Dr. Simon J. Lambert Presentation - Indigenous Mapping Network Student Chapter at UCB 16OCT2009


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"Whakairo te whenua, Whakairo te tangata: Carve the land, Carve the People " Dr. Simon J. Lambert, Lincoln University, New Zealand, presentation with Indigenous Mapping Network at U.C. Berkeley. THANK YOU to Dr. Joshua Viers, Dept. of Environmental Science and Policy at U.C. Davis, for helping make the presentation, possible. The presentation was also sponsored by The Native American Indian Graduate Student Association and the Asian Pacific Islanders Student group at U.C. Berkeley

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Dr. Simon J. Lambert Presentation - Indigenous Mapping Network Student Chapter at UCB 16OCT2009

  1. 1. Whakairo te whenua Whakairo te tangata Carve the Land/Carve the People Dr. Simon Lambert Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit Lincoln University simon.lambert@lincoln.ac.nz
  2. 2. Ko Panekire te maunga Ko Waikaremoana te roto Ko Waikaretaheke te awa Ngati Ruapani me Tuhoe nga iwi Ko Te Kuha me Waimako nga marae
  3. 3. Outline • Geohistorical backgrounder • Basic Maori environmental concepts • Research projects • Musing on Maori cultural political-economy • The End …
  4. 4. Nga Ingoa Tawhito An ancient cultural landscape Te Hiku o Te Ika !"#$ Tikitiki a Taranga !"#$%&#&#'()*+,-./0#$12&34 Te Kauae o Te Ika Te Tau Ihu o Te Waka Te Upoko o te Ika !"#!$%&$'%#(#!"#)$*$#$#+,%- Rekohu Te Waipounamu / South Island Te Punga o Te Waka Rakiura / Stewart Island
  5. 5. Renaissance & Resistance
  6. 6. NZ Political-Economic Context • Commodity exports & tourism • Stable (…MMP… Maori Party) • Multicultural • Neoliberal economy of 4 million people, 1,000 miles from Australia • Maori comprise 15% of pop. (and still growing) • ‘Maori’ economy growing • Maori issues…growing! • Employment, education, health, resource management, iwi and runanga operations
  7. 7. Maori environmental concepts… Whakapapa Papatuanuku Whanaungatanga Kaitiakitanga
  8. 8. 1. Whakapapa • Genealogy…‘to make layers’ • Everything has a whakapapa – Birds, fish, animals, trees, rocks, mountains …and Homo sapiens
  9. 9. Whakapapa RANGINUI PAPATUANUKU Tumatauenga Tane Mahuta Rongomatane Haumiatiketike Tangaroa Tawhirimatea WARFARE FORESTS CULTIVATED WILD SEA, & WINDS & HUMAN AFFAIRS BIRDS, INSECTS FOODS FOODS FISHES STORMS Tane Hineahuone People •Separation, Patrons •Tane •Story of first woman
  10. 10. 2. Papatuanuku • Earth Mother • Stemming from whakapapa as a personification of the environment Hone Tuwhare A Biography by Janet Hunt Papatuanuku We are stroking, caressing the spine of the land. We are massaging the ricked back of the land With our sore but ever-loving feet. Hell, she loves it! Squirming, the land wriggles in delight. We love her. •Ranginui By Hone Tuwhare tears
  11. 11. Papatuanuku by Robyn Kahukiwa
  12. 12. 3. Whanaungatanga • Relatedness, kinship, family • We are related to all things – Whenua = Land = Placenta – Te u kai po = Home place = to be breastfed • Therefore we respect the world as family • Humans in Nature, not Humans and Nature
  13. 13. 4.. Kaitiakitanga • The exercise of guardianship • ‘tiaki’ = guard, look after, protect • Kaitiaki is the person doing the guarding • Means looking after natural resources, as one’s own blood and bones • We should care for a degraded habitat as we would a sick family member
  14. 14. • These environmental concepts are also social concepts. • In combination they reflect our socio- ecological resilience
  15. 15. Maori horticulture…
  16. 16. Domesticated species utilised by pre-5-3/&5/#'(-.*6#&34#-.*7*3 Origin Crop Aute (Broussonetia papyrifera) Japan, Taiwan Kumara (Ipomoea batatas) South America Hue (Lagenaria vulgaris/L. siceraria) “ “ Uwhi (Dioscoria spp.) Southeast Asia Taro (Colocasia esculenta, C. South Central Asia antiquorum) Ti pore (Cordyline fruticosa) W. Polynesia/ Kermadec Karaka (Cocynocarpus laevigata) “ “ Source: Crosby 1986; Thompson 1922; Best 1976.
