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Questioning Practices And Strategies

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Questioning Practices And Strategies

  1. 1. QUESTIONING PRACTICES AND STRATEGIES How to Challenge Gifted and Highly Able Students Through Open-Ended and High Level Questioning Practices Created and Presented by: Michelle Miller
  2. 2. THE FORMULATION OF A PROBLEM IS OFTEN MORE ESSENTIAL THAN ITS SOLUTION, WHICH MAY BE MERELY A MATTER OF MATHEMATICAL OR EXPERIMENTAL SKILL… TO RAISE NEW QUESTIONS, NEW POSSIBILITIES, TO REGARD OLD PROBLEMS FROM A NEW ANGLE, REQUIRES CREATIVE IMAGINATION AND MARKS REAL ADVANCES. <ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul>
  3. 3. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONERS………….. <ul><li>… are inclined to ask a range of questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know that’s true? </li></ul><ul><li>How reliable is this data source? </li></ul><ul><li>… pose questions about alternate points of view: </li></ul><ul><li>From whose viewpoint are we seeing, reading, or hearing? </li></ul><ul><li>From what angle, what perspective, are we viewing this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>… pose questions that make causal connections and relationships: </li></ul><ul><li>How are these people, events, or situations related to each other? </li></ul><ul><li>What produced this connection? </li></ul>
  4. 4. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONERS…. <ul><li>… pose hypothetical problems characterized by “IF” questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would happen IF? </li></ul><ul><li>IF that is true, then what might happen IF? </li></ul><ul><li>… recognize discrepancies and phenomena in their environment, and they probe into their causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Why do cats purr? </li></ul><ul><li>How high can birds fly? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the hair on my head grow so fast, while the hair on my arms and legs grow so slowly? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if we put the saltwater fish in a fresh water aquarium? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some alternative solutions to international conflicts, other than wars? (Costa, A.L. & Kallick, B. 2000). </li></ul>
  5. 5. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY <ul><li>Use Bloom’s Taxonomy to help you and your students create questions that develop high order thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the higher levels: Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation </li></ul>
  6. 6. QUESTION PROMPTS FOR BLOOM’S ANALYSIS <ul><li>How can you classify __according to___? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you compare the different parts of_ to _? </li></ul><ul><li>What explanation do you have for__? </li></ul><ul><li>How is __connected to___? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you sort the parts of__? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the pros and cons of___? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you explain__? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you point out about__?  </li></ul><ul><li>What can you infer about___? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideas validate__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you change___? </li></ul>
  7. 7. QUESTION PROMPTS FOR BLOOM’S SYNTHESIS <ul><li>What alternatives would you suggest for__? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes would you make to revise__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you explain the reason for__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you generate a plan to__? </li></ul><ul><li>What could you invent to__? </li></ul><ul><li>What facts can you gather about__? </li></ul><ul><li>Predict the outcome if__? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you portray__? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you create to demonstrate___? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you personalize the information you’ve gained about __? </li></ul>
  8. 8. QUESTION PROMPTS FOR BLOOM’S EVALUATION <ul><li>What criteria would you use to assess__? </li></ul><ul><li>What data was used to evaluate__? </li></ul><ul><li>What choice would you have made__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you determine the facts about__? </li></ul><ul><li>What is most important about__? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you verify__? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you rate the__?  </li></ul><ul><li>How would you grade__? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your opinion of__?  </li></ul><ul><li>How could you justify___? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you defend___? </li></ul>
  9. 9. THINK ABOUT A STORY YOU WILL TEACH ONE OF YOUR GROUPS THIS WEEK. HOW CAN YOU USE THE HIGHER LEVELS OF BLOOM’S TAXONOMY TO CREATE GROUP DISCUSSION QUESTIONS? <ul><li>Using the Bloom’s Question Prompts for Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation, write several questions that you can discuss with your reading group this week. </li></ul>
  10. 10. THINKING ACTIVELY IN SOCIAL CONTEXT (TASC) <ul><li>TASC is a multiphase problem-solving model developed by Belle Wallace and Harvey Adams that incorporates basic thinking skills and tools for effective thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>The components of TASC are: </li></ul><ul><li>GATHER/ORGANIZE “What do I know about this?” </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY “What is the task?” </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATE “How many ideas can I think of?” </li></ul><ul><li>DECIDE “Which is the best idea?” </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENT “Let’s do it!” </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATE “How well did I do?” </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE “Let’s tell someone!” </li></ul><ul><li>LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE “What have I learned?” </li></ul>
  11. 11. QUESTIONS TO DEVELOP THINKING IN THE TASC PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL <ul><li>What information do I have? </li></ul><ul><li>How much do I understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I met this before? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions can I ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What am I trying to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the obstacles? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I need to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Why can’t I do this? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Gather/Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul>
  12. 12. QUESTIONS TO DEVELOP THINKING IN THE TASC PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL <ul><li>Who can help me? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can I find out more? </li></ul><ul><li>What do other people think? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I find this out? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there another way to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen because of my decision or action? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the arguments for and against? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the most important ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Generate </li></ul><ul><li>Decide </li></ul>
  13. 13. QUESTIONS TO DEVELOP THINKING IN THE TASC PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL <ul><li>How do I check my progress? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I doing this correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>Is my plan working? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I do next? </li></ul><ul><li>What have I done? </li></ul><ul><li>Could I do it better next time? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I solve the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I work as well as I could? </li></ul><ul><li>Would I do it differently next time? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I work well in my group? </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>
