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Work in a globalized world
Rombert Stapel, IISH / Weatherhead Initiative on Global History
Richard Zijdeman, IISH / Stirli...
labour relations
Extensive definition of ‘work’
• market
• non-market
• family
• coerced labour
3
serf
tributary labourer
...
TLR: taxonomy of labour relations 4
total
population
non-working
reciprocal
labour
tributary
labour
commidified
labour
hou...
Taxonomy of Labour Relations
© 2015 Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations, 1500-2000
http://www.historyo...
‘the collab’
a.k.a.
The Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations
6
all continents
ca. 1500-2000
for / with ...
Current approach
Is there regional and temporal change?
• regional experts
• period 1500-2000, in ca. 100 year intervals
•...
Progression
8
1500
1800
2000
1650
1900
the collab’s future aims
• gather missing data for the past two centuries
• move from descriptive to explanatory questions...
our (DH) aim
To make the derivation of labour relations:
• more efficient
• more detailed
• suitable for explanatory quest...
approach (use case)
• source: IPUMS (Univ. of Minnesota)
• digitized US census data (1850 – 2015)
• derive labour relation...
key variables
• class of worker
• employment status
• labour force status
• occupation
• age
12
Old School Advanced flow chart
Baltimore, 11/12/2015
13
Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach
14
So, does it work?
15
Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated US, male
16
1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
3 3
3 3
3
3
3
3 3 3
105 105
105
105
105...
Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated US, female
17
1 1 1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3 3 3
105 105
105
105...
Is it more efficient?
Replication for Turkey
• manually: several months
• algorithm: 3 hours
• near-perfect replication
18
So, is it temporally
more detailed?
19
Shift in Labour Relations over time:
meat cutters
Baltimore, 11/12/2015
20
Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro ...
Shift in Labour Relation over time:
midwives
Baltimore, 11/12/2015
21
Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Appro...
So, is it spatially more
detailed?
22
Regional variation in labour relations (GIS):
Percentage self-employed
23
and it’s on the
individual level …
24
The importance of life course and
household structure variables (1920)
25
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 10 20 ...
… and allows for the study of
shifts in labour relations
26
-2.0%
-1.5%
-1.0%
-0.5%
0.0%
0.5%
1.0%
1.5%
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
197...
Current caveats
• Lack of multiple labour relations (e.g. part time self-
employed, part time wage earner)
• Census regist...
Methodological conclusions
• Validation of construction of labour relations
• Assessment of 100-year intervals
• Describe ...
Substantive conclusions
In addition to hypothesized shifts:
• Evidence for ‘structural’ shifts: occupations that
change in...
Contact
Selected recent literature
rombert.stapel@iisg.nl
richard.zijdeman@iisg.nl
www.historyoflabourrelations.org
• Kari...
Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated Portugal, male
Baltimore, 11/12/2015
32
Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Ma...
Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated Portugal, female
Baltimore, 11/12/2015
33
Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-...
work in a globalized world
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We show how rather than manually, we created an algorithm to derive labour relations automatically from IPUMS-USA data in a more efficient and detailed way, allowing for explanatory questions rather than descriptive questions

