Ronan MaddenArts & Humanities LibrarianUniversity College Cork, Cork, IrelandPhD Students in the Humanities: Understanding...
Overview• Background: PG6009 module• Literature Review• Research Question& Methodology• Results: Surveys and interviews• D...
Background 1.• Accredited & assessed IL module (5 ECTS),University‟s structured PhD since 2008• Devised through partnershi...
Background 2.• Each unit: different member of Library staff• Delivered as block & workshops• Originally STM audience. 2011...
PG6009 Module ContentUnit 1: Research ResourceDiscoveryUnit 2 : Using the Web Effectively& Evaluating ResourcesUnit 3: Tra...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
This study:• A conduit: examine information seekingneeds/behaviour 1st year humanities PhDs• Better support 4th-level huma...
Literature Review: General• Few studies: generic IL courses for PhDs• Lack of research: information practices ofPhDs renew...
Literature Review: Humanities1.• Humanities scholar working alone, variety ofapproaches; professional network• UK RIN (201...
HaphazardbeginningsDiverseneeds
Literature Review: Humanities 2.• Catalano (2013) no agreement on consistentinformation behaviours among humanities,Barret...
Literature Review: Beyond Humanities 1.• George et al (2006) multidisciplinarystudy, graduate students, ‘random motions of...
Literature Review: Beyond Humanities 2.• Problems with IL skills postgrads• Streatfield et al. (2010) U.K. difficult choic...
Literature Review: ‘Zones of Intervention’• Fleming-May & Yuro (2009). Library mustbecome known. Research needed into the„...
Literature Review: ‘Library-centric’• Haglund & Olsson (2008) personalized solutions;„what they actually want rather than ...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
Kulthua’s ‘Information Search Process’• Individual seeking meaning in course of seeking information• Uncertainty & vaguene...
Research QuestionOn the evidence of literature review:• Information seeking requirements of humanitiesresearchers diverse,...
Is a generic information literacy module anappropriate method of intervention in theinitial months of a humanities PhD? Wh...
Methodology• Questionnaire 1: early October 2012, all newhumanities PhDs who had registered for PG6009,beginning of PhD pr...
Methodology• Interviews: 6 participants, richer understanding of howinformation seeking needs evolved.- Dervin‟s „sense-ma...
0 2 4 6 8 10Very confidentConfidentSomewhat confidentNot that confidentNot at all confidentHow confident do you feel about...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013024681012Fully decided Close to Fully decided Somewhat Decided Not Really DecidedFive (20%) ‘fu...
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16Very clearly awareHave a good ideaHave some ideaNot sure yetNot at all sureTo what extent are you awa...
How confident do you feel in using these information sourcesefficiently and effectively?Very confidentConfidentSomewhat co...
People, groups, departments, organisations offerthem support during the lit search process. 18 of 25• Supervisors mentione...
• Reasonably confident in their ability tocritically evaluate information sources: 3(12%) claimed could do so „very well‟,...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013024681012A Lot Somewhat Not a Lot Not at AllOne respondent said his/her research topic had chan...
0 2 4 6 810 12Very awareAwareNot that awareNot at all aware11261Ronan Madden QQML June 2013When asked how aware they had b...
What major obstacles (in regard to the literature search)• 8 mentioned difficulties with scope, focus andnarrowing their t...
What helped most during that period:• 7 mentioned PG6009• 6 referred to their supervisor• 6 referred to other courses they...
Ronan Madden QQML June 201302468101214Very HelpfulHelpfulNot that HelpfulNot at all HelpfulThirteen (65%) ‘very helpful’, ...
Rank the various aspects in order of usefulness (forthe early stages of research)Top 3 were:1. Research resource discovery...
• Timing of module- all 20 respondents indicated first yearappropriate- 6 mentioned a flexible approach, option ofblock de...
More that the Library can do?– 6 (of 19 respondents to this question) happy– 7 suggested further sessions later-on. New to...
Interviews: Theme 1• Outset: not aware of everything will need toknow- unlike Masters, PhDs figure out themselves• Many de...
