Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes

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Difference between Gram + and - organisms

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Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11: THE PROKARYOTES Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  2. 2. The Prokaryotic Groups ◦ Prokaryotes are divided into two groups ◦ Bacteria ◦ Archaea ◦ See difference on Page 291 figure 10.6
  3. 3. The Proteobacteria ◦Includes most G(-) bacteria and are thought to have arisen from a common photosynthetic organism ◦Largest group of bacteria
  4. 4. Alphaproteobacteria ◦ Typically can grow at a low level of nutrients ◦ Unusual morphology including buds or stalks ◦ Stalks that are used to adhere to a surface are called prosthecae
  5. 5. ◦Name comes from the mythological Greek god Proteus who could morph into many shapes ◦ Alpha◦ Beta◦ Gamma◦ Delta◦ Epsilon-
  6. 6. ◦ Alpha- are very important in agriculture because many of these bacteria can fix nitrogen and can live in symbiosis with plants and humans Azosprillium
  7. 7. ◦Rickettsia and Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites ◦They can only reproduce within a mammalian cell ◦They are commonly transmitted within insect bites and ticks ◦ Spotted fever, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  8. 8. ◦ Caulobacter bacteria are found in low-nutrient aquatic environments ◦ They have prosthecae because of the constant changing flow of water
  9. 9. ◦Bartonella is a gram (-) bacillus that causes cat scratch fever
  10. 10. Betaproteobacteria ◦There are many similarities between alpha- and beta◦Often use ammonia, hydrogen gas, or methane ◦Pathogenic bacteria are considered betaproteobacteria
  11. 11. ◦Spirillum is found in fresh water and has polar flagella and is an aerobic organism
  12. 12. ◦ Sphaerotilus are sheathed, G(-) bacteria found in sewage ◦ The sheath is a protective layer which provides protection and a source of nutrient accumulation
  13. 13. ◦Bordetella is the group of bacteria responsible for whooping cough. It is nonmotile, aerobic, and G(-)
  14. 14. ◦Neisseria are aerobic, G(-), cocci that live in mucosal membranes of mammals ◦Pathogens in this groups cause gonorrhea and meningitis.
  15. 15. Gammaproteobacteria ◦Largest subgroup of Proteobacteria
  16. 16. ◦ Pseudomonas is aerobic, G(-) rods with polar flagella ◦ Very common in soil ◦ Infects urinary tract, burns, wounds ◦ Some species have evolved to grow inside some antiseptics
  17. 17. ◦Moraxella is a group of bacteria that cause conjunctivitis
  18. 18. ◦Vibrio bacteria are facultatively anaerobic, G(-) slightly curved rods ◦ Cause of cholera and gastroenteritis
  19. 19. ◦Salmonella is potentially pathogenic ◦They inhabit intestine tracts of many animals ◦Causes Typhoid fever and salmonellosis
  20. 20. Deltaproteobacteria ◦Include bacteria that prey on other bacteria. They are predators.
  21. 21. ◦Desulfovibrio are obligately anaerobic bacteria that form hydrogen sulfide ◦Can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans
  22. 22. ◦Myxococcus leave behind a slime trail and they get their energy by lysing other bacteria
  23. 23. Epsilonproteobacteria ◦ Slender G(-) rods that are helical or vibrio and are microaerophile
  24. 24. ◦Heliobacter is the most common cause of peptic ulcers and causes stomach cancer
  25. 25. GRAM + BACTERIA
  26. 26. Gram Positive Bacteria ◦Can be divided into two groups ◦High G+C ratio ◦Low G+C ratio ◦G = guanine ◦C = cytosine DNA
  27. 27. Research ◦ Where does the bacteria live? ◦ Shape or arrangement? ◦ Disease it causes (if it does)? ◦ Growth conditions? ◦ Interesting fact? ◦Clostridium ◦Epulopiscium ◦Staphylococcus ◦Lactobacillus ◦Listeria ◦Propionibacterium ◦Leptospira ◦Fusobacterium
  28. 28. Clostridium
  29. 29. Epulopiscium
  30. 30. Staphylococcus
  31. 31. Lactobacillus
  32. 32. Listeria
  33. 33. Propionibacterium
  34. 34. Leptospira
  35. 35. Fusobacterium
  36. 36. DOMAIN ARCHAEA
  37. 37. ◦Cell walls lack peptidoglycan (like eukaryotes) ◦Halophiles- organisms that can survive a high salt content ◦Methanogens- organisms that produce methane ◦Hyperthemophiles- organisms that can survive and thrive in high temperatures
  38. 38. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
  39. 39. ◦Though many prokaryotes have been discovered, scientists have hardly reached the tip of the iceberg when it comes to discovering the vast number of organisms still out there ◦Maybe YOU will be the next scientist to discover a new bacterium!

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