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work in a globalized world

  1. 1. Work in a globalized world Rombert Stapel, IISH / Weatherhead Initiative on Global History Richard Zijdeman, IISH / Stirling University An algorithm allocating labour relations to digitized census data DH 2016 Kraków, July 15, 2016
  2. 2. labour relations Extensive definition of ‘work’ • market • non-market • family • coerced labour 3 serf tributary labourer slave indentured labourer self-employed wage-earner
  3. 3. TLR: taxonomy of labour relations 4 total population non-working reciprocal labour tributary labour commidified labour households polity market non-market institutions non-working
  4. 4. Taxonomy of Labour Relations © 2015 Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations, 1500-2000 http://www.historyoflabourrelations.org Total population Non-working 1: Cannot work or cannot be expected to work 2: Affluent 3: Unemployed Reciprocal labour Household(s) 4a: Leading producers 4b: Kin producers 5: Kin non-producers 6: Servants 7: Redistributive labourers Tributary labour Polity 8: Obligatory labourers 9: Indentured tributary labourers 10: Tributary serfs 11: Tributary slaves Commodified labour Market 12a: Self-employed leading producers 12b: Self-employed kin producers 13: Employers 13.1: Of free wage earners 13.2: Of identured labourers 13.3: Of serfs 13.4: Of slaves 14: Wage earners 14.1: Sharecropping 14.2: Piece rate 14.3: Time rate 14.4: Cooperative subcontracting 15: Indentured labourers 16: Serfs 17: Slaves 17.1: Working for proprietor 17.2: For hire Non-market institutions 18: Wage earners 18.1: Sharecropping 18.2: Piece rate 18.3: Time rate Point of departure Labour relations (individuals) SubcategoryType of exchange Goal of production
  5. 5. ‘the collab’ a.k.a. The Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations 6 all continents ca. 1500-2000 for / with whom one works
  6. 6. Current approach Is there regional and temporal change? • regional experts • period 1500-2000, in ca. 100 year intervals • mainly macro data (e.g. occupational census tables) • methodological papers & uniform data entry 7
  7. 7. Progression 8 1500 1800 2000 1650 1900
  8. 8. the collab’s future aims • gather missing data for the past two centuries • move from descriptive to explanatory questions 9
  9. 9. our (DH) aim To make the derivation of labour relations: • more efficient • more detailed • suitable for explanatory questions 10
  10. 10. approach (use case) • source: IPUMS (Univ. of Minnesota) • digitized US census data (1850 – 2015) • derive labour relations from key variables 11
  11. 11. key variables • class of worker • employment status • labour force status • occupation • age 12
  12. 12. Old School Advanced flow chart Baltimore, 11/12/2015 13 Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach
  13. 13. 14
  14. 14. So, does it work? 15
  15. 15. Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated US, male 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a013 12a013 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14018 14018 14018 14018 14018 14018 14018 14018 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Unknown 1 2 3 105 5 8 12a 12a013 12a013014 12a014 12a014018 13 14 14018 17 18
  16. 16. Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated US, female 17 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 5 5 5 5 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a Estimate 12a // 18 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14018 14018 14018 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Unknown 1 2 3 105 5 8 12a 12b 12a013 12a013014 12a014 12a014018 13 14 14018 17 18
  17. 17. Is it more efficient? Replication for Turkey • manually: several months • algorithm: 3 hours • near-perfect replication 18
  18. 18. So, is it temporally more detailed? 19
  19. 19. Shift in Labour Relations over time: meat cutters Baltimore, 11/12/2015 20 Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house Meat cutters (combined; 1850-1910) Meat cutters, wage-earners Meat cutters, self-employed
  20. 20. Shift in Labour Relation over time: midwives Baltimore, 11/12/2015 21 Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Midwives Midwives (combined; 1850-1910) Midwives, wage-earners Midwives, self-employed
  21. 21. So, is it spatially more detailed? 22
  22. 22. Regional variation in labour relations (GIS): Percentage self-employed 23
  23. 23. and it’s on the individual level … 24
  24. 24. The importance of life course and household structure variables (1920) 25 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Age Household of: Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house (1920; age distribution) Non-working Self-employed Wage-earner
  25. 25. … and allows for the study of shifts in labour relations 26
  26. 26. -2.0% -1.5% -1.0% -0.5% 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 No change: Unpaid family worker Unpaid family worker to NIU Unpaid family worker to Self-employed Unpaid family worker to Wage/salary, private Unpaid family worker to Wage/salary, government NIU to Unpaid family worker Self-employed to Unpaid family worker Wage/salary, private to Unpaid family worker Wage/salary, government to Unpaid family worker unpaid family worker to non-working Shifts in unpaid family work of total surveyed population (CPS/IPUMS 1964-2015) 27 remain: unpaid family worker
  27. 27. Current caveats • Lack of multiple labour relations (e.g. part time self- employed, part time wage earner) • Census registration issues: child/female labour 28
  28. 28. Methodological conclusions • Validation of construction of labour relations • Assessment of 100-year intervals • Describe and explain shifts over space and time • Introducing the individual and household level as unit of analysis 29
  29. 29. Substantive conclusions In addition to hypothesized shifts: • Evidence for ‘structural’ shifts: occupations that change in nature • Life cycle shifts in labour relations 30
  30. 30. Contact Selected recent literature rombert.stapel@iisg.nl richard.zijdeman@iisg.nl www.historyoflabourrelations.org • Karin Hofmeester, Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen, Rombert Stapel and Richard Zijdeman, ‘The Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations, 1500-2000: Background, Set-Up, Taxonomy, and Applications’ (2015; www.historyoflabourrelations.org) • Leo Lucassen, ‘Working Together: New Directions In Global Labour History’, Journal of Global History 11.1 (2016; forthcoming) • Marcelo Badaró Mattos et al (eds), Relações Laborais em Portugal e no Mundo Lusófono. Historia e Demografia. Lisbon: Edições Colibri 2014 • Special Issue ‘Labor Relations in Africa’: History of Africa 41 (2014) 31
  31. 31. Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated Portugal, male Baltimore, 11/12/2015 32 Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 4a012a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 1414018 14018 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1864 1878 1890 1900 1911 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1981 1991 2001 2011 Labour relations Portugal (Males) Unknown 1 2 3 105 5 8 4a012a 4b012b 12a 12b 13 14 14018 17 18
  32. 32. Labour relations 1850-2010: Aggregated Portugal, female Baltimore, 11/12/2015 33 Shifts in Labour Relations Using a Micro-Macro Approach 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 105 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4b012b 4b012b 4b012b 4b012b 4b012b 4b012b 4b012b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 12b 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14018 14018 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1864 1878 1890 1900 1911 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1981 1991 2001 2011 Labour relations Portugal (Females) Unknown 1 2 3 105 5 8 4a012a 4b012b 12a 12b 13 14 14018 17 18

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