  17. 17. Domesticated crop species utilized by post-5-3/&5/#'(-.*6# ancestral origin, and earliest observation in New Zealand Crop Origin Earliest known use Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Andes 1769 (Du Surville) Wheat (Triticum spp.) Mesopotamia “ Maize (Zea mays) Mesoamerica “ Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Mediterranean 1773 Dusky Sound (Cook & Carrot (Daucus carota) Central Asia Furneaux) Parsley (Petroselenium crispum) Mediterranean “ Parsnip (Peucedanum sativum) “ “ Pea (Pisum sativum) Mediterranean/C. Asia “ Radish (Raphanus sativus) Mediterranean “ Turnip (Brassica. rapa, B. campestris) Mediterranean/Afghanistan “ Peach (Amygdalus persica) Cherry (Prunus cerasus) China 1814 (Bay of Islands) early C19th Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) Central Asia <1820 Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Asia 1820 Motuara (Bellinghausen) Marrow (C. ovifera) Mexico <1837 Cucumber (C. sativus) “ <1837 Grape (Vitis vinifera) India/Southeast Asia 1838 Thames Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Middle Asia <1840 Otago Harbour Watercress (Nasturtium officiale) Mediterranean 1850s Canterbury Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Americas 1867 Source: Thompson 1922; Smartt and Simmonds 1995
  18. 18. Maori cultural political-economy? But what of culture? In general? For Maori? • Te Ture Whenua Maori Act (1993) • Retention, use, development, and control. • Maori educational and research initiatives • wananga • Stronger Maori presence (amidst less secure society!) • Greater Maori capital – financial, natural, human, social…cultural?
  19. 19. Research projects… Tuhoe Kiwi Project 1080 toxicity Customary fisheries
  20. 20. Tuhoe kiwi project • Puketukutuku Peninsula
  21. 21. Tuhoe kiwi project • Introduced predators have had a devastating impact on kiwi population • Kill young • Human help necessary Dead Stoat Live Kiwi
  22. 22. Tuhoe kiwi project • Predator-free enclosure • Kiwi kept there until large enough to fend for themselves (1 kg)
  23. 23. Tuhoe kiwi project •Predators trapped
  24. 24. Tuhoe kiwi project • Also are controlling other species that can impact on kiwi eggs
  25. 25. Tuhoe kiwi project • Have a worm farm to produce supplementary feed for the young kiwi inside the enclosure
  26. 26. Education is about teaching…and learning…
  27. 27. Uptake and Persistence of 1080 in Watercress
  28. 28. Aerial application of 1080 • Mainly for possum and rabbit control • Helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft • 1080 in cereal or carrot • Public acceptability?
  29. 29. Results 63 ppb MDL 3 ppb 1 3 7 10 17 Time (Days) Values show maximum in plants with 1080 bait at each time point
  30. 30. Led to 1080 Database • To aid Maori communities access to scientific information on 1080, helping them to make their own risk assessment • Find, review, and summarise all existing ‘peer- reviewed’ material on this subject • Make all literature available (where legal) www.lincoln.ac.nz/1080
  31. 31. Customary Fisheries Research • National Inst. for Water & Atmospheric research (NIWA)… “ a collaborative case study approach to assist Tangata Whenua bring together different, yet complimentary, knowledge systems. With this combined knowledge, Tangata Whenua will be able to: protect their values, identify their goals and collaboratively develop culturally appropriate, robust and practical management strategies and tools.” • CSAFE (Otago) “Te Tiaki Mahinga Kai's vision is for sustained enhancement of the cultural, economic, social and environmental well being of !"%&$ and New Zealand as a whole through the application of '"()#&)*+) and science associated with mahinga kai to modern customary fisheries practices” • Presaged by Cultural Health Index (CHI) work of Gail Tipa.
  32. 32. Te Tiaki Mahinga Kai
  33. 33. Musing on a Maori cultural political-economy • Economic geography
  34. 34. Words and Numbers… ‘recession’ • 2 ‘environment’ • 12.6% • 4% ‘environmental management’ • 29th ‘sustainability’ ‘culture’
  35. 35. “Our fate as a people is intertwined with the economic development of New Zealand. We believe that growth in the economy is essential. If there is no growth we realise we will slip behind further and that our people will be the major sufferers. Our urgent requirement is growth in the economy.” (Ralph Love, Hui Taumata, 1984)
  36. 36. 15-24 25-44 45-64 Tot. 15+ Tane Wahine Year 1986 7.9 3.2 1.9 4.1 3.6 4.8 1991 18.8 8.8 6.1 10.3 10.9 9.6 1996 11.8 5.2 3.9 6.1 6.1 6.1 2001 11.8 4.4 3.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 2006 9.6 2.9 2.1 3.8 3.5 4.1 2007 9.7 2.7 1.8 3.6 3.3 3.9 “A recession is when you haven’t got a job… …a depression is when I haven’t.”
