The STAR Program Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research Hoover City Schools August 2008 Presenters: Beth Lyda Ro...
Assessment  <ul><li>Review Student Learning Profile: Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a profile for each student </li></...
Introduction Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Discrete Trial Training </li></ul><ul><li>Pivotal response training </li></ul><ul...
Curriculum Content Areas <ul><li>Receptive language concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive language concepts (DT) </li...
Discrete Trial Training <ul><li>Skills are taught in a logical sequence building on previously learned skills. Concepts ta...
10 Components of DT <ul><li>Identify appropriate programs for the child’s current level </li></ul><ul><li>Review the eleme...
The 10 Components (con.) <ul><li>6. Use the DT Intro procedures to introduce each new skill </li></ul><ul><li>7. Work on a...
ABA Instructional Sequence <ul><li>Instructional Cue </li></ul><ul><li>Student Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence (gen...
Typical DT Trial (correct response) <ul><li>Cue “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Student does correct response </li></ul>...
Error and Correction Procedure Trial Example <ul><li>Cue- “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Nothing or incorrect response ...
If student makes an error….. <ul><li>Stop and restart trial </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat cue </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt with jus...
Examples of adding Prompt to the Cue, (Reinforced Learning Procedure) <ul><li>After 3 errors in a row </li></ul><ul><li>-N...
Physical Prompting Levels (Note these levels on data sheet) <ul><li>Tap Prompt : (touching lightly to initiate or change d...
Examples of Data Collection <ul><li>Demonstration of DT </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of Data Collecting </li></ul>
Data Collection Tips <ul><li>Enter data while student is using/consuming reinforcer (pause) </li></ul><ul><li>Try and reme...
Pivotal Response Training (PRT) <ul><li>PRT is also based on the four-step sequence.  Trials within PRT are incorporated i...
PRT <ul><li>Behavioral intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching language and play skills </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses weakne...
Advantages of PRT <ul><li>You can take it with you </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by parent/peers/siblings </li></ul><ul><l...
The 10 Components of PRT <ul><li>Identify the appropriate program </li></ul><ul><li>Review the elements of the written PRT...
10 Components (con.) <ul><li>7. Use PRT strategy throughout the child’s day, across people and environments </li></ul><ul>...
Structuring the Session <ul><li>The student chooses the toy </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher restricts access to the toy </li...
PRT Throughout the Day <ul><li>Example: Snack </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Reaches for the pretzels in the middle of the sna...
Demonstration <ul><li>PRT Trails  </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
Functional Routines (FR) <ul><li>Functional routines are predictable events that involve a chain of behaviors. Routines ar...
Demonstration <ul><li>Functional Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
Putting it all Together <ul><li>Assess the student </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the student’s  program (Pull program files) ...
Examples of Teaching Rotations <ul><li>Five Priority Rotations: </li></ul><ul><li>Circle, Centers, or other group routine ...
References <ul><li>Based on STAR Program Workshop  </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Arick PhD and John Gill MS </li></ul><ul><li>www...
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The Star Program Powerpoint

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The Star Program Powerpoint

  1. 1. The STAR Program Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research Hoover City Schools August 2008 Presenters: Beth Lyda Rosalou Maxwell
  2. 2. Assessment <ul><li>Review Student Learning Profile: Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a profile for each student </li></ul><ul><li>May be in two different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done from observation or from actual direct assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Asked to determine if skills are generalized (student uses skill across two settings and two people) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Discrete Trial Training </li></ul><ul><li>Pivotal response training </li></ul><ul><li>Functional routine instruction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Curriculum Content Areas <ul><li>Receptive language concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive language concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous language concepts (PRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Routines (FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Academics Concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Play and social interaction concepts (PRT/FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Program has 3 Levels, going through second grade academics </li></ul>
  5. 5. Discrete Trial Training <ul><li>Skills are taught in a logical sequence building on previously learned skills. Concepts taught are identified, then broken down into specific elements for instruction. Each session consists of a series of discrete trials, using a four-step sequence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 10 Components of DT <ul><li>Identify appropriate programs for the child’s current level </li></ul><ul><li>Review the elements of the written discrete trial program </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the basic discrete trial teaching paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and use appropriate reinforcers to motivate the child </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate prompting/shaping/fading techniques when teaching new skills </li></ul>
  7. 7. The 10 Components (con.) <ul><li>6. Use the DT Intro procedures to introduce each new skill </li></ul><ul><li>7. Work on appropriate behavior while teaching </li></ul><ul><li>8. Collect data to monitor progress on each step of a program </li></ul><ul><li>9. Use the Pass/revise criteria to determine which step to be teaching </li></ul><ul><li>10. Generalize each new skill learned into the natural environment </li></ul>
  8. 8. ABA Instructional Sequence <ul><li>Instructional Cue </li></ul><ul><li>Student Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence (generally a reinforcer) </li></ul><ul><li>Pause (inter-trial interval) </li></ul><ul><li>This teaching sequence is used with a curriculum that has scope and sequence with developmental levels of functional skills. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Typical DT Trial (correct response) <ul><li>Cue “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Student does correct response </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt-None needed </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequence-Reinforcer (primary + verbal praise) </li></ul><ul><li>(3 correct responses, move on to next level) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Error and Correction Procedure Trial Example <ul><li>Cue- “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Nothing or incorrect response </li></ul><ul><li>(Use error correction procedure) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Prompt- a. Represent Cue </li></ul><ul><li>b. Teacher prompts correct response </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequence-Reinforce with social praise only (No tangible reinforcer given unless needed to maintain responding) </li></ul>
  11. 11. If student makes an error….. <ul><li>Stop and restart trial </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat cue </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt with just enough assistance to get correct response </li></ul><ul><li>R + with social praise only or very little reinforcer, not the big R+ </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat trial (with big R+ available) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of adding Prompt to the Cue, (Reinforced Learning Procedure) <ul><li>After 3 errors in a row </li></ul><ul><li>-Note change of prompt level on data sheet </li></ul><ul><li>-Give instructional cue </li></ul><ul><li>-Provide a slight prompt (or just enough of a prompt to get correct response) just following the cue </li></ul><ul><li>-When student get 3/3 move back to “less or no prompt” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Prompting Levels (Note these levels on data sheet) <ul><li>Tap Prompt : (touching lightly to initiate or change direction of response) </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Physical Prompt (more than a touch/tap, not a full physical prompt, student does some part of response by themselves) </li></ul><ul><li>Full Physical Prompt (student requires physical prompting throughout response) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of Data Collection <ul><li>Demonstration of DT </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of Data Collecting </li></ul>
  15. 15. Data Collection Tips <ul><li>Enter data while student is using/consuming reinforcer (pause) </li></ul><ul><li>Try and remember 3 trials and enter the data for all three at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize good tempo-most important </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria-The “three in a row rule” </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize skills by teaching the “when” and the “where” of the new concepts within daily routines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pivotal Response Training (PRT) <ul><li>PRT is also based on the four-step sequence. Trials within PRT are incorporated into the environment in a functional context. During PRT the child chooses the activity or object, and the reinforcer is a natural consequence to the behavior. </li></ul>
  17. 17. PRT <ul><li>Behavioral intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching language and play skills </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses weaknesses of DT </li></ul><ul><li>Creates teachable moments in context </li></ul><ul><li>Follows ABA format </li></ul><ul><li>One component of an individualized program </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages of PRT <ul><li>You can take it with you </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by parent/peers/siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Increases motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased generalization and maintenance of intervention gains </li></ul>
  19. 19. The 10 Components of PRT <ul><li>Identify the appropriate program </li></ul><ul><li>Review the elements of the written PRT program </li></ul><ul><li>Review and practice PRT rules of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Implement PRT </li></ul><ul><li>Building and maintaining rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Work on appropriate behavior throughout the session </li></ul>
  20. 20. 10 Components (con.) <ul><li>7. Use PRT strategy throughout the child’s day, across people and environments </li></ul><ul><li>8. Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assess progress regularly </li></ul><ul><li>10. Modify level of demand and difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: Leave material in PRT area so child will only “play” with those toys in that area. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Structuring the Session <ul><li>The student chooses the toy </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher restricts access to the toy </li></ul><ul><li>The cue/opportunity to respond is presented </li></ul><ul><li>The child responds </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher evaluates the response </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher allows access to the activity </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher observes the student and prepares for the next trial </li></ul><ul><li>Work on behavior throughout the session </li></ul>
  22. 22. PRT Throughout the Day <ul><li>Example: Snack </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Reaches for the pretzels in the middle of the snack table </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Blocks student access to the pretzels and waits for a spontaneous request </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Says “eat please” </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Allows the child to take a pretzel. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Demonstration <ul><li>PRT Trails </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
  24. 24. Functional Routines (FR) <ul><li>Functional routines are predictable events that involve a chain of behaviors. Routines are associated with a functional outcome. Some common routines in which all children engage are: using the restroom, arriving, and eating a snack. The outcome of a routine usually serves as the reinforcer for completing the routine. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Demonstration <ul><li>Functional Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
  26. 26. Putting it all Together <ul><li>Assess the student </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the student’s program (Pull program files) </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the day </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize the ideas throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize the ideas for circle time </li></ul><ul><li>Use rotations/visual schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Have a variety of reinforcers available </li></ul>
  27. 27. Examples of Teaching Rotations <ul><li>Five Priority Rotations: </li></ul><ul><li>Circle, Centers, or other group routine </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete Trial Rotation (15 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>PRT Rotation (15 min.) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Discrete Trial Rotation (15 min.) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Child Specific Routine </li></ul><ul><li>(restroom use, hand-washing, independent work, table time activity) </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Based on STAR Program Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Arick PhD and John Gill MS </li></ul><ul><li>www.starautismprogram.com </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies used in this program meet NCLB and IDEA criteria for the use of scientifically-based strategies of special education programs. </li></ul>

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