For KEN HAMMER MUELLER †Webster, Minnesota,who suddenly diedat the age of 50,April 8, 2013.THE RATTLESNAKE DISC(Moundville...
Fig.1 The Rattlesnake Disc (Moundville, Hale County, AL, c.1277 AD)DISCOVERY OF AMERICAThe artifact resembles the Sun disc...
The Wrest, the Hand, and the All-seeing Eye may symbolize the three island groups of the A-zores. These consist together o...
kare (a.o. three strokes), who turns out to be the substitute of this god. (The line at the left sideof the Wrest runs dow...
his discovery of the return route from Newfoundland to the West Azores over 47-39= 8° of la-titude.The fingers point to th...
of the planet Earth, a distance of 36 Moiras, or 360°, as symbolized by the Strait of Gibraltar,the exit of the Med, at 36...
merica. - It also referred to the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. It was the center of tinmining in South America...
There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval, encoding the overall export of 90 million ca-rats, or 90x0.20= 18 tons of s...
IV Philopator (222-205 BC). The 17 segments along the edge of the Disc correspond to his 17years of reign.The five vertica...
DATE OF THE RATTLESNAKE DISCThe Rattlesnake Disc has two tail ends. So, the most important leader was the second one ofthe...
17. De Jonge, R.M., “Tripod Rock, Pyramid Mountain (Morris County, New Jersey, c.1900 BC)” (2011), Refs.-5,6, to be publis...
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RATTLESNAKE DISC (MOUNDVILLE, AL)

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For KEN HAMMER MUELLER †
Webster, Minnesota,
who suddenly died
at the age of 50,
April 8, 2013.
THE RATTLESNAKE DISC
(Moundville, Hale County, AL, c.1277 AD)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com
April, 2013

SUMMARY
The Rattlesnake Disc of Moundville, Alabama, tells the story of the Egyptian discovery of America via the Bering Sea by the 5th king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty, and the subse-quent discoveries of the four Atlantic crossings in the Fifth Dynasty. The Disc shows the pe-ople of Moundville were ruled according to the ancient Egyptian Sun religion. A survey is provided of the history of the Empire of Atlantis (c.2500-1200 BC), which consisted of Egypt with its colonies North and South America. A detailed survey is given of the metal trade du-ring this period, which included copper from Upper Michigan, tin, silver and gold from Boli-via, and gold from the River Amazone. Finally, a detailed survey is given of the history of Egypt until sultan Baibars (1260-1277 AD) of the Mamlukes Sultanate during the Arab Rule.

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RATTLESNAKE DISC (MOUNDVILLE, AL)

  1. 1. For KEN HAMMER MUELLER †Webster, Minnesota,who suddenly diedat the age of 50,April 8, 2013.THE RATTLESNAKE DISC(Moundville, Hale County, AL, c.1277 AD)Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comApril, 2013SUMMARYThe Rattlesnake Disc of Moundville, Alabama, tells the story of the Egyptian discovery ofAmerica via the Bering Sea by the 5th king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty, and the subse-quent discoveries of the four Atlantic crossings in the Fifth Dynasty. The Disc shows the pe-ople of Moundville were ruled according to the ancient Egyptian Sun religion. A survey isprovided of the history of the Empire of Atlantis (c.2500-1200 BC), which consisted of Egyptwith its colonies North and South America. A detailed survey is given of the metal trade du-ring this period, which included copper from Upper Michigan, tin, silver and gold from Boli-via, and gold from the River Amazone. Finally, a detailed survey is given of the history ofEgypt until sultan Baibars (1260-1277 AD) of the Mamlukes Sultanate during the Arab Rule.INTRODUCTIONThe town of Moundville, Hale County, is located 25 km south of the city of Tuscaloosa, in thewest of central Alabama, at 33°N. It is well-known from the equally named ArchaeologicalSite on the east bank of the Black Warrior River. About 28 earthen platform mounds are situ-ated around a large, rectangular plaza. Its culture flourished between 1200 and 1450 AD, andit is the second-largest site of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in Illinois.Some time before 1883 a beautiful Disc was found by a farmer plowing his field. On the frontside a well-engraved design is shown, which represents two entwined or rather knotted Rattle-snakes (Fig.1). In the center a Hand with an “Eye” is shown. The large, sandstone Disc has adiameter of 31.9 cm and a thickness of c.1.3 cm. Its circular edge has been devided by smallindentations into 17 segments of about equal length. The Disc is on display in the Jones Ar-chaeological Museum at the Moundville Archaeological Park. (Refs.1,2)
