Social Skills Training In Students With Autism


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Social Skills Training In Students With Autism

  1. 1. Social Skills Training in Students with Autism November 13, 2008 Rosalou Maxwell Presenter
  2. 2. Social Skills– What do we see??? <ul><li>Challenge for students with autism </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty seeing the perspective of others </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation from peers </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty managing day-to-day interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle with communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion with “hidden curriculum” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Teach Social Skills? <ul><li>For many students, the development of social competencies, even more than academic or vocational skills, will determine how independently they can be as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>( Staying in the Game , Loomis) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Steps to Success Step 1 <ul><li>1.Assess the student’s skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal observations throughout the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills rating forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic checklist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skill Streaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student and Parent involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s Communication Checklist-2(Bishop 2003) Psychological Cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic Language Skills Inventory (Gilliam & Miller,2006) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Step 2 <ul><li>2. Decide on Social Skills needed by student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review all information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give priority to skills involving danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue with classroom rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalize to society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the type of deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition Deficits: Students do not have “target skill” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Deficits: Students know how to do the skill but do not perform it in one or more settings and do not use the skill consistently. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency Deficits: Student performs the skills but does not always execute it properly. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Step 3 <ul><li>3. Decide on Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>-Write the PLOP and make it specific (i.e. When Jane came into the classroom, she greeted the teacher 1 of 5 days when the teacher spoke to her) </li></ul><ul><li>-Write Goals/Benchmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observable---Can you see it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable—Can you count it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the terminology used in your goals (What does the student look like when he is angry?) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of Goals <ul><li>1. Jane will greet the teacher upon entering the classroom in the mornings, 4 out of 5 times by the beginning of the third nine weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Susie will stay on the topic for 3 interchanges of information on the selected topic during her resource social group on 4 of 5 opportunities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Goal Examples <ul><li>Susie will stay on the topic during the group literacy time in the classroom with a visual reminder gesture given by the teacher during a 15 minute period of time on 4 of 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>John will actively participate in a structured game for 5 minutes during recess for 3 days a week. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Step 4 <ul><li>Determine Intervention Method/Materials </li></ul><ul><li>-Commercially Published Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>-Teacher made curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>-DVD curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>-Small group instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-Individual instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-Whole class instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-Peer instruction </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of Curriculum Materials <ul><li>Walker Skills Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Streaming, Research Press </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills Training , Jed Baker, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Skills Picture Book , Baker, Future Horizons </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills in Our Schools , AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>Social Stories , Gray, Future Horizons </li></ul><ul><li>Power Cards, Gagnon </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Social Success , Brooks Pub. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Skills Guides <ul><li>With Open Arms , Schlieder, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Development , Gutstein, </li></ul><ul><li>Staying in the Game , Loomis, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>The Hidden Curriculum , Myles, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>Autism Spectrum Handouts , Boutot, Pro-ED </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Ideas that Really Work , Pro-ED </li></ul><ul><li>Group Treatment for Asperger Syndrome , Plural Pub. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Websites for Social Skills <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classroom Websites <ul><li> (TEACCH work jobs) </li></ul><ul><li> (Great picture index) </li></ul><ul><li> (Downloadable powerpoint books) </li></ul><ul><li> (classroom website) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of DVD’s <ul><li>Storymovies , Carol Gray, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>Joining In , Linda Murdock, AAPC </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>It’s so Much Work to Be Your Friend, PBS </li></ul><ul><li>Embracing Play, </li></ul><ul><li>Intricate Minds I and II , </li></ul><ul><li>My School Day, Super Duper </li></ul><ul><li>My Turn, Your Turn, Songs, </li></ul><ul><li>Video Scenes and Facial Expressions, </li></ul>
  15. 15. Step 5 <ul><li>5. Progress Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Made Data Sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Graph of progress </li></ul><ul><li>Complete another Social Skills Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency counts of “appropriate behavior “ per unit of time </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency counts of “inappropriate behavior” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Step 6 <ul><li>6. Generalization of social skills into entire school setting </li></ul><ul><li>-Involve your general education teacher </li></ul><ul><li>- Involve peers </li></ul><ul><li>-Involve parents </li></ul>
  17. 17. Techniques for Generalization <ul><li>Self-monitoring strategies and social-communication assignments are useful for helping students to use their newly refined skills in other settings. (Timler, Vogel-Elias, & McGill, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Daily reports (Fabiano & Pleham,2003) that include 3-5 specific behaviors are a good strategy. Parents and teacher circle a “yes” or “no” to identify if a behavior did or did not occur. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Techniques <ul><li>Determine the level of Social Challenge for the student. (Hudson & Coffin, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity of Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of Social Activities </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Tools to Make Social Situations Less Challenging <ul><li>1.Rule cards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper greeting behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problematic behaviors to avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Conversational Starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Situational Fact Sheets (Written or in pictures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Relaxers/fidgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Environmental supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Incentives/rewards </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Successful Support for Social Success <ul><li>Peer Mentors: More naturally occurring support </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Intervention: Levels of support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually “fade” levels of support: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Fade the amount of information given, the length of teaching sessions, the frequency of sessions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Final Thoughts <ul><li>The goal of any social skills training should be to make sure the student learns enough social skills so that he can function independently in the community as an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>We want the student to master sufficient social skills so that as an adult he’ll be able to “choose” how much social activity he would like in his life. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Final Thoughts <ul><li>“ Learning and generalizing social skills is a dynamic process. Every year there are slightly different expectations to be met if a child is to stay in the game.” ( Staying in the Game, Loomis) </li></ul><ul><li>All the team must buy into the social plan, take responsibility, and make it happen. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Points to Ponder for Successful Social Skills Programs <ul><li>Keep it fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Help People Become Comfortable with Unfamiliar Strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Find Good Caring People to Collaborate With. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the Plan Fit the Individual, Not the Individual Fit the Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize That the Impact of Your Efforts Will be Far Reaching. </li></ul><ul><li>( Staying in the Game, Loomis) </li></ul>