Interviews: Theme 2Different to other PhDs, Insecurity & anxiety constructingunderstanding of what being a PhD student mea...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
Interviews: Theme 3Technology a recurring theme, bound-up withchallenge of finding out what they need toknow, and sequenci...
Interview: Theme 4PG6009: clear that first term was a suitabletime, but option of attending workshops later alsoimportant:...
Interview: Theme 5Content - very positive clear that even if theymay have known some of the content, theyappreciated heari...
Discussion: initial stages 1.• Various levels of confidence, extent they had decided onresearch topics, how aware of infor...
Discussion: initial stages 2.Kuhlthau’s „Information Search Process‟:• 1st questionnaire: initiation/selection stage ofres...
Discussion: literature search• Scoping & focussing: challenge, corroborates lit review• Searching & finding, ‘haphazard‟ e...
• Supervisors key for some, variety of people play a part• Role of other students/researchers + own self-reliance.• PG6009...
Discussion: PG6009 timing/content• Initial months: good time, flexibility also valued• „Haphazard‟ nature of initial resea...
Discussion: face-to-face• Clearly preferred• Opportunity to meet other researchers• For librarians: direct contact, invalu...
Discussion: suggestions• Lit. review questioned if 1-to-1 optimal. Demand not stronghere.• Attending module, aware of diff...
Conclusions 1.• Despite generic nature, diversity of humanities research, course hadclear benefits for participants.• Conf...
Conclusions 2.• Most valued elements (for early stages) included resourcediscovery, effective use of the web, and critical...
Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
Thank you for listening!Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
Appendix: Interview Questions(Looking back to the first few months of your PhD: thinking of your literature review inparti...
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R madden qqml2013

  1. 1. Ronan MaddenArts & Humanities LibrarianUniversity College Cork, Cork, IrelandPhD Students in the Humanities: Understandingthe Information Behaviour of GraduateInformation Literacy Course ParticipantsRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  2. 2. Overview• Background: PG6009 module• Literature Review• Research Question& Methodology• Results: Surveys and interviews• Discussion• Conclusions• QuestionsRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  3. 3. Background 1.• Accredited & assessed IL module (5 ECTS),University‟s structured PhD since 2008• Devised through partnership UCC, NUIGalway, and Trinity College Dublin• 6 compulsory units + reflective essay. face-to-face workshops, tailor-made online materialRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  4. 4. Background 2.• Each unit: different member of Library staff• Delivered as block & workshops• Originally STM audience. 2011 re-imagined:Humanities & Social Sciences• New: Irish archives, new content effectiveuse of the web for research• Now 15 hours class-contact time & onlineRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  5. 5. PG6009 Module ContentUnit 1: Research ResourceDiscoveryUnit 2 : Using the Web Effectively& Evaluating ResourcesUnit 3: Tracking DownResults & Keeping Up-to-dateUnit 5: Ethics in UsingInformationUnit 4: ManagingInformationUnit 6: Publishing &DisseminatingUnit 7: Using Archives for Researchincl. effectivedatabase searchingincl. a section on bibliometricsusing „Endnote‟incl. open access publishing
  6. 6. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  7. 7. This study:• A conduit: examine information seekingneeds/behaviour 1st year humanities PhDs• Better support 4th-level humanities researchers• Draws on Kuhlthau‟s (1991) ‘InformationSearch Process’• Deeper understanding of a specific groupduring initial months of PhD researchRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  8. 8. Literature Review: General• Few studies: generic IL courses for PhDs• Lack of research: information practices ofPhDs renewed interest• Catalano’s (2013) systematic review ofinformation behaviour of graduate students.• Lack of research info seekingneeds/behaviours humanities graduatesBarrett (2005). Thorough review: Case (2012)Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  9. 9. Literature Review: Humanities1.• Humanities scholar working alone, variety ofapproaches; professional network• UK RIN (2011) ‘richness and variety’, increasedcollaboration, technology• Importance of serendipity in humanities research• Wide variety of source material, complex nature• Subject-specific studies diversity across humanitiesRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  10. 10. HaphazardbeginningsDiverseneeds
