November 3, 2009

(Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)

who is credited for this discovery. He also discovered the crossing via the Bering Strait (upper
line #5), which represent...
in the first half of this time period, but it cannot be excluded that it is of later date. So, these
questions cannot be a...
12. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A
Collection of Reference Art...
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(Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)

Dr.R.M. de Jonge ©,

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  1. 1. Email: November 3, 2009 HOUGHTON’S PETROGLYPH (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC) Dr.R.M. de Jonge ©, Introduction The AAPS is the Ancient Artifact Preservation Society. It held its First Conference on Ancient Copper in the town of Houghton, on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, July 10-12, 2009 (Refs.- 1,2). Houghton is a little town in the center of Keweenaw Peninsula. It is located at the south side of Houghton Canal, a partly natural waterway, which runs from Lake Superior in the north, via Portage Lake, to Keweenaw Bay in the south. Mr. R. Wheeler, one of the board members of AAPS, discovered the glyphs more than a decade ago. One of the activities during the conferen- ce was a visit to the site (Ref.3). The most prominent glyph is shown in Fig.1. The petroglyph is relatively simple. It consists of five straight lines, each of these having a length of about 15cm. All lines are V-shaped, having an upper width as well as a depth of about 2.5cm. The whole glyph has a diameter of maybe 20cm. It was carved on the ground, on top of what ap- pears to be the bedrock, or a large sunken boulder, of Jacobsville sandstone. It is situated in a low, more or less horizontal position. The carving is very weathered, and for that reason probab- ly very old. The big question is of course: What does it mean, and what is its message? Houghton’s Glyph At the left side are two vertical pieces of line, which are more or less parallel. Note, that these do not touch the upper, horizontal line. However, the third vertical line, at the right side, is at an angle, and it does touch the upper line. So, let us number these four, simple, straight lines in this order. The vertical lines from left to right, #1 to #3, and the upper, horizontal line as number #4. The remaining horizontal line in the center is automatically number #5. This is the only compli- cated piece of line, because it cuts the three vertical lines about halfway. It makes sense to des- cribe Houghton’s glyph is this way, but lines #4 and #5 may also be numbered in the reversed or- der. As shown below, we will choose for the last option (Fig.1). But what does the whole glyph mean? One of the most important events in prehistory is the early discovery of America by the ancient Egyptians (Ref.4). Recently an article appeared in Ancient American magazine (Ref.5), describ- ing it. However, the source of this article was a large petroglyph from Europe. It appears, that Houghton’s glyph is the first known American petroglyph, which confirms this early discovery. So, apparently, it is a combination of a time glyph and a geographic glyph. The lines appear to represent dynasties or kings, but also important crossings of the Oceans. Let us explore this inte- resting possibility. The first three vertical lines may symbolize the first three dynasties of Egypt, when nothing hap- pened. Lower line #4, however, is at right angles. It might represent the discovery of America via the southern Aleutian Islands (line #4) in the Fourth Dynasty (c.2570 BC). So, the surface area of the glyph seems to represent the Bering Sea (top), with below it the northern Pacific (bottom). Upper line #5 runs parallel to this line. It may represent the 5th king Menkaure (Myce-rinos),
  2. 2. who is credited for this discovery. He also discovered the crossing via the Bering Strait (upper line #5), which represents both the crossing and this king (Ref.5). However, upper line #5 also represents the East Coast of America, which was reached in the Fifth Dynasty (line #5). So, now the surface area of the glyph represents the Atlantic, viewed from east to west. The first line, at the left side, symbolizes the Southern Crossing from Africa to Brazil, and the second line represents the Return Route from Newfoundland to the Azores, both with the wind and the current (Refs.6,7). The two similar lines symbolize the discovery of these two Crossings (c.2505 BC), each with a sailing distance of 2 Egyptian Moiras, or 20°, by the 2nd king Sahura (line #2). The third line (#3), at the right side, represents the Northern Crossing, from the Shetland Islands, via the south point of Greenland, to Cape Chidley, Canada (Refs.8-10). The crossing via these three landpoints happened at the complementary latitude of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. This third crossing (line #3) was discovered (c.2490 BC) by the 3rd king Nefererkare (line #3). The three vertical lines confirm, that the three kings, mentioned so far, were descended from the Nile Delta of Egypt, at 30°N. Lower line #4 suggests that there is a fourth Crossing of the Atlantic, which is correct. It is the Return Route from Abaco Island, via Bermuda, to the Azores, with the wind and the current (Refs.5-10). The glyph contains 3x2+2= 8 small pieces of line. Together with the upper, hori- zontal line it forms 9 pieces of line, confirming the island of Bermuda, 9° above the Tropic of Cancer, at 23+9= 32°N. The Tropic of Cancer is a holy line in the Sun religion (Refs.4,13). The 9 lines celebrate the discovery of the Return Route via Bermuda to the 9 islands of the Azores (c.2385 BC), by the 9th, and last, king Unas. The upper line #5 indicates it was a king of the Fifth Dynasty (Ref.5). Discussion Houghton’s glyph describes the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. We understand its meaning, but what might be its message? Well, the glyph is located in the sur- roundings of Houghton, in the center of Keweenaw Peninsula. The glyph is carved on the ground, and it is situated on the south bank of a natural waterway to Portage Lake. This is the center of Copper Country! So, the message is, that the metal of copper was mined here as early as the Egyptian discovery of America at the end of the Fourth Dynasty (c.2525 BC). Because of many Carbon-14 measure- ments of samples from the bottom of mine pits, we know this is correct, indeed (Ref.11-13). The glyph consists of four quadrangles, which resemble four copper ingots, confirming it. It also il- lustrates twice the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. The three vertical lines indicate, that 3/5 (or 60%) of the ingots were shipped to the south, to the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N. The two horizontal lines show, that 2/5 (or 40%) of the copper ingots were transported to the east, to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, at 30+20= 50°N (Ref.17). There are some questions left, which are not answered, yet. Who were the carvers of the glyph, and what might be its date? Encoding of dynasties and Egyptian kings was common around the Mediterranean Sea, and further north in western Europe. So, the true identity of the carvers can- not be established, although an origin in the eastern Mediterranean is most probable (Refs.14-16). The date of the carving cannot be established either, because, as far as known, the copper trade lasted from 2500 till 1200 BC (Refs.11-13). Probably, the carving has an early date
  3. 3. in the first half of this time period, but it cannot be excluded that it is of later date. So, these questions cannot be answered, alas. Fig.1 The main petroglyph near Houghton. The vertical lines should be numbered from left to right, #1, #2, and #3, and next the other lines from bottom to top, #4 and #5. (2500-1200 BC, Ke- weenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Photo by R.J. Wheeler) References 1. Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS) Website: 2. Website: 3. Website: 4. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-3392, also on CD. Website: 5. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.3. 6. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-7141-1735-8). 7. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, College Station, Texas, 1998. 8. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Ancient Ameri- can, Vol.13, No.81, pgs.18-25 (2008). 9. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500 BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006). 10. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003). 11. Rydholm, C. F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN 0-9744679-2-8).
  4. 4. 12. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A Collection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005. 13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98033. 14. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-671-67974-0). 15. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5). 16. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994 (ISBN 0-9612990-4-4). 17. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.3, to be published.