  2. 2. Fig.1 The Rattlesnake Disc (Moundville, Hale County, AL, c.1277 AD)DISCOVERY OF AMERICAThe artifact resembles the Sun disc in the sky. So, it appears the whole Disc symbolizes the E-gyptian SunGod Ra. In the center the “Hand of God” is shown as well as his “All-seeingEye”, a well-known Egyptian hieroglyph. - Note, that the back side of a right Hand is shown,including its finger nails. It appears the Hand tells the well-known story of the Egyptian dis-covery of America.The four closed fingers point to the north. So, it appears America was discovered via a north-ern sailing route in the Fourth Dynasty. The (separate) Thumb points to the northwest. Thisfifth finger is in a lower position, which suggests the discovery was accomplished by the 5thking Menkaure (Mycerinos, c.2580-2562 BC) via the southern Aleutian islands, at the southside of the Bering Sea (at c.50°N). - The Thumb consists of two parts. So, it appears he re-turned via the Bering Strait, 15° above these islands. (Refs.3-11)The five fingers also represent the Fifth Dynasty. The two parts of the Thumb indicate the 2ndking. So, it appears the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498 BC) of this Dynasty discovered thesouthern crossing of the Atlantic, with the wind and the current from West Africa (at 15°N) toBrazil, as well as the return route from Newfoundland (15° above the site) to the Azores. AWrest and a Hand are shown, which confirm this 2nd king discovered two important cros-sings. The two fingers at the left side confirm it, again.Besides the Wrest and the Hand the All-seeing Eye is shown. This third item illustrates the3rd king Neferirkare (c.2498-2478 BC) discovered the third, northern crossing via Greenland.The three remaining fingers at the right side confirm it. The iris and the five finger nails formtogether six, similar symbols. These confirm this crossing, at 60°N.
  3. 3. The Wrest, the Hand, and the All-seeing Eye may symbolize the three island groups of the A-zores. These consist together of nine islands. Bermuda is located 9° above the holy Tropic ofCancer, at 23+9= 32°N (Sun religion). So, the return route with the wind and the current fromBermuda to the Azores was discovered by the 9th and last king Unas (c.2403-2370 BC).Moundville is located at 33°N, confirming his 33 years of reign.The iris and the five finger nails are six, similar symbols. These confirm the 3+6= 9th king U-nas discovered this crossing. The Wrest, the Hand, and the All-seeing Eye illustrate the longsailing distance: 3 Moiras, or 30°. The four closed fingers confirm all four Atlantic crossingswere discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. The iris and the five finger nails show it all happenedduring the six dynasties of the Old Kingdom. (Refs.12-22)SUN RELIGIONBelow the SunGod Ra were two other important gods in the hierarchy: the sungod Horus andthe moongod Osiris. The two main Mounds on the site were probably dedicated to these twogods. On the Disc they are represented by the two entwined Rattlesnakes. The kings and pha-raohs were the substitutes of these gods.The bodies of both snakes consist of three parts: a back, a belly, and a (thin) side (Fig.1). The-se show this Religion comes from the Nile Delta in Egypt, at 30°N, the same latitude as theMississippi Delta. On the back side of the Disc are three marginal incised lines in honor of thethree mentioned Egyptian gods.Moundville is located at a straight part of the Black Warrior River, having a length of 1 cen-timoira, or 1.1 km (1 moira= 1°). It points 23° ENE, referring to the holy Tropic of Cancer, at23°N (Sun religion).At midsummer day the Sun is there at right angles above. The slow, northerly movement ofthe Sun turns into a southerly movement. So, people believe in the Egyptian SunGod Ra. Farin the east it crosses the River Nile at the center of the Southern Egyptian Empire. However,this is also the center of the Sun religion.Besides these gods was Maat, the Egyptian goddess of law and order in the universe. She isrepresented by the oval space around the “Hand of God”. She is almost invisible on the Disc,which resembles her important, but modest position in real life.King SahureThe piece of line at the right side of the Wrest runs to the lower half of the snake below it,which symbolizes the sungod Horus. It has a V pattern on its belly, which refers to the 2ndking Sahure (two strokes), who turns out to be the substitute of this god. (The fingers of theHand point to the belly of the other snake above them, having the same pattern.)Its head is shown at the right side. His holy words extend over two segments on the edge, asshown by the waving line from the mouth of the snake. It confirms its substitute: the 2nd kingSahure. He discovered the two southern crossings of the Ocean.King NeferirkareThe fingers of the Hand point to the upper half of the snake above them, which symbolizesthe moongod Osiris. It has a zigzag pattern on its back, which refers to the 3rd king Neferir-
