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Representing Taxonomies:
           What am I looking at here?
           By Rachel Lovinger

           Semantic Technology Conference 2007




   May 23, 2007

Photo by Sarah Jane Rhee
• Introduction
            • The Mission
            • Approaches
            • Future Directions
            • Resources




            ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 1      may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.

Photo by Rachel Lovinger
About Avenue A | Razorfish
                                                                                                    Largest independent interactive consulting firm in the U.S.
                                                                                                    2000 professionals with average of 10+ years experience
                                                                                                    Bring together core disciplines of business strategy, user
                                                                                                    experience design, program management and technology.
                                                                                                    Pioneers and recognized experts around a user-centered,
                                                                                                    insight-driven approach to designing web experiences
                                                                                                    Deep technology experience in content management, portals,
                                                                                                    e-commerce, personalization, and business intelligence
                                                                                                    2005 AdAge™ – Best Interactive Media Agency of the Year
                                                                                                    Offices in 11 U.S. cities, Europe and Asia/Pacific:
                                                                                                                        -Atlanta                        -Seattle
                                                                                                                        -Austin, TX                     -Berlin
                                                                                                                        -Boston                         -Frankfurt
                                                                                                                        -Chicago                        -London
                                                                                                                        -Ft. Lauderdale                 -Paris
                                                                                                                        -Los Angeles                    -Hong Kong
                                                                                                                        -New York                       -Shanghai
                                                                                                                        -Philadelphia                   -Sydney
                                                                                                                        -Portland, OR                   -Tokyo
                                                                                                                        -San Francisco                  -Kobe


         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 2   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Representing Taxonomy Is About…




    How to help your
    project stakeholders
    understand and work
    with large, complex
    sets of taxonomy data



         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 3   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
What We Won’t Be Covering


         • How to get approval to do taxonomy work as
              part of a project
         • How to build a taxonomy


         Note: Domain expertise not required




         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 4   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Formula for Successful Taxonomy Building




            Deliverable Design
                                                     +
                    Communication
         “Politics and consensus building are the
         toughest aspects of building a taxonomy”


          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 5    may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Terminology

         • Taxonomy                                                                                                   • Stakeholders
         • Classification                                                                                             • Contributors
         • Controlled Vocabulary                                                                                      • Subject Matter Experts
         • Ontology                                                                                                   • Editors
         • Metadata                                                                                                   • Client
         • Authority File                                                                                             • Boss
         • Attributes
         • Dimensions
         • Facets
         • Glossary
         • Thesaurus
         • Page Inventory
         • Sitemap

         • -----------

         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 6   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
• Introduction
           • The Mission
           • Approaches
           • Future Directions
           • Resources




           ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 7     may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.

Photo by Tom Marscado
You Want to Create a Data Driven Site


         What makes these concepts work?




                                       Citegraph                                                              MoMA                                      Allmusic




         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 8   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Citegraph




                                       Citegraph                                                              MoMA                                      Allmusic




         ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 9   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
MoMA Contemporary Voices




                                        Citegraph                                                              MoMA                                      Allmusic




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 10   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
All Music Guide




                                        Citegraph                                                              MoMA                                      Allmusic




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 11   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Your Mission

          • The site needs taxonomy data
          • The taxonomy needs decisions made by experts




                                        Citegraph                                                              MoMA                                      Allmusic


                 How do you facilitate & document those decisions?

          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 12   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
• Introduction
           • The Mission
           • Approaches
           • Future Directions
           • Resources




            ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 13     may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.

Photo by Yu Kizawa
When Do You Start?

          Aligning taxonomy building with the web development process


Web Dev                                                                                                                                                  Build   Live
                          Concept                                         Wireframes                                                 Design
 Phase


Taxonomy                                                                                                                           Detailed
                      Groundwork                                         Dimensions &                                                                     Usage &
  Tasks                                                                                                                           Taxonomy
                      & High Level                                       Relationships                                                                   Maintenance


                                                                                             Communication




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 14   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
What Do You Need From Stakeholders?


          • Get approval for data

          • Get expert input

          • Build partnership and ownership

          • Distributed communication




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 15   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Concept Phase

                                       Key Question: What is the site about?

Web Dev                                                                                                                                                  Build   Live
                          Concept                                         Wireframes                                                 Design
 Phase


Taxonomy                                                                                                                           Detailed
                      Groundwork                                         Dimensions &                                                                     Usage &
  Tasks                                                                                                                           Taxonomy
                      & High Level                                       Relationships                                                                   Maintenance


                                                                                             Communication


                                   Tip: Start building consensus as early as possible.



          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 16   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Do the Groundwork


          To make good taxonomy decisions, the
          stakeholders need to know:
          • What does your audience want?
          • What does your site need to do?
          • How are other people doing it?
          • Do you have some data to start with?
          • What can you learn from the way people use the site?

          Summarize your findings in a brief document

          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 17   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Demonstrate Functionality In Action


          Example:
          Robust faceted
          navigation




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 18   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Prepare the Stakeholders to Think Like Taxonomists

          The less abstract the work is, the more
          engaged they’ll be:
          • Define taxonomy terms and concepts
          • Tell them exactly what the taxonomy will do
          • Give them the context for making decisions
          • Be specific about what you need from them




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 