  37. 37. A Maori economy? ! has a higher savings rate than rest of NZ economy (‘saving’ close to $900m in 2001 compared to non-!"#$% being almost $1.8 billion dollars in deficit) ! is more profitable than the NZ economy (at 1.4% or $1.150 billion in 2001, it generated 2% of New Zealand’s operating surplus) ! !"#$%-owned commercial assets were estimated to be worth $16.5 billion in 2005/06, which is more than double the $7.5 billion of 2001 ! !"#$% households contribute about $100m more in tax than they receive back.
  38. 38. Farming, Forestry, Fishing ! !"%&$,-)./,0$+*$1$2)*(, ownership interests involving New Zealand’s primary sector: ! 40 % of New Zealand’s seafood industry, ! 20 % of marine aquaculture space, ! 10 % of New Zealand’s exotic forest estate (likely to increase as further Treaty of Waitangi claims are settled) ! approx. 7.5 % of pastoral 3&%4#2($%*,$0,1&%',!"%&$,%5*/4, land.
  39. 39. ! Historic land losses and confiscations, and egislative impediments ! Huge debt was often incurred in buying back land ! Major development work to be done – often with insufficient capital to do it quickly, and constrained by customary nature of land title ! The large and increasing number of shareholders each incorporation has to support. ! The large areas farmed means the sector has to be managed and governed in a more corporate fashion.
  40. 40. Farming, Fishing, Forestry ! farm 67,89*+:7,3"'#7,;-/,1)'$<=,)<<,<$./4,)*4, worked on the farm. I noho katoa te whanau i runga i !"#$%&'(#)#(#&"#!"#&)*+#),-#*./+. ! >7,')-$,3"'#7,;-/,!)%&$,?*2%&3%&)($%*0, farmed their lands well. 0#$)+#!"#&)*+#$%&'#)#,1)# Kaporeihana Maori i o ratou whenua.
  41. 41. Te Ahuwhenua Trophy Maori ‘Farmer of the Year’ Award Initiated in 1932 by Apirana Ngata
  42. 42. Te Ahuwhenua Trophy Revamped in 2003 Dominated by large incorporations
  43. 43. 4325,000km rivers & streams 3,820 lakes larger that 1hectare 200 groundwater bodies 55% of all water allocated in Canterbury (MfE, 2006) Treaty of Waitangi & Crown-iwi relationships Resource Management Act & Local Government Act National Policy Statements & National Environmental Standards Regional Policy Statements & Long-term Community Council Plans
  44. 44. Agricultural production increased by 38% on declining area of farmland (-3%) (OECD, 2008) when I actually started the process, I actually thought I would sit on the fence, because I'm an irrigator, and there is room for irrigation. And there's room for the environment. In the future, I don't -- there is no way -- there's not enough water for irrigation, the way they're using it. We're round about between 800 and 1000 litres of water to produce one litre of milk - in the Amuri Basin. And you just can't keep doing that.
  45. 45. Water is not I'm convinced with 95% of always at the our water going out to sea, right place at that if it's properly organised the right time with storage… there's plenty for everybody. There's plenty (MfE, 2008) for the water sports. Per capita – estimated demand for water 2-3 times higher in NZ than other OECD counties (OECD, 2008)
  46. 46. They think dairy's the that the dairy industry has savior. Well, dairy's going geared itself up in terms of to be the biggest bomb cost structures that -- in a way that's ever hit New that reflects the current market Zealand… [it’ll go kaput] return. And when the market within the next 12 to 18 comes off its extraordinary months. high peak, as commodities always have and always will, it's going to kill a lot of dairy farmers.
  47. 47. Whakairo te tangata, Whakairo te whenua? • So ‘what’ (as in where) is our geography? • What economic model do we follow? • How are we going to ‘shape’ the people… how are we going to carve the land?! • What is our vision?
  48. 48. So, what about the recession? The most staggering phenomenon of this latest crisis of capitalism is the lack of alternatives… …have we failed the world?
  49. 49. Whakairo te tangata, Whakairo te whenua? • Whakapapa - we all contribute to the layering of this Planet. • Papatuanuku - Is she reduced to a metaphor? • Whanaungatanga - Many of our families are struggling despite growing Maori economy. • Kaitiakitanga - Do we consign our kaitiaki role to contractors?
  50. 50. Re-indigenising Humanity (Dan Longboat) • Through the re- establishment of a holistic interpretation of life processes; • Re-focusing our • Supporting like- relationships with each minded individuals other and our and communities, and surroundings to bring • The practical about this change; implementation of what we learn.
  51. 51. Re-indigenising Humanity Revitalising the Indigenous Mind ‘Hold up the mirror’
  52. 52. So, what now? • Personally….fieldwork (Titiro, whakarongo, korero) …and LitQuake • For Lincoln…2012 Indigenous Food conference • For Maori … huge debate, major upheaval, hideous challenges!
  53. 53. So, what now? • For Indigenous Peoples … fulfilment of a role? The End…