The Tao of the Web
              China and the Global Internet
                                      Rebecca MacKinnon

  ...
“The kingdom is a spirit-like thing, and
                         cannot be got by active doing. He who
                  ...
Cultural loss of control: “Back dorm boys”




                         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2HOD-nrOY8


Tuesd...
Premier Wen Jiabaoʼs 2-hour
            live chat with “netizens”




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Gov.cn




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Gov.cn




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Gov.cn




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
E - “Two Congresses”
             National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference
        ...
E - “Two Congresses”
             National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference
        ...
E - “Two Congresses”
             National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference
        ...
Proposal to abolish one child policy

                            “End the one-child
                         policy, rest...
Proposal to abolish one child policy
                                                                                     ...
Chinese
                         cyber-glasnost???


Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Not so fast...



                  Wang Xiaofeng:
                people are getting too
                emotional .. “.....
Not so fast...


                              “Due to certain problems Wang Xiaofengʼs blog is
                          ...
Not so fast...


                              “Due to certain problems Wang Xiaofengʼs blog is
                          ...
Dissidents are still in jail




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Dissidents are still in jail




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Dissidents are still in jail




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Dissidents are still in jail




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber-tarianism?
                                     President Hu Jintao (June 2008):
                                   ...
Cyber-tarianism?
                                                                               President Hu Jintao (June ...
Common Western paradigm for
              Chinese Internet controls: makes it
             harder to understand Cyber-tari...
“Iron curtain 2.0”
                                                    (h/t Lokman Tsui)




                         Phot...
The “Great Firewall” in action




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
“Net nanny”




                         Photo courtesy “merwing” at http://flickr.com/photos/merwing/2569326878/
         ...
Inside the firewall: Search censorship
                         Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”




Tuesday, March 3,...
Inside the firewall: Search censorship
                         Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”




Tuesday, March 3,...
Inside the firewall: Search censorship
                         Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”




Tuesday, March 3,...
Censorship by Chinese blog-hosting companies



                                      Tianya blog service:
               ...
CENSORED




                         Your post “Tiananmen mothers organization publishes a
                          webs...
Sina.com: Report about explosion in Xinjiang,
                                published successfully, but...




Tuesday, ...
Post is removed within 24 hours.
                         Error message at same URL: “Sorry, the blog address
            ...
Tests show blogs are censored by companies,
                      amount and methods very decentralized
                Co...
Chinese web management:
          Hydro-electric engineering?




Photos:
LEFT: “noelinthebahamas” on Flickr at http://flic...
Riot in Wengʼan county, Guizhou province, Julyʼ08
                                Summer 2008 marked a shift in
          ...
“Pushups” were
                                                              used by bloggers
                            ...
“Pushups” were
                                                              used by bloggers
                            ...
Political joke:
                         “River crab wears three watches”




                         “Harmonious”       ...
Anti-censorship Protest video:
                          “song of the alpaca sheep”




                             http:...
River crabs vs. alpaca sheep




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber civil war 2.0




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber-nationalism




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico




               Some foreigners who have eaten their fill
               have nothing better t...
V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico

                                                                 “It is only by way of this fra...
V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico

                                                                       “It is only by way of th...
“Fifty Cent party”
                paid & volunteer web commentators




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber-vigilantism
                         “Human flesh search engines”




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber-vigilantism
                         “Human flesh search engines”


                                               Cy...
Cyber police




Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Cyber bonapartism?
                                   “a broad centrist
                               political movement ...
Cyber-confucianism?
                          “importance of education
                          for moral development of
...
Cyber-ocracy?




                              2008 Chinese Blogger Conference, Guangzhou.
                         Photo...
Isaac Mao
                                                               If we want free speech,
                         ...
Bloggers & civil rights
                    lawyers argue:
                           “Internet democracy” isnʼt really
  ...
Web freedom vs. control
                         Jeffersonians vs. Hamiltonians
                           (Central idea i...
Web freedom vs. control
                         Jeffersonians vs. Hamiltonians
                           (Central idea i...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government

                              Governmen...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government

                              Governmen...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government

                              Governmen...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government

                              Governmen...
Where are we going?


               “Authoritarian   “Democratic
                Countries”       Countries”




Tuesday,...
Where are we going?


               “Authoritarian   “Democratic
                Countries”       Countries”




Tuesday,...
Where are we going?


               “Authoritarian   “Democratic
                Countries”       Countries”




Tuesday,...
Where are we going?