  4. 4. kare (a.o. three strokes), who turns out to be the substitute of this god. (The line at the left sideof the Wrest runs downwards to the back of the other snake, having the same pattern.)Its neck and head are shown at the left side, where the pattern is repeated. His holy words ex-tend over three segments on the edge, as shown by the waving line from the mouth of the sna-ke. It confirms its substitute: the 3rd king Neferirkare. He discovered the third, northern cros-sing.These two kingsThe eyes of both snakes each consist of 2+3= 5 units, which show the 2nd king Sahure andhis successor the 3rd king Neferirkare (both of the Fifth Dynasty) were related to each other.This is correct, because in ancient Egypt the headlines of government extended over a timeperiod of two generations (31+30= 61 years). So, the sungod Horus of the first generationproduced the moongod Osiris of the second generation, and this occurred in an endless cycle.For that reason both snakes are knotted in the shape of a circle, or oval.The mouths of both snakes each contain six molars, referring to the six dynasties of the OldKingdom. The back sides of their necks each have six strokes, confirming it. - The edge of theDisc is devided into 17 segments, possibly encoding a time period of 17 double generations,or 17x61= 1037 years, which is more than a millennium. It suggests the secrets on this Discguarantee a long and stable Empire, which can last for more than a thousand years.The tails of both snakes are similar, because both gods Horus and Osiris are equally impor-tant. However, only the V pattern runs to the very end, which means the 2nd king Sahure (twostrokes) was considered more important than his successor. He discovered two crossings in-stead of one, and the southern crossing was more important than the northern one. On the ave-rage 60% of the trade happened via the southern crossing, and 40% via the northern one.In both cases the tail ends of the Rattlesnakes each finish with four other units (Fig.1), twicereferring to the Fourth Dynasty, when the continents of North and South America were dis-covered. (Refs.12-22)CONFIRMATIONThe Wrest is situated on the upper half of the snake below it, having four zigzag patterns.These refer to the discovery of America via the southern Aleutian islands, at the south side ofthe Bering Sea, in the Fourth Dynasty. The rectangular plaza on the site in Moundsville hasfour equal angles, which refer to this Dynasty.The fingers on the Disc point to the upper half of the other snake, having five zigzag patterns.These encode the 5th king Menkaure, who accomplished this discovery, and who returned viathe Bering Strait. - The V patterns above the oval confirm he first discovered the crossing viathe southern Aleutian islands (two strokes). The zigzag patterns above them confirm he dis-covered the crossing of the Bering Strait afterwards (three strokes).The five zigzag patterns above the oval now refer to the next, Fifth Dynasty. The V patternson the bellies of both snakes refer to the 2nd king Sahure who discovered two southern cros-sings of the Ocean (two strokes).The lower half of the tail end at the bottom has a similar pattern, confirming his discovery ofthe southern crossing. The fingers of the Hand point to 8 V patterns above them, confirming
  5. 5. his discovery of the return route from Newfoundland to the West Azores over 47-39= 8° of la-titude.The fingers point to the upper half of the snake, which has five zigzag signs (three strokes).These confirm the 3rd king Neferirkare of the Fifth Dynasty, who discovered the northerncrossing of the Ocean at the complementary latitude of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. In an-tiquity the use of complementary latitudes was very common.These fingers point to the upper half of the snake, which has five vertical strokes, as well. So,there was also another king of the Fifth Dynasty involved. The Wrest is situated on the backof the other snake, with four vertical strokes. So, it appears to be the 