gold), which is much older.
For a long time past these noble metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with 0.20
gram. The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree (Ceratonia si-
liqua). Including the lower part of the mast, the sail consists of 7+1= 8 elements, and the hull has
5 layers, which show that the mass of the Standard Ingot equals 80,000 carats (a number of five
figures), or 80x0.20= 16 kg.
With the aid of the Standard Ingot, the yearly transport of copper across the Ocean can be calcu-
lated, 22x16= 352 tons/year. The average metal cargo of each ship can also be calculated: 0,723
x16= 11.6 tons of copper. The overall export to the Old World was 14,000x16= 224,000 tons of
copper. All these data are valid for the end of the 13th Dynasty (c.1640 BC).- However, the cop-
per trade continued till c.1200 BC (Refs.4,5,13). If it assumed, that the yearly export remained
the same during this time period, an additional quantity of 352x(1640-1200)= c.155,000 tons of
copper would have been transported. It means, that a total quantity of 224+155= c.379 thousand
tons of copper was shipped across the Ocean (c.1200 BC).- After inspection of the whole mining
area around Upper Michigan, a total amount of disappeared copper between 250 to 500 thousand
tons was estimated by others in the field (Refs.4,5). So, our conclusion is that its destination can
now be understood.
Ancient petroglyphs of seaworthy sailing boats are very rare, and this one is a beautiful example.
Around the Mediterranean there are only a few others from before 1000 BC, and in the whole of
Europe there is not a single one of this quality. This American petroglyph tells the whole story of
the copper trade across the Ocean with the Old World before the end of the 13th Dynasty, c.1640
BC. We hope, that AAPS will protect and preserve this site for posterity (Ref.1).
Patterns on a pot from the surroundings of Poverty Point, NE Louisiana (first millennium BC),
show, that a total of 24 million copper ingots were exported across the Ocean (Ref.18). It corres-
ponds with a mass of 24,000x16= 384 thousand tons of copper. The Battersea Shield from Lon-
don, England, dated c.190 BC, confirms, that in North America c.60% of the copper was shipped
to the south, and c.40% was transported to the east (Ref.19). This bronze shield confirms, that a
total of 24 million copper ingots were exported to the Old World.
In the Old World tin was a very scarce metal. Although generally unknown, a lot of it was im-
ported from South America (Ref.17). The sailing boat of Copper Harbor also provides an accu-
rate description of the simultaneous tin trade. The glyph consists of two big parts (the hull and
the sail), corresponding to Isle Royale, at 47+1= 48°N, and the north coast of Lake Superior, at
47+2= 49°N. Isle Royale is located 18° above the Mississippi Delta (at 30°N), referring to the tin
mines near the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, 18° below the equator, at 18°S. The north coast of
Lake Superior is located 19° above the Delta, referring to the far more important mining area just
east of Lake of Poopó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S. The tin from Bolivia
was transported (as ingots) along the coast to the north, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The
nine islands of the Azores encode the important latitude of the isthmus of Panama, at 9°N.
In the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin. The duration of the
round trip on the Ocean was shown to be 10 months (see above, c.1640 BC). This number con-
firms the percentage of tin, just mentioned (10%). So, during the whole Bronze Age the export of
tin was 10% of the export of copper (Refs.17,19).- So, what was the overall export of tin ingots
to the Old World before c.1640 BC? Ten percent of the export of copper ingots! The lower part
of the mast and the seven strips of cloth encode an export of 1 million ingots (a number of seven
figures). The five rows of planks of the hull and the lower part of the mast form together 5+1= 6
elements. The four layers of planks below the mast now encode another 4 hundred thousand in-
gots (a number of six figures). So, it is confirmed that the overall export was 1.4 million tin in-
gots from Bolivia (c.1640 BC).- Note, that the seven strips of cloth of the sail correspond with
the density of tin, 7 g/cm3 (seven times heavier than water).
1. Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS) Website: www.aaapf.org
2. Website: www.slideshare.net/JudyMJohnson/aaps-news-august09-pdf
3. Website: www.slideshare.net/JudyMJohnson/wheeler-petroglyphs-conf09
4. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006
5. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A
Collection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005
6. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN
7. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, College Station,
8. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide
to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392,
Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com
9. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.
2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007)
10. De Jonge, R.M., “Wheeler’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)”, to be
11. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World,
c.2500 BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006)
12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Ancient Ame-
rican, Vol.13, No.81, pgs.18-25 (2008)
13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and
the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirk-
land, Wa USA 98033.
14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for River
Travel in America, c.1500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002)
15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s
Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100
16. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper Trading
Route of the Bronze Age (Kennebec River, Embden, Maine, c.1500 BC)”, Midwestern Epigra-
phic Journal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703)
17. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, Mid-
western Epigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be published
18. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)”, to be
19. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)”, to be published
20. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-671-67974-0)
21. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5)
22. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994 (ISBN 0-9612990-4-4)