               “Authoritarian   “Democratic
                Countries”       Countries”




Tuesday,...
Where are we going?
                                ?
               “Authoritarian       “Democratic
                Coun...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                             Government
...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                                 Governm...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                                 Governm...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                                 Governm...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                                 Governm...
We are building a global layer
                   between citizens and government
                                 Governm...
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The Tao of the Web: China and the future of the Internet

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My talk on March 3rd at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society

http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/events/luncheon/2009/03/mackinnon

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The Tao of the Web: China and the future of the Internet

  1. The Tao of the Web China and the Global Internet Rebecca MacKinnon Open Society Fellow Assistant Professor, Journalism & Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong Co-Founder, Global Voices Blog: RConversation.com email: rebecca.mackinnon@gmail.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  2. “The kingdom is a spirit-like thing, and cannot be got by active doing. He who would so win it destroys it; he who would hold it in his grasp loses it.” --- Lao-tzu, The Tao-te Ching Chapter 29, No.1 Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  3. Cultural loss of control: “Back dorm boys” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2HOD-nrOY8 Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  4. Premier Wen Jiabaoʼs 2-hour live chat with “netizens” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  5. Gov.cn Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  6. Gov.cn Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  7. Gov.cn Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  8. E - “Two Congresses” National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference http://elianghui.people.com.cn Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  9. E - “Two Congresses” National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference http://elianghui.people.com.cn Sign up for a “membership badge” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  10. E - “Two Congresses” National Peopleʼs Congress & Chinese Peopleʼs Political Consultative Conference http://elianghui.people.com.cn Sign up for a Two suggestions for fighting corruption “membership badge” Crackdown on ads for illegal medicine as hard as the anti-porn crackdown Suggestions for improving safety in coal mines Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  11. Proposal to abolish one child policy “End the one-child policy, restore population growth to a sustainable rate” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  12. Proposal to abolish one child policy Don’t we have enough people? “End the one-child policy, restore population growth to a sustainable rate” Uphold the reproductive rights of the Han Chinese race! Deng Xiaoping himself said that the one-child policy would be for 30 years! Reward single childless people with free health care... Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  13. Chinese cyber-glasnost??? Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  14. Not so fast... Wang Xiaofeng: people are getting too emotional .. “...without a proper [political] structure all Premier Wen can do is interact with people on an emotional level...” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  15. Not so fast... “Due to certain problems Wang Xiaofengʼs blog is closed temporarily (for a few days)” Wang Xiaofeng: people are getting too emotional .. “...without a proper [political] structure all Premier Wen can do is interact with people on an emotional level...” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  16. Not so fast... “Due to certain problems Wang Xiaofengʼs blog is Sorry, due to a sudden closed temporarily (for a few days)” case, plus the two-space- conferences, plus having mentioned Pre-space-mier-space Wen, therefore Teacher Wangʼs blog has been temporarily Wang Xiaofeng: “smutted”...please have patience until the two-space-meetings people are getting too are over. emotional .. “...without a proper [political] structure all Premier Wen can do is interact with people on an emotional level...” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  17. Dissidents are still in jail Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  18. Dissidents are still in jail Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  19. Dissidents are still in jail Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  20. Dissidents are still in jail Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  21. Cyber-tarianism? President Hu Jintao (June 2008): “We pay great attention to suggestions and advice from our netizens. We stress the idea of quot;putting people firstquot; and quot;governing for the people.quot; With this in mind, we need to listen to people's voices extensively and pool the people's wisdom when we take actions and make decisions. The web is an important channel for us to understand the concerns of the public and assemble the wisdom of the public.” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  22. Cyber-tarianism? President Hu Jintao (June 2008): “We pay great attention to suggestions and advice from our netizens. We stress the idea of quot;putting people firstquot; and quot;governing for the people.quot; With this in mind, we need to listen to people's voices extensively and pool the people's wisdom when we take actions and make decisions. The web is an important channel for us to understand the concerns of the public and assemble the wisdom of the public.” • “Authoritarian deliberation” (Yongnian Zheng) Technological Empowerment: The Internet, State, and Society in China http://video.sina.com.cn/news/c/v/2008-06-20/105617742.shtml Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  23. Common Western paradigm for Chinese Internet controls: makes it harder to understand Cyber-tarianism Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  24. “Iron curtain 2.0” (h/t Lokman Tsui) Photo courtesy “PC fish” on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Point_Alpha_Ostseite.jpg (GNU Free Documentation License) Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  25. The “Great Firewall” in action Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  26. “Net nanny” Photo courtesy “merwing” at http://flickr.com/photos/merwing/2569326878/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-ND license) Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  27. Inside the firewall: Search censorship Image search for “Tiananmen massacre” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  28. Inside the firewall: Search censorship Image search for “Tiananmen massacre” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  29. Inside the firewall: Search censorship Image search for “Tiananmen massacre” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  30. Censorship by Chinese blog-hosting companies Tianya blog service: Blog post about “Tiananmen Mothers” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  31. CENSORED Your post “Tiananmen mothers organization publishes a website” has been successfully submitted! Because it contains sensitive words, please wait for the community editors to approve it. Please donʼt re-post. Thank you. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  32. Sina.com: Report about explosion in Xinjiang, published successfully, but... Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  33. Post is removed within 24 hours. Error message at same URL: “Sorry, the blog address you visited does not exist.” 