5+4= 9th king Unas. -The belly of the snake at the bottom has 9 V patterns, confirming the discovery of the returnroute via Bermuda to the nine islands of the Azores by the ninth and last king Unas. (Refs.12-22)HISTORY OF ATLANTISThe Empire of Atlantis consisted of Egypt with its colonies North and South America. Thefive fingers point to the upper half of the snake, having five zigzag patterns. These encode thestart of the Empire at the beginning of the Fifth Dynasty. The main Mound at the site wasbuilt at a distance of 5 millimoiras, or 555 m from the River, confirming it. - The two tail endson the Disc each contain one zigzag sign, twice encoding the 5+1= 6th Dynasty (c.2373-2189BC), the last one of the Old Kingdom.There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with similar signs near the head ofthe snake at the left side, and on his tail at the right side, these total to 9+2= 11 signs, referringto the 11th Dynasty (c.2148-2007 BC), the last one of the First Intermediate Period (FIP).There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with similar signs near the head ofthe snake at the left side and on both tails, these total to 9+3= 12 zigzag patterns, encoding theTwelfth Dynasty (c.2007-1794 BC, Middle Kingdom). The necks of both snakes each possess6 strokes, twice encoding the 6 important kings of this Dynasty, and confirming the 6+6=12th Dynasty. The mouths of both snakes each possess 6 molars, twice confirming these 6kings, as well as the 6+6= 12th Dynasty, again.There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with the 8 V signs on the belly of thesnake at the top, these total to 9+8= 17 signs, referring to the 17th Dynasty (c.1611-1580 BC),the last one of the Second Intermediate Period (SIP).There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with the 9 V signs on the belly of thesnake at the bottom, these total to 9+9= 18 signs, referring to the Eighteenth Dynasty, the firstone of the New Kingdom.Central AmericaHowever, these 18 signs also refer to the civilization around the south point of the Gulf ofCampeche, Mexico, at 18°N. It is the center of the Land of Punt, which is the “Realm of theDead, at the other side of the waters (the Ocean), in the Land where the Sun sets (America)”(Sun religion). It is the holiest area of the Americas.It is the center of the Underworld, at a symbolic distance of 18 Moiras, or 180° from the cen-ter of the Land of the Living (Egypt). This distance corresponds with half the circumference
  6. 6. of the planet Earth, a distance of 36 Moiras, or 360°, as symbolized by the Strait of Gibraltar,the exit of the Med, at 36°N (Sun religion).However, above the oval are 8 V signs. Together with the 10+2= 12 zigzag signs (2 of theseat both tail ends), these total to 8+12= 20 signs, encoding the 20th Dynasty (c.1200-1085 BC),the last one of the New Kingdom (c.1580-1085 BC). It marked the end of the Empire of At-lantis.Note, that after the zigzag signs both tail ends have a wound. It means the Old, Middle andNew Kingdoms were finished because of Catastrophic events.Fig.2 The Rattlesnake Disc (Moundville, Hale County, AL, c.1277 AD)METAL TRADEAfter the discovery of America Egypt founded a stronghold at the south point of the Gulf ofCampeche, Mexico, at 18°N. As indicated above it was done because of religious reasons. –As soon as they heard of the copper mines in Upper Michigan and the tin mines in Bolivia,they founded strongholds in these areas, too.From the start of the 5th Dynasty to the start of the 20th Dynasty (c.2500-1200 BC) Americawas a colony of Egypt, together forming the Empire of Atlantis. Both the Old Copper Cultureand the Andes Culture were under Egyptian rule. For the metal trade it meant that law, orderand safety was garanteed by the King of Egypt, back and forth on the Ocean, but also in Ame-rica itself (political stability).There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with the 9 V signs on the belly of thesnake at the bottom, these total to 9+9= 18 signs, referring to Isle Royale, Lake Superior, 18°above the Mississippi Delta, at 30+18= 48°N. It was the center of copper mining in North A-