  11. 11. Literature Review: Humanities 2.• Catalano (2013) no agreement on consistentinformation behaviours among humanities,Barrett (2005): do share common approaches,„tend to initiate research projects in haphazard,serendipitous ways‟. Research supervisors key.• Digital resources in humanities Warwick et al.(2008) wide range of resources, still true indigital environment, face-to-faceRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  12. 12. Literature Review: Beyond Humanities 1.• George et al (2006) multidisciplinarystudy, graduate students, ‘random motions ofinformation seeking’ when choosing area offocus. People play central role• Rempel (2010) ‘lack of a single path’ throughlit review process. Difficulty scoping projects.• Bruce (2001) challenges faced by „neophyte‟graduate, scope of lit. review in early stagesRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  13. 13. Literature Review: Beyond Humanities 2.• Problems with IL skills postgrads• Streatfield et al. (2010) U.K. difficult choicese.g. training-based approach or other means e.g.embedding librarians in research teams;concentrate on department/faculty-basedtraining or direct supportRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  14. 14. Literature Review: ‘Zones of Intervention’• Fleming-May & Yuro (2009). Library mustbecome known. Research needed into the„zones of intervention‟ particular to PhD study• Barrett (2005) think in terms of „zones ofintervention‟ recognising „patterns inhumanities graduate student research behaviour‟• Rempel (2010) „zones of intervention‟ targetedand tailored to meet the particular needs ofresearchersRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  15. 15. Literature Review: ‘Library-centric’• Haglund & Olsson (2008) personalized solutions;„what they actually want rather than what wethink they want‟• Macauley & Green (2007) caution librariansviewing doctoral students as „information literacydeficient‟ assuming all require IL. 1-on-1interactions• Bawden & Robinson (2009) complexity ofinformation behaviour, deeper understanding,beyond a ‘library-centric’ view of ILRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  16. 16. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  17. 17. Kulthua’s ‘Information Search Process’• Individual seeking meaning in course of seeking information• Uncertainty & vagueness at outset (‘initiation’ stage)• Optimism during the ‘selection’ stage• ‘Exploration’ stage, confusion & doubt, become orientated &sufficiently informed to focus topic• „Formulation’ stage, sharper, clearer focus, increased confidence.• „Collection’ stage, then „presentation’ stage• Final stage: ‘assessment’ of what has been achieved.• Uncertainty key concept, „zones of intervention’ areas in whichuser requires assistance to enable progress. Interventions outsidethis zone are unnecessary, potentially overwhelming.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  18. 18. Research QuestionOn the evidence of literature review:• Information seeking requirements of humanitiesresearchers diverse, particular challenges at outset• People play important role, N.B. research supervisor.• Value of ‘zones of intervention’, patterns inhumanities research behaviour• Lack of consensus: interventions should be one-to-one basis, services tailored to individual needs, or ifgeneric courses have worthwhile role, especially inregard to support for humanities research.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  19. 19. Is a generic information literacy module anappropriate method of intervention in theinitial months of a humanities PhD? What canwe learn from the course participants that willgive us a better understanding of theirinformation behaviour in order that theLibrary can improve its approach tosupporting them?Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  20. 20. Methodology• Questionnaire 1: early October 2012, all newhumanities PhDs who had registered for PG6009,beginning of PhD programme, prior to attending themodule - examine general perceptions regarding PhD,research topic, how they intended to meet informationneeds.• Questionnaire 2: February 2013, to those who hadcompleted the full module. Also to second year PhDstudents who had attended the module during first year.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  21. 21. Methodology• Interviews: 6 participants, richer understanding of howinformation seeking needs evolved.- Dervin‟s „sense-making methodology‟- ‘Gap’ is central.- Describe greatest obstacles encountered during initialmonths,- How they bridged gaps, what helped (or not) to “makesense” of their situation.Transcripts coded and examined alongside thedata from questionnaires.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  22. 22. 0 2 4 6 8 10Very confidentConfidentSomewhat confidentNot that confidentNot at all confidentHow confident do you feel about literature searchingat this stage of your programme?Ronan Madden QQML June 2013No respondent indicated they felt ‘very confident’ about literature search;nine (36%) indicated ‘confident’. Another nine (36%) ‘somewhatconfident’, six (24%) ‘not that confident’ & one ‘not at all confident’.Questionnaire 1: 25 responses