8 OUT OF 15 BLOG SERVICES TESTED CENSORED THIS CONTENT Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  34. Tests show blogs are censored by companies, amount and methods very decentralized Company A 60 B 44 15 blog hosts tested, C 34 D 31 108 valid tests E 27 F 26 Blog services G NOTE: Company names have been replaced with 24 letters due to concerns that companies who censor H 22 less will be subject to repercussions. I 20 J 19 For more about Chinese blog K 17 censorship see February issue L 13 of First Monday at: M 9 http://firstmonday.org N 3 O 1 0 27 54 81 108 Number of blog posts tested Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  35. Chinese web management: Hydro-electric engineering? Photos: LEFT: “noelinthebahamas” on Flickr at http://flickr.com/photos/noelinthebahamas/2417798169/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-ND) RIGHT: “yunmeng” on Flickr at http://flickr.com/photos/yunmeng/323886547/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-SA) Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  36. Riot in Wengʼan county, Guizhou province, Julyʼ08 Summer 2008 marked a shift in official media strategy: let official news agencies cover bad breaking stories to get the official version out quickly, then censor unofficial versions. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  37. “Pushups” were used by bloggers to talk about Wengʼan incident This Sina.com website no longer exists Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  38. “Pushups” were used by bloggers to talk about Wengʼan incident This Sina.com website no longer exists 3 images from: http://www.caobian.info/?p=3778 Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  39. Political joke: “River crab wears three watches” “Harmonious” “Rivercrab” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  40. Anti-censorship Protest video: “song of the alpaca sheep” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3tPA_Z_MT0 Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  41. River crabs vs. alpaca sheep Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  42. Cyber civil war 2.0 Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  43. Cyber-nationalism Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  44. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  45. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico “It is only by way of this frankness that the confidence of a responsible big power can be better displayed; it is only by way of this frankness that the bright attitude of an increasingly powerful China can best be shown; and also it is only with this frankness our fellow countrymen will feel excited.” Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  46. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico “It is only by way of this frankness that the confidence of a responsible big power can be better displayed; it is only by way of this frankness that the bright attitude of an increasingly powerful China can best be shown; and also it is only with this frankness our fellow countrymen will feel excited.” “Vice President Xi Jinping is so cool! He trashed the unfriendly foreigners.” Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs. Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  47. “Fifty Cent party” paid & volunteer web commentators Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  48. Cyber-vigilantism “Human flesh search engines” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  49. Cyber-vigilantism “Human flesh search engines” Cyber-Maoism? Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  50. Cyber police Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  51. Cyber bonapartism? “a broad centrist political movement that advocates the idea of a strong and centralized state, based on popular support.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonapartism Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  52. Cyber-confucianism? “importance of education for moral development of the individual so that the state can be governed by moral virtue rather than by the use of coercive laws.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  53. Cyber-ocracy? 2008 Chinese Blogger Conference, Guangzhou. Photos courtesy “HKdom” http://www.flickr.com/photos/hkdom/3046205362/ and http://www.flickr.com/photos/hkdom/3046219444/in/photostream/ Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  54. Isaac Mao If we want free speech, first we need free thinking. http://www.isaacmao.com/ “Sharism will result in better social justice. In a healthy sharing environment, any evidence of injustice can get amplified to get the public's attention. Anyone who has been abused can get real and instant support from her peers and her peers' peers.” “Sharism will be the politics of the next global superpower. It will not be a country, but a new human network joined by Social Software.” Photo by Joi Ito (Creative Commons BY) at: http://freesouls.cc/essays/07-isaac-mao-sharism.html Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  55. Bloggers & civil rights lawyers argue: “Internet democracy” isnʼt really democratic without things like: • rational, systematic & fair mechanisms; • mandated institutional transparency & accountability; • meaningful and robust legal protection for free speech Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  56. Web freedom vs. control Jeffersonians vs. Hamiltonians (Central idea in David Postʼs Jeffersonʼs Moose) The argument is very much unresolved in todayʼs parliamentary democracies when it comes to Web standards and regulations.. Both photos in public domain via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2.jpg Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  57. Web freedom vs. control Jeffersonians vs. Hamiltonians (Central idea in David Postʼs Jeffersonʼs Moose) The argument is very much unresolved in todayʼs parliamentary democracies when it comes to Web standards and regulations.. A lively Chinese version of this debate is now raging, hampered by censorship - and complicated by strong nationalism. Both photos in public domain via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2.jpg Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  58. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  59. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  60. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  61. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  62. Where are we going? “Authoritarian “Democratic Countries” Countries” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  63. Where are we going? “Authoritarian “Democratic Countries” Countries” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  64. Where are we going? “Authoritarian “Democratic Countries” Countries” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  65. Where are we going? “Authoritarian “Democratic Countries” Countries” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  66. Where are we going? ? “Authoritarian “Democratic Countries” Countries” Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  67. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  68. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Global Network Initiative Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  69. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Web & IT services Global Regulation Network (GOFA, WTO, etc?) Initiative Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  70. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Internet Web & IT governance & services Technical Global Regulation standards Network (GOFA, WTO, etc?) Initiative Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  71. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Internet Web & IT International governance & services human rights Technical Global Regulation norms standards Network (GOFA, WTO, etc?) Initiative Citizen Tuesday, March 3, 2009
  72. We are building a global layer between citizens and government Government Internet Web & IT International governance & services human rights Technical Global Regulation norms standards Network (GOFA, WTO, etc?) Initiative MUCH better organized, informed & Citizen equipped GLOBAL CITIZENRY? Tuesday, March 3, 2009

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