  7. 7. merica. - It also referred to the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. It was the center of tinmining in South America.For a long time past the noble metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with 0.20gram. The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree (Ceratonia si-liqua). The five fingers of the Hand point to the snake above them, having 8 V signs and fivezigzag patterns. So, the Standard Ingot had a mass of 80,000 carats (a number of five figures), or80x0.20= 16 kg.CopperThe five fingers point to the upper half of the snake above them, having five zigzag patterns.These refer to the 50th latitude line, which runs along the northern bank of the Gulf of SaintLawrence, 50-30= 20° above the Mississippi Delta (at 30°N). It shows a fraction of (20/50) or40% of the copper was transported from Upper Michigan to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in theeast. The remaining fraction of (30/50) or 60% of the copper was shipped along the Missis-sippi River to the south.The tail end at the left side above contains a total of 6+4= 10 units. The lower part has 6 Vsigns, confirming the fraction of (6/10) or 60% of the copper shipped to the south. The upperpart finishes with 4 other signs, confirming the fraction of (4/10) or 40% of the copper trans-ported to the east.The tail end at the right side below has 4 V signs. After the 20th Dynasty it turned out the o-verall export was 20+4= 24 million copper ingots, or 24x16= 384 thousand tons of copper.The eight V signs above the oval show it was a number of eight figures. Both tail ends eachfinish with 4 other signs, confirming it, twice.The 9 V signs at the bottom show all the copper was shipped to the nine islands of the Azores.These refer to the density of copper, nine times heavier than water. - It has been estimated byothers in the field, that a total amount of 250 to 500 thousand tons of copper had disappearedfrom the mining area. So, our conclusion is its destination can now be understood.TinIn the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin. (The words ‘tin’ and‘ten’ are even related.) There are 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Including the sign in theneck of the snake at the left side, these total to 9+1= 10 similar signs, confirming this percen-tage. This neck points southwest, to the direction of Bolivia. - Tin was a very scarce metal.Although generally unknown, a lot of it was exported from South America.In the Bronze Age the overall export of tin from the mentioned area was 10% of the copper,or 2.4 million tin ingots, which is c.38,400 tons of tin. The upper snake has a total of 5+2= 7zigzag signs, confirming the seven figures of this number. It corresponds with the density oftin, seven times heavier than water. The tin was transported from Bolivia along the coast tothe north, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic.SilverSilver was found together with tin. There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval. Togetherwith the similar sign in the neck of the snake at the left side, these total to 9+1= 10 signs, en-coding the density of silver, ten times heavier than water. This neck points to the direction ofBolivia, again.
  8. 8. There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval, encoding the overall export of 90 million ca-rats, or 90x0.20= 18 tons of silver. The eight V signs above the oval show it was a number ofeight figures. Most of the silver in the Old World was imported from Bolivia, in South Ame-rica.The 9 zigzag signs around the oval correspond with the Isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, as well asthe nine islands of the Azores. The south point of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, is located18-9= 9° above the Isthmus of Panama, confirming it. The south cape of Florida is located 25-16= 9° above the north coast of Honduras, confirming it, too.GoldIncluding the sign in the neck of the snake, there are a total of 9+1= 10 zigzag signs aroundthe oval. Together with the 9 V signs of the belly of the snake at the bottom, these total to10+9= 19 signs, referring to the more important mining area for tin, silver and gold just eastof Lake of Poopó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S.It also encodes the overall export of gold from Bolivia, 190 million carats, or 190x0.20= 38tons of gold. It also corresponds with the density of gold, nineteen times heavier than water.The nine V signs of the belly of the snake at the bottom confirm the nine figures of the num-ber. The Isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, also confirms these nine figures, as well as the nine is-lands of the Azores.The two snakes on the Disc encode the mouth of the Amazon River, where the remaining partof the gold was traded, 2 Moiras, or 20°, east of the coast of Bolivia, at 2°S. The five fingerspoint to the upper half of the snake above them, having five zigzag patterns. These encode thequantity from this site, 50 million carats (a number of eight figures), or 