  14. 14. QUESTIONS TO DEVELOP THINKING IN THE TASC PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL <ul><li>Who can I tell? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I tell or present? </li></ul><ul><li>What should I say? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I explain? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I interest someone else? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have the right information? </li></ul><ul><li>How have I changed? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I think and feel now? </li></ul><ul><li>How else can I use what I’ve learned? </li></ul><ul><li>How would I do this again? </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Learn From Experience </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Students as Inquirers </li></ul>
  16. 16. HELPFUL TECHNIQUES TO GUIDE STUDENTS INTO INQUIRY <ul><li>Use Bloom’s Question Prompts as question starters for kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Make 2 cubes to be used for questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The first cube contains the words: why, how, when, what, who, where </li></ul><ul><li>The second cube contains the words: might, should, would, is/are, can, will </li></ul>
  17. 17. HELPFUL TECHNIQUES TO GUIDE STUDENTS INTO INQUIRY <ul><li>Students roll dice to begin writing questions. </li></ul><ul><li>They follow a teacher made script that </li></ul><ul><li>corresponds to the number they role. </li></ul><ul><li>Students write questions </li></ul><ul><li>on a pie chart spinner. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HELPFUL TECHNIQUES TO GUIDE STUDENTS INTO INQUIRY <ul><li>Create a questioning game with points given </li></ul><ul><li>to types of questions asked. </li></ul><ul><li>This could be a </li></ul><ul><li>whole class interactive game show, a board game, or competitive point keeping for prizes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. QUESTION POINTS FOR GAME ACTIVITY <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Combining 2 questions </li></ul><ul><li>Combining 2 high level questions </li></ul><ul><li>Sense : The Qs are clear intelligent and complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth : The Qs are based on accurate information. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance : The Qs fit the task and are appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation : The Qs contain facts, reasons, or examples that frame and idea or point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity : The Qs contain divergent ideas with many details the reflect creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Originality : The Qs apply knowledge to past and present experiences that express new, imaginative ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy : The Qs reflect an individuality of unique thought </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Based Points </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Based Points </li></ul>
  20. 20. SOCRATIC QUESTIONS <ul><li>Socratic questions are open-ended questions that allow students to think critically, analyze multiple meanings in text, and express ideas with clarity and confidence. </li></ul>
  21. 21. A TAXONOMY OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONS <ul><li>What do you mean by? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your main point? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you give an example? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you explain that further? </li></ul><ul><li>How does ___ relate to ___? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you put that another way? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think is the main issue here? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to our discussion, issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you summarize what (Student Name) said? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you (they) assuming? </li></ul><ul><li>What could we assume instead? </li></ul><ul><li>All of your reasoning depends on the idea that __. Why have you based your reasoning on __ rather than ___? </li></ul><ul><li>You seem to be assuming ___. How would you justify taking this for granted? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it always the case? Why do you think the assumption holds here? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of Clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Questions that Probe Assumptions </li></ul>
  22. 22. A TAXONOMY OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONS <ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul><ul><li>Are those reasons adequate? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have any appropriate evidence for that? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there reason to doubt that evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>How could we go about finding out whether that is true? </li></ul><ul><li>What other information do we need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have your chosen this perspective rather than that perspective? </li></ul><ul><li>Could anyone else see this another way? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What would someone who disagrees say? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you answer the objection that __ would make? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an alternative? </li></ul><ul><li>How are (Student Name) and (Student Name) ideas alike? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions that Probe Reasons and Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about Viewpoints or Perspectives </li></ul>
  23. 23. A TAXONOMY OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONS <ul><li>What are you implying by that? </li></ul><ul><li>When you say ___, are you implying ___? </li></ul><ul><li>If that happened, what else also would happen as a result? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Would that necessarily happen or only probably happen? </li></ul><ul><li>If this and this are the case, then what else also must be true? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we find out? </li></ul><ul><li>How could someone settle this question? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the same issue as ___? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this question assume? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this question important? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this question ask us to evaluate something? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we agree that this is the question? </li></ul><ul><li>To answer this question, what questions would we have to answer first? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions that Probe Implications and Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about the Question </li></ul>
  24. 24. READ “IN AND OUT OF THE DARK” BY CHARLES BUKOWSKI <ul><li>Think about the following question, “Do you think this poem serves as a metaphor for Charles’ relationship with his wife? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>If not, do you think this poem serves as a metaphor for something? What? If not explain. </li></ul><ul><li>You may write your responses if you wish </li></ul>
  25. 25. REFERENCES <ul><li>Bukowski, Charles. (1992). The last night of the earth poems. Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Costa, Arthur L. & Kallick, Bena. (2000). Habits of mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Davis, Gary A. & Rimm, Sylvia B. (2004). Education of the gifted and talented: Fifth edition. Boston, MA: Pearson A and B. </li></ul><ul><li>Maker, C. June & Schiever, Shirley W. (2005). Teaching models in education of the gifted: Third edition. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. M. Miller’s Gifted and Talented Webpage. www.giftedmmiller.wikispaces.com . 2008. </li></ul>

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