  23. 23. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013024681012Fully decided Close to Fully decided Somewhat Decided Not Really DecidedFive (20%) ‘fully decided’, ten (40%) ‘close to fully decided’ on theirresearch topic. Seven (28%) ‘somewhat decided’, three (12%) ‘not reallydecided’To what extent do you feel that you have decidedon your research question/topic?Questionnaire 1: 25 responses
  24. 24. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16Very clearly awareHave a good ideaHave some ideaNot sure yetNot at all sureTo what extent are you aware of the information sources that youare likely to require for your literature review?Ronan Madden QQML June 2013No one ‘very aware’ of information sources likely to use, fifteen (60%) had ‘agood idea’ of the sources. Five (20%) said they had ‘some idea’ ofsources, another five (20%) either ‘not too sure’, or ‘not at all sure’.Questionnaire 1: 25 responses
  25. 25. How confident do you feel in using these information sourcesefficiently and effectively?Very confidentConfidentSomewhat confidentA bit unsureNot sure at allRonan Madden QQML June 2013One student said ‘very confident’ in using the sources, eleven (44%)indicated ‘confident’, six (24%)‘somewhat confident’, five (20%) were‘a bit unsure’, two (8%) were ‘not at all sure’ of using sources.Questionnaire 1: 25 responses
  26. 26. People, groups, departments, organisations offerthem support during the lit search process. 18 of 25• Supervisors mentioned by 7, 4 mentioning first• Library or library staff mentioned in 9 responses• Other lecturers & academics mentioned by 7respondents, fellow students mentioned twice.• Also: „people who teach generic modules‟, „ITsupport‟, local historians/societies, nationalorganisationsRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  27. 27. • Reasonably confident in their ability tocritically evaluate information sources: 3(12%) claimed could do so „very well‟, 13 (52%)claimed able to do so „well‟, 5 (20%) „neitherwell nor badly‟, 4 (16%) „not well‟.• Ability to manage information 4 (16%) saidcould do so „very well‟, 5 (20%) „well‟, 12 (48%)„not well nor badly‟, 4 (16%) „not well‟.• Less sure about ability to keep up-to-datewith latest research, 17 (68%) indicated that theyhad not yet developed an effective approachRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  28. 28. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013024681012A Lot Somewhat Not a Lot Not at AllOne respondent said his/her research topic had changed ‘alot’, 11 changed ‘somewhat’ (55%), five (25%) ‘not a lot’, three(15%) ‘not at all’.Questionnaire 2 : 20 responsesTo what extent has your researchquestion/topic changed since then?
  29. 29. 0 2 4 6 810 12Very awareAwareNot that awareNot at all aware11261Ronan Madden QQML June 2013When asked how aware they had been (at the beginning of the PhD) of theinformation sources they are now using, one said he/she had been ‘veryaware’, twelve (60%) ‘aware’, six (30%) ‘not that aware’, and one ‘not at allaware’.In hindsight, to what extent wereyou aware of the informationsources that you are now using?
  30. 30. What major obstacles (in regard to the literature search)• 8 mentioned difficulties with scope, focus andnarrowing their topic• 6 mentioned searching and finding good information• 2 mentioned managing information• 2 referred to issues relating to time management• Others mentioned: keeping up-to-date withresearch, technology, knowing more aboutarchives, language skills, understanding philosophicalframeworks, and knowing what other skills would beneededRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  31. 31. What helped most during that period:• 7 mentioned PG6009• 6 referred to their supervisor• 6 referred to other courses they had attended• 4 mentioned self-reliance• 4 mentioned other students• 3 mentioned library staff• 1 mentioned the web• 1 mentioned funding informationRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  32. 32. Ronan Madden QQML June 201302468101214Very HelpfulHelpfulNot that HelpfulNot at all HelpfulThirteen (65%) ‘very helpful’, seven (35%) ‘helpful’How helpful was thePG6009 module?