50x0.20= 10 tons ofgold.Most of the gold was found near the tin mines of Bolivia. So, the total export of gold was re-lated to the tin export: 190+50= 240 million carats, or 240x0.20= 48 tons of gold. (The tin ex-port was 2.4 million ingots; see above.) The diameter / thickness ratio of the Disc equals31.9/1.3 = 24, confirming the copper, tin and gold export during the Empire of Atlantis. - ThePhaistos Disc of Crete (c.1458 BC) is an important source for this whole story. (Refs.27-35)HISTORY OF EGYPTThere are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval, and 8+9= 17 V signs around it, together9+17= 26 signs, encoding the 26th Dynasty (c.663-525 BC), the last one of the Third Inter-mediate Period (TIP). The tail at the bottom has 4 V signs, encoding the 26+4= 30st and lastDynasty (c.378-341 BC), at the end of the so-called “Renewed Independence of Egypt”.The zigzag sign in the neck of the snake at the left side symbolized the First Persian Rule(525-404 BC), which coincided with the 27th Dynasty. The similar sign in the tail of this sna-ke at the right side represents the much later Second Persian Rule (341-333 BC), after the 30stDynasty. Finally, the similar sign in the tail of the other snake at the left side above representsthe Macedonian Rule of Egypt (332-304 BC), directly after it.Ptolemaic DynastyThe Wrest is situated on the back of the snake below it, having four vertical strokes. These re-fer to the very successful time period of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BC) until Ptolemaeus
  9. 9. IV Philopator (222-205 BC). The 17 segments along the edge of the Disc correspond to his 17years of reign.The five vertical strokes on the back of the snake at the top refer to the time period until Pto-lemaeus IV+V= IX, when Cleopatra III ruled with her son Soter II (116-107 BC). The totalnumber of nine strokes correspond with his nine years of reign.The 6 V signs of the tail at the top refer to the last time period of this Dynasty until Ptole-maeus IX+VI= XV, when Cleopatra VII Philopater ruled with her son Caesarion (51-30 BC).The 17 segments around the edge devide the circle into equal angles of 360/17= c.21°, confir-ming their 21 years of reign.Roman and Byzantine RuleThe neck of the snake at the right side has three X signs, encoding the Roman Rule of Egypt,which lasted about three centuries (30 BC- c.300 AD). The neck of the snake at the left sidealso has three X signs, referring to the Byzantine Rule of the country, which lasted even morethan three centuries (c.300 AD- c.642 AD).Arab RuleWith the arrival of the Arabs Egypt became an islamic country. Note, that the last segments ofthe tail ends are a kind of onions, which resemble the roof of a mosk. Both ends each havefour segments, twice encoding the four important time periods after the Arab Conquest: Egyptunder the Caliphate (642-969), the Fatimids Dynasty (969-1171), the Ayyubid Dynasty(1171-1249), and the Mamlukes Sultanate (1250-1517). The Wrest is situated on the back ofthe snake below it, having four zigzag patterns and four vertical strokes, twice confirming it.The Ayyubid Dynasty produced three important leaders: sultan Saladin (1174–1193), sultanAl-Kamil (1218-1238), and sultan Al-Salih (1240-1249). They are represented by the Wrest,the Hand, and the All-seeing Eye, and they are confirmed by the group of three fingers at theright side.Sultan Saladin ruled from 1174 to 1193. Including the sign in the neck of the snake at the leftside, there are a total of 9+1= 10 zigzag signs around the oval. Together with the 9 V signs ofthe belly of the snake at the bottom, these total to 10+9= 19 signs, encoding his 19 years ofreign.Sultan Al-Kamil ruled from 1218 to 1238. Above the oval are 8 V signs. Together with the 12zigzag signs, these total to 8+12= 20 signs, encoding his 20 years of reign.Sultan Al-Salih ruled from 1240 to 1249. There are 4+5= 9 zigzag signs around the oval, en-coding his 9 years of reign.The last time period of the Mamlukes Sultanate produced two important leaders: sultan Aybak(1250-1257), and sultan Baibars (1260-1277). They are represented by the Wrest and theHand, and they are confirmed by the two remaining fingers at the left side. The five fingerspoint to the upper half of the snake above them, which contains five zigzag patterns and fivestrokes, twice confirming these 3+2= 5 important rulers.Sultan Aybak ruled from 1250 to 1257. The upper snake has a total of 5+2= 7 zigzag signs,encoding his 7 years of reign. - The years of reign of all these Sultans are encoded on theDisc, because we are dealing here with recent history.
