Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes


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Difference between Gram + and - organisms

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Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11: THE PROKARYOTES Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  2. 2. The Prokaryotic Groups ◦ Prokaryotes are divided into two groups ◦ Bacteria ◦ Archaea ◦ See difference on Page 291 figure 10.6
  3. 3. The Proteobacteria ◦Includes most G(-) bacteria and are thought to have arisen from a common photosynthetic organism ◦Largest group of bacteria
  4. 4. Alphaproteobacteria ◦ Typically can grow at a low level of nutrients ◦ Unusual morphology including buds or stalks ◦ Stalks that are used to adhere to a surface are called prosthecae
  5. 5. ◦Name comes from the mythological Greek god Proteus who could morph into many shapes ◦ Alpha◦ Beta◦ Gamma◦ Delta◦ Epsilon-
  6. 6. ◦ Alpha- are very important in agriculture because many of these bacteria can fix nitrogen and can live in symbiosis with plants and humans Azosprillium
  7. 7. ◦Rickettsia and Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites ◦They can only reproduce within a mammalian cell ◦They are commonly transmitted within insect bites and ticks ◦ Spotted fever, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  8. 8. ◦ Caulobacter bacteria are found in low-nutrient aquatic environments ◦ They have prosthecae because of the constant changing flow of water
  9. 9. ◦Bartonella is a gram (-) bacillus that causes cat scratch fever
  10. 10. Betaproteobacteria ◦There are many similarities between alpha- and beta◦Often use ammonia, hydrogen gas, or methane ◦Pathogenic bacteria are considered betaproteobacteria
  11. 11. ◦Spirillum is found in fresh water and has polar flagella and is an aerobic organism
  12. 12. ◦ Sphaerotilus are sheathed, G(-) bacteria found in sewage ◦ The sheath is a protective layer which provides protection and a source of nutrient accumulation
  13. 13. ◦Bordetella is the group of bacteria responsible for whooping cough. It is nonmotile, aerobic, and G(-)
  14. 14. ◦Neisseria are aerobic, G(-), cocci that live in mucosal membranes of mammals ◦Pathogens in this groups cause gonorrhea and meningitis.
  15. 15. Gammaproteobacteria ◦Largest subgroup of Proteobacteria
  16. 16. ◦ Pseudomonas is aerobic, G(-) rods with polar flagella ◦ Very common in soil ◦ Infects urinary tract, burns, wounds ◦ Some species have evolved to grow inside some antiseptics
  17. 17. ◦Moraxella is a group of bacteria that cause conjunctivitis
  18. 18. ◦Vibrio bacteria are facultatively anaerobic, G(-) slightly curved rods ◦ Cause of cholera and gastroenteritis
  19. 19. ◦Salmonella is potentially pathogenic ◦They inhabit intestine tracts of many animals ◦Causes Typhoid fever and salmonellosis
  20. 20. Deltaproteobacteria ◦Include bacteria that prey on other bacteria. They are predators.
  21. 21. ◦Desulfovibrio are obligately anaerobic bacteria that form hydrogen sulfide ◦Can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans
  22. 22. ◦Myxococcus leave behind a slime trail and they get their energy by lysing other bacteria
  23. 23. Epsilonproteobacteria ◦ Slender G(-) rods that are helical or vibrio and are microaerophile
  24. 24. ◦Heliobacter is the most common cause of peptic ulcers and causes stomach cancer
  25. 25. GRAM + BACTERIA
  26. 26. Gram Positive Bacteria ◦Can be divided into two groups ◦High G+C ratio ◦Low G+C ratio ◦G = guanine ◦C = cytosine DNA
  27. 27. Research ◦ Where does the bacteria live? ◦ Shape or arrangement? ◦ Disease it causes (if it does)? ◦ Growth conditions? ◦ Interesting fact? ◦Clostridium ◦Epulopiscium ◦Staphylococcus ◦Lactobacillus ◦Listeria ◦Propionibacterium ◦Leptospira ◦Fusobacterium
  28. 28. Clostridium
  29. 29. Epulopiscium
  30. 30. Staphylococcus
  31. 31. Lactobacillus
  32. 32. Listeria
  33. 33. Propionibacterium
  34. 34. Leptospira
  35. 35. Fusobacterium
  37. 37. ◦Cell walls lack peptidoglycan (like eukaryotes) ◦Halophiles- organisms that can survive a high salt content ◦Methanogens- organisms that produce methane ◦Hyperthemophiles- organisms that can survive and thrive in high temperatures
  39. 39. ◦Though many prokaryotes have been discovered, scientists have hardly reached the tip of the iceberg when it comes to discovering the vast number of organisms still out there ◦Maybe YOU will be the next scientist to discover a new bacterium!