  33. 33. Rank the various aspects in order of usefulness (forthe early stages of research)Top 3 were:1. Research resource discovery2. Evaluating information3. Using the web effectivelyRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  34. 34. • Timing of module- all 20 respondents indicated first yearappropriate- 6 mentioned a flexible approach, option ofblock delivery & workshops was suitable- 5 mentioned follow-up sessions• Method of delivery- 8 (40%) indicated face-to-face only- 12 (60%) preferred face-to-face plus online.- No one preferred online-only delivery.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  35. 35. More that the Library can do?– 6 (of 19 respondents to this question) happy– 7 suggested further sessions later-on. New topicssuggested were: newdatabases, preservation, Zotero, primary sourcesfrom other countries, writing and journalism.– 3 said one-to-one assistance from specific librarianswould be useful.– Other items mentioned: access to more databasesand more books in the Library.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  36. 36. Interviews: Theme 1• Outset: not aware of everything will need toknow- unlike Masters, PhDs figure out themselves• Many decisions re. structuredmodules, courses, workshops. Sequence work andattendance in optimal way• Serendipity in what they learned„may be all part of the literature review process’.• Rushing-in to some aspects of their research:‘I did a lot of work before I even started, but in anotherway it didn’t help because I wasn’t that ready, and Ishouldn’t have been trying to do that really, and I didall of that without much help from technology’Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  37. 37. Interviews: Theme 2Different to other PhDs, Insecurity & anxiety constructingunderstanding of what being a PhD student means. Gapbridged through informal channels, other students atcourses, conferencesE.G. one student spoke of challenge of having to‘work out how you are supposed to be a PhD student…you findinformation from people who are further down the road’Another:‘I thought PhDs had two heads and I was amazed when I startedgoing to conferences and stuff and meeting people who are doingPhDs and they were fairly normal, so then I realised that it waswithin my grasp’PG6009, or other events, offers opportunity to interactRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  38. 38. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  39. 39. Interviews: Theme 3Technology a recurring theme, bound-up withchallenge of finding out what they need toknow, and sequencing their research andattendance at courses and workshops.E.G. one interviewee stated that:‘For me the biggest things were the technologies thatI’m going to be using for part of the PhD.... andunderstanding what was going to be relevant to thePhD itself’Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  40. 40. Interview: Theme 4PG6009: clear that first term was a suitabletime, but option of attending workshops later alsoimportant:‘It was a really good time to run it in the first term,because even if like me you’re not using all the toolsright from the start, you know they exist and at whatpoint you need to bring them in’Another said:‘’Even now if you offered me the whole module againI’d probably go’Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  41. 41. Interview: Theme 5Content - very positive clear that even if theymay have known some of the content, theyappreciated hearing things again, and from adifferent angle.‘there were some bits I already knew but I think ifyou’re doing a course like that you’ve got to cater toeveryone and I didn’t get bored, I found itinteresting…there are other angles and different waysof searching that maybe I didn’t know about’Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  42. 42. Discussion: initial stages 1.• Various levels of confidence, extent they had decided onresearch topics, how aware of information sources• Interviews: some slightly later point in process• Most found: topic changed during initial months (only15% indicated that it did not change at all)• Important for library not to make assumptions re.preparedness, be aware: working through a process• 40% of the students not been aware of informationsources they were to use laterRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  43. 43. Discussion: initial stages 2.Kuhlthau’s „Information Search Process‟:• 1st questionnaire: initiation/selection stage ofresearch, variety of confidence levels• Likely exploration stage coincided with delivery of themodule in November and January.• Timing of PG6009 should help participants become betterequipped for exploration stage, build confidence, honeresearch topic• Interviews in April: formulation and collection stages.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  44. 