  10. 10. DATE OF THE RATTLESNAKE DISCThe Rattlesnake Disc has two tail ends. So, the most important leader was the second one ofthe Mamlukes Sultanate: sultan Baibars (1260-1277). He is represented by the Wrest and theHand, and confirmed by the second and last finger at the left side, which is the Thumb. It con-sists of two parts, confirming this second leader. Both tail ends each finish at the very endwith two tiny strokes, twice confirming it.Around the oval are 9 zigzag patterns and the fingers point to a series of 8 V signs, which to-tal to 9+8= 17 signs, confirming his 17 years of reign. The edge of the Disc is devided into 17segments, strongly confirming it! - It encodes the approximate date of the Rattlesnake Disc atthe end of his reign, which is c.1277. (Refs.36-38)POPULATIONArchaeologists who studied the site estimate a total population around Moundville of c.10,000men (Ref.39). - It is probable this figure is somewhere indicated on the Disc. There are 8 Vsigns above the oval and 9 V signs below it, which suggest a number of 8,000 or 9,000 men.However, the Hand clearly points to the top of the oval, which has 5 zigzag patterns and 5vertical lines, twice suggesting a number of 10,000 men, indeed (a number of 5 figures). TheHand itself has five fingers and five finger nails, clearly confirming it. It appears the estima-tion of the mentioned archaeologists is correct: a population of c.10,000 men!It appears the Disc was made because this population number was recently reached. It wasprobably caused by good government, according to the ancient Egyptian Sun religion.References1. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moundville_Archaeological_Site2. De Jonge, R.M., “Grave Creek Mound I and II, WV”, Ref.5, to be published.3. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide to MegalithicSites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD.Website: www.howthesungod.com4. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the CopperTrade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98083.Website: www.rocksandrows.com5. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge6. Pellech, Chr., Website: www.migration-diffusion.info7. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.2300 BC)”, An-cient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.5.8. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to bepu-blished.9. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders” (2009), Ref.5, to be publish-ed.10. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to bepublished.11. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to be published.12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Discovery of the Islands in the Ocean (Cairn T, Loughcrew, Co.Meath, Ireland, c.3200 BC)” (2011), Ref.5, to be published.13. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Passage Grave of Karleby, Encoding the Islands Discovered in theOcean, c.2950 BC", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.18, pgs.64-74 (2004), Ref.6.14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guide-post for River Travel in Ame-rica", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002), Ref.6.15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stonehenge,New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003), Ref.6.16. De Jonge, R.M., “Stonehenge, Monument for the Discovery of America (Salisbury Plain, South England,c.2000 BC)” (2011), Refs.5,6, to be published.
  11. 11. 17. De Jonge, R.M., “Tripod Rock, Pyramid Mountain (Morris County, New Jersey, c.1900 BC)” (2011), Refs.-5,6, to be published.18. De Jonge, R.M., “Anglo-Saxon Cemetery Artifacts (Sittingbourne, Kent, SE England, c.650 AD)” (2011),Refs.5,6, to be published.19. De Jonge, R.M., “Gold Ring (Grand Canyon, Arizona, c.1450 BC)” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.20. De Jonge, R.M., “Sentinel Rock, Vermont (Discovery of America and Biblical Flood, c.1900 BC)” (2011),Refs.5,6, to be published.21. De Jonge, R.M., “Oil City Glyphs (Pennsylvania, c. 2000 BC)” (2012), Ref.5, to be published.22. De Jonge, R.M., “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC”, (sixteen articles),Webpage: http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/dejonge.html23. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN 0-9744679-2-8).24. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)” (2009), Ref. 5, to be pu-blished.25. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)” (2009), Ref.5,to be published.26. De Jonge, R.M., “Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC)” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.27. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, 300 pgs., Netherlands(2008). Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge28. De Jonge, R.M., “The Bronze Doors of Rekhmire (Thebes, Upper Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty, c.1460 BC)”(2011), Ref.5, to be published.29. De Jonge, R.M., “The Myths of Monks Mound (Cahokia, Illinois, 650-1400 AD)” (2010), Ref.5, to bepublished.30. De Jonge, R.M., “Cahokia, Capital of Ancient America” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.31. De Jonge, R.M., “Peters Creek Mound (c.715 BC, Clairton, Pennsylvania)” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.32. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Ancient Stories (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana, c.700 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to be pu-blished.33. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region I (Minnesota, c.1900 BC)” (2012), Ref.5, to be published.34. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region II (Minnesota, c.1900 and c.770 BC BC)” (2012), Ref.5,to be published.35. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Serpent Mound (c.2300 BC, Adams County, Ohio)” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.36. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5).37. Susan English, Yahoo Group of the Ancient Waterways Society.38. Robin Mueller, FB Group: “Old Copper Complex and Ancient Waterways America”.39. University of Alabama website: http://research.ua.edu/2005/12/mighty-mysterious-moundville/

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