who is credited for this discovery. He also discovered the crossing via the Bering Strait (upper
line #5), which represents both the crossing and this king (Ref.5).
However, upper line #5 also represents the East Coast of America, which was reached in the
Fifth Dynasty (line #5). So, now the surface area of the glyph represents the Atlantic, viewed
from east to west. The first line, at the left side, symbolizes the Southern Crossing from Africa to
Brazil, and the second line represents the Return Route from Newfoundland to the Azores, both
with the wind and the current (Refs.6,7). The two similar lines symbolize the discovery of these
two Crossings (c.2505 BC), each with a sailing distance of 2 Egyptian Moiras, or 20°, by the 2nd
king Sahura (line #2).
The third line (#3), at the right side, represents the Northern Crossing, from the Shetland Islands,
via the south point of Greenland, to Cape Chidley, Canada (Refs.8-10). The crossing via these
three landpoints happened at the complementary latitude of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. This
third crossing (line #3) was discovered (c.2490 BC) by the 3rd king Nefererkare (line #3). The
three vertical lines confirm, that the three kings, mentioned so far, were descended from the Nile
Delta of Egypt, at 30°N.
Lower line #4 suggests that there is a fourth Crossing of the Atlantic, which is correct. It is the
Return Route from Abaco Island, via Bermuda, to the Azores, with the wind and the current
(Refs.5-10). The glyph contains 3x2+2= 8 small pieces of line. Together with the upper, hori-
zontal line it forms 9 pieces of line, confirming the island of Bermuda, 9° above the Tropic of
Cancer, at 23+9= 32°N. The Tropic of Cancer is a holy line in the Sun religion (Refs.4,13). The 9
lines celebrate the discovery of the Return Route via Bermuda to the 9 islands of the Azores
(c.2385 BC), by the 9th, and last, king Unas. The upper line #5 indicates it was a king of the
Fifth Dynasty (Ref.5).
Houghton’s glyph describes the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. We
understand its meaning, but what might be its message? Well, the glyph is located in the sur-
roundings of Houghton, in the center of Keweenaw Peninsula. The glyph is carved on the
ground, and it is situated on the south bank of a natural waterway to Portage Lake. This is the
center of Copper Country!
So, the message is, that the metal of copper was mined here as early as the Egyptian discovery of
America at the end of the Fourth Dynasty (c.2525 BC). Because of many Carbon-14 measure-
ments of samples from the bottom of mine pits, we know this is correct, indeed (Ref.11-13). The
glyph consists of four quadrangles, which resemble four copper ingots, confirming it. It also il-
lustrates twice the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. The three vertical lines indicate,
that 3/5 (or 60%) of the ingots were shipped to the south, to the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N. The
two horizontal lines show, that 2/5 (or 40%) of the copper ingots were transported to the east, to
the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, at 30+20= 50°N (Ref.17).
There are some questions left, which are not answered, yet. Who were the carvers of the glyph,
and what might be its date? Encoding of dynasties and Egyptian kings was common around the
Mediterranean Sea, and further north in western Europe. So, the true identity of the carvers can-
not be established, although an origin in the eastern Mediterranean is most probable
(Refs.14-16). The date of the carving cannot be established either, because, as far as known, the
copper trade lasted from 2500 till 1200 BC (Refs.11-13). Probably, the carving has an early date
in the first half of this time period, but it cannot be excluded that it is of later date. So, these
questions cannot be answered, alas.
Fig.1 The main petroglyph near Houghton. The vertical lines should be numbered from left to
right, #1, #2, and #3, and next the other lines from bottom to top, #4 and #5. (2500-1200 BC, Ke-
weenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Photo by R.J. Wheeler)
1. Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS) Website: www.aaapf.org
2. Website: www.slideshare.net/JudyMJohnson/aaps-news-august09-pdf
3. Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge/
4. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide
to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392,
Kirkland, Wa 98083-3392, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com
5. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy,
c.2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.3.
6. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN
7. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, College Station,
8. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Ancient Ameri-
can, Vol.13, No.81, pgs.18-25 (2008).
9. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World,
c.2500 BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).
10. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s
Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100
11. Rydholm, C. F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006
12. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A
Collection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005.
13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic
and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box
3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98033.
14. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-671-67974-0).
15. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5).
16. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994 (ISBN 0-9612990-4-4).
17. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.3, to be