44. Discussion: literature search• Scoping & focussing: challenge, corroborates lit review• Searching & finding, ‘haphazard‟ early stages borne out• ‘Lack of a single path’ choice of courses, workshops,• Interviews: some rush in, not aware of sources &technologies, Planning & sequencing a challenge• Serendipity: what‟s learned during modules & courses• Technology, awareness takes time. Coincides with otherchallenges: scoping, planning, sequencing• Process of making sense of what it means to be a PhDresearcher, uniqueness of their own research, how they „fit in‟Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  45. 45. • Supervisors key for some, variety of people play a part• Role of other students/researchers + own self-reliance.• PG6009: important role as did other courses• All found module good or very good- despite relativelygeneric nature of PG6009, wide range of humanitiesdisciplines, clear benefits• Some aspects not new to some, happy to hear new angle• Topics: helped overcome greatest challenges during firstyear, i.e. searching, scoping & evaluatingRonan Madden QQML June 2013Discussion: interventions
  46. 46. Discussion: PG6009 timing/content• Initial months: good time, flexibility also valued• „Haphazard‟ nature of initial research- some wish to revisit.Some aspects may be appropriate for some later• Valued awareness of resources early-on: how fits withinevolving needs of own research & potentially busy schedule• N.B. Library let PhDs know welcome to repeat workshops• Essential: seek feedback, improve, avoid Bawden and Robinson(2009) „library-centric‟ approach• Try new topics, workshop series format can accommodateRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  47. 47. Discussion: face-to-face• Clearly preferred• Opportunity to meet other researchers• For librarians: direct contact, invaluablefeedback• module assessment reading the essaysenhances our understanding of the researchprocess and offers a deeper understanding ofresearcher information needs.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  48. 48. Discussion: suggestions• Lit. review questioned if 1-to-1 optimal. Demand not stronghere.• Attending module, aware of different librarians (differentexpertise e.g. Subject Librarians, Archivists, IR Manager)sufficient for most in early stages?• Researchers encouraged to contact specific librarians• 1-to-1 sessions at wrong stage inefficient?• Making itself known, Library, reduce anxiety, attrition rates• Librarians increasing profile/relevance, research habits offuture academics. Vital that content reviewed, updatedRonan Madden QQML June 2013
  49. 49. Conclusions 1.• Despite generic nature, diversity of humanities research, course hadclear benefits for participants.• Confirmed first year PhDs in humanities scoping and amendingtopics. Learning to narrow topic, find and manage qualityinformation a challenge, as are issues relating to technology.• Planning and sequencing their research + attendance atseminars/training & courses difficult at time when they are makingsense of what it means to be a PhD researcher.• Variety of people play crucial role in helping to bridge initialgaps, space for the Library.• Most appropriate time to attend PG6009: initial months of the PhD.Some preferred particular units later as stand-alone workshops, oroption of repeating particular topics; this should be encouraged.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  50. 50. Conclusions 2.• Most valued elements (for early stages) included resourcediscovery, effective use of the web, and critical appraisal.• Face-to-face delivery is valued.• Scope for additional follow-up sessions on specific topics, criticalthat Library continues to gauge reaction to content, amend courseas appropriate.• Some potential for encouraging further one-to-one contact withlibrarians but may not be something all PhD students require aspriority in the early stages.• Direct benefit of module: researchers develop an understanding ofpotential of the Library. Likewise, the librarians teaching PG6009 aregreater insight into work of PhD students, information practices asresearchers, how they cope in the first year.Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  51. 51. Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  52. 52. Thank you for listening!Ronan Madden QQML June 2013
  53. 53. Appendix: Interview Questions(Looking back to the first few months of your PhD: thinking of your literature review inparticular)1. What were the greatest challenges/obstacles/confusions that youencountered/experienced during those initial months?Why was that a particular challenge (prior expectations)?How did you feel about the research project then?2. How did you cope with those challenges, get around the problems, do thingsdifferently than previously envisaged?3. What helped, Why and How did that help (were other people a help)? What gotyou through? What was unhelpful or set you back?4. If you could wave a magic wand & go back to the beginning what would havehelped (to bridge that gap)? What can UCC do to help researchers with thosechallenges? What can the Library do?5. What are your thoughts on the PG6009 module (content, timing, delivery)?Ronan Madden QQML June 2013

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