Demographic Characteristics


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Australian Demographic Characteristics

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Demographic Characteristics

  1. 1. Australia’s Unique Human Characteristics .
  2. 2. Students learn about:   Human characteristics that make Australia unique <ul><li>demographic characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>age structure </li></ul><ul><li>distribution </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic composition </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>population size </li></ul>
  3. 3. Students learn to: <ul><li>describe past and current population patterns in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>describe trends in Australia’s demographic characteristics, incorporating the use of graphs and statistics </li></ul><ul><li>explain how Australia’s changing demographic characteristics are influencing the nature and identity of Australian society </li></ul>
  4. 4. Australia’s population <ul><li>Demography is the study of the characteristics of populations. It analyses: </li></ul><ul><li>population size </li></ul><ul><li>population composition </li></ul><ul><li>population growth </li></ul><ul><li>population distribution </li></ul><ul><li>population density </li></ul><ul><li>sex structure </li></ul><ul><li>age structure </li></ul><ul><li>all other vital statistics related to the characteristics of a particular population. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Australian population size <ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Population increase <ul><li>Australia’s population is currently growing at its fastest rate in almost 20 yrs with the most recent increase of 1.5% or 318,500 people to September 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Net migration for last year 2008 was 213,000. </li></ul><ul><li>But skilled migration has been cut in 2009 from 133,000 to 115,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Every 3 years Australia is approximately adding 1 million to its population </li></ul><ul><li>2008 320,000 was added to the population (a combination of natural increase and immigration) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Outline how each component of Australia’s population has changed over time: Refer to the graph below
  8. 8. Answer <ul><li>(i) natural increase: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural increase was highest in the early 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped sharply with WWI and was also low during the Great Depression and WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Increased after WWII (Baby Boomers) </li></ul><ul><li>Has been declining since the 1970’s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Answer <ul><li>migration: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sharply from 1905 but fell sharply with WWI and was also low during the Great Depression and WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid increase post WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Has continued to remain an important component (with some fluctuations in recent decades). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Population Distribution & Density <ul><li>This figure shows the uneven distribution of the Australian population. </li></ul><ul><li>80% of people live in a narrow coastal strip stretching from Brisbane to Adelaide. </li></ul><ul><li>This represents only 3% of the continents land area . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>A zone of moderate population density stretches from the Darling Downs in Southern Queensland through the central west of NSW and across to Victoria. </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining 81% of the continent contains just 3% of the population. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Each of these zones is associated with different land uses. </li></ul><ul><li>The closely settled coastal strip contains almost all the major urban centres and most of the large-scale industry and business. </li></ul><ul><li>The moderately settled zone is dominated by agriculture and some small-scale industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The sparsely settled zone is dominated by extensive grazing and scattered mining activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s population density (that is the number of people per square kilometre) is 2 people per square kilometre. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the lowest of any of the continents, except for Antarctica. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The distribution of Australia’s population is undergoing change. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important of these changes are: </li></ul>The proportion of the population living in rural areas is declining . As a result many small rural communities are struggling to survive. The proportion of people living in the Northern Territory, WA & QLD has increased, while the proportion living in NSW, VIC, SA & TAS, has declined There are regional variations in population growth rates. During the 1950/60s the fastest growing areas were the state capitals.
  14. 14. Account for Australia’s population Distribution. Use p129 of your text to aid you. Write approx 1-2 A4 pages
  15. 15. Role of Climate
  16. 16. The map below shows primary ports and secondary ports
  17. 17. Historical Factors Economic Factors Factors Affecting Population Distribution in Australia Physical factors Limiting factors : Early Europeans :
  18. 19. Population Growth
  19. 20. Population Terms Game <ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 22. Drought has lead to a skills shortage due to Rural Urban Migration March 2008 <ul><li> rss_smallbiz </li></ul>
  21. 23. Population growth <ul><ul><li>Figure 5.1a on pg 126 of the text shows the contribution made by the two components of population growth: natural increase and net migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw figure 5.1a into your books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL INCREASE- is the difference between the birth rate (which is expressed as the number of live births per thousand of the population per year) and the death rate (the number of deaths per thousand people per year). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NET MIGRATION- is the difference between the number of permanent departures from Australia and the number of people arriving to live in Australia on a permanent basis. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Net Migration <ul><li>Net migration is the difference between the number of permanent departures from Australia ( emigration ) and the number of people arriving to live in Australia on a permanent basis ( immigration ) </li></ul><ul><li>permanent arrivals (immigration) – permanent departures (emigration) = net migration </li></ul>
  23. 25. Australian Population Change 1901-2002 Growth rates
  24. 26. My husband is away fighting in Europe. Some of my friends’ husbands have been killed. I was born just after the war, and now I’m having a family myself I have a great job. I would ruin it by having kids now. I have a good job and I’m earning a good wage. I could support a larger family. We need workers to build the Snowy Mountains Scheme We were nearly invaded in the war. We need more people to defend Australia I’ve lost my job. I can barely support my wife and me, let alone kids.
  25. 27. <ul><li>A significant share of Australia’s population growth has come from immigration. ( To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native.) </li></ul><ul><li>Since World War II (1939- 1945) more than 5 million people have migrated to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of this process has been the development of a multicultural society. </li></ul><ul><li>At present one in every four Australians is either a first generation or second generation settler. </li></ul><ul><li>The source of these immigrants has changed overtime. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Ethnic composition <ul><li> May 2007 SMH </li></ul>
  27. 29. The percentage change of changing birthplace of new settlers
  28. 34. Australian Population Pyramid Creator: Animation <ul><li>http:// / </li></ul>
  29. 36. Population Structure <ul><li>The age/ gender structure of the Australian population resembles that of other developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. a narrowing base and an expansion in the older age groups. </li></ul>Explain why? This change is the result of the ageing of the population.
  30. 37. Australia: Age-Sex Structure of the Population, June 2006 Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population data Baby Boomers
  31. 39. Why I am showing this video? <ul><li>http:// =9JMbaZ6j1J4 </li></ul>
  32. 40. Video <ul><li>Show reasons for ageing popn video </li></ul>
  33. 41. Why am I showing you this advertisement?
  34. 42. Reasons for the ageing population- Increasing Life expectancy * Australians are living longer * Life expectancy for: -83 years <ul><li>77 years </li></ul>Declining birth rates- Lower fertility rates have resulted in a decrease in the proportion of young people in the population Changes in Australia’s immigration program In the 1950s/60s there was a large scale immigration program. Majority of immigrants were young. Many of them had children. Late 1980/90s, the immigration program was significantly reduced & many of those who did arrive were older.
  35. 43. Fertility <ul><li>The total fertility rate ( TFR , of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>The total fertility rate (TFR) is a measure of current fertility. Australia's TFR dropped below replacement level (2.1 babies per woman) in 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>It has remained below replacement level and declined further since then until recently. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that under current age-specific fertility rates the average number of babies born to a woman throughout her reproductive life would not be sufficient to replace herself and her partner. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  36. 45. Fertility <ul><li>In 2001, Australia's fertility reached a historic low of 1.73 babies per woman. Since then, the total fertility rate has increased to 1.83 in 2007 and in 2008 increased to 1.93. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, women in more advantaged areas, while having fewer babies than those in less advantaged areas, have had the greatest increase in fertility between 2001 and 2007. </li></ul>
  37. 46. Account for the low fertility rate: DELAYING CHILDBIRTH <ul><li>Increased status of women due to higher levels of tertiary (University education) has meant that women are delaying childbirth because they are staying in the workforce longer </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of contraception </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in cost of living </li></ul>
  38. 47. Median age for mothers & fathers <ul><li>The trend towards delaying child-bearing in Australia is evident in the median age of parents. </li></ul><ul><li>For both mothers and fathers, median age has risen consistently over the past two decades. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983, the median age of all mothers who gave birth in that year was 26.9 years, while the median age of fathers was 29.7 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, the median ages were 30.5 years and 32.6 years for mothers and fathers respectively. </li></ul>
  39. 48. Consequences of low birth rates <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Show low BR consequences video http:// / </li></ul>
  40. 49. Government response <ul><li>With the fertility rate plummeting to record lows the Australian Government in recent times has offered a Baby Bonus </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004 Peter Costello in his budget address famously said </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;You should have one for the father, one for the mother and one for the country. If you want to fix the ageing demographic, that's what you do,&quot; </li></ul>
  41. 50. Describe and Account for the difference in Indigenous and Non indigenous population pyramid shapes. Read pgs 132-133 Ethnic composition & structure
  42. 51. Describe and Account for the difference in Indigenous and Non indigenous population pyramid shapes <ul><ul><li>Description: Age/gender structure resembles that of a developing country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher birth rate – the population is very young </li></ul><ul><li>Lower life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting: due to isolation from health care facilities, poor health, education and limited access to specialised care. </li></ul><ul><li>High infant mortality rates due to the same reasons above </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that too many indigenous Australians die from a range of preventable diseases </li></ul><ul><li>More indigenous Australians are smokers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of family planning, lower participation of women in the workforce, health problems, social issues with alcoholism and drug abuse . </li></ul><ul><li>It is evident that there is a health care crisis with indigenous people in Australia and their health is amongst the worst in the world. Poor health is a result of poverty and social factors and conditions are harshest for those people living in remote areas. </li></ul>
  43. 52. Identify what are the important implications for government planners examining the indigenous population pyramid? <ul><li>Good health is expensive and it is evident that the Government must make spending on health care facilities and support services for Aborigines a priority. The emphasis should be on children with the indigenous population being so young. </li></ul>
  44. 54. LIFE EXPECTANCY <ul><li>Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his or her remaining lifetime. </li></ul>
  45. 56. Mortality <ul><li>Reductions in mortality in the early part of the 20th century have been attributed to improvements in living conditions, such as better water supply, sewerage systems, food quality and health education. </li></ul>
  46. 57. Mortality <ul><li>The continuing reduction in mortality in the latter half of last century has been attributed to improving social conditions, and to advances in medical technology such as mass immunisation and antibiotics. </li></ul>
  47. 58. Mortality <ul><li>The past two decades in particular have seen further increases in life expectancy. </li></ul><ul><li>These increases are due in part to lower infant mortality, fewer deaths among young adults from motor vehicle accidents and fewer deaths among older men from heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The reduction in the number of deaths from heart disease has been related to behavioural changes, such as dietary improvements and reduced smoking, as well as medical advances. </li></ul>
  48. 59. Life Expectancy
  49. 60. Deaths <ul><li>Since 1983 the number of deaths has increased by 1% on average annually. </li></ul><ul><li>The steady increase in the number of deaths over time reflects the increasing size of the population and, in particular, the increasing number of older people. </li></ul><ul><li>With continued ageing of the population the number of deaths will continue to rise, with deaths projected to outnumber births sometime in the 2030s. </li></ul>
  50. 61. Homework: Use your work from today and pp126-130 of your textbook to answer the following task <ul><li>Write a description of Australia’s demographic characteristics for someone who has never been to Australia. Your description should include information about Australia’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Population size </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Population distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Changing age structure </li></ul><ul><li>Changing ethnic composition </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum length: 200 words. </li></ul>
  51. 62. Future Population Growth <ul><li>Very debatable </li></ul><ul><li>Some economists/politicians believe that Australia’s population growth will result in resource creation , and economic growth and that technology will be able to overcome the environmental problems created by the increase in population. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, some scientists/ ecologists believe that population growth will only worsen the problems of resource depletion , water availability and quality , land degradation , pollution and habitat loss . </li></ul>
  52. 63. <ul><li>Australia has little chance of altering its population growth rate by natural means in the near future, but is can decide on the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Without an immigration intake Australia’s population would grow very slowly and may even start to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Economists argue that this would limit Australia’s economic potential and result in a decline in living standards. </li></ul>
  53. 65. Describe the current trends in Australia’s population growth. <ul><li>Australia’s population is currently growing at its fastest rate in almost 20 yrs with the most recent increase of 1.5% or 318,500 people to September 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>But skilled migration has been cut in 2009 from 133,000 to 115,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Every 3 years Australia is approximately adding 1 million to its population </li></ul><ul><li>2008 320,000 was added to the population (a combination of natural increase and immigration) </li></ul><ul><li>The federal Government’s baby bonus had helped lift the nation's fertility rate from a record low of 1.73 in 2001 to 1.91 in the latest census in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>The Government is encouraging migrants because of the skills shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>China and India are becoming increasingly important contributors to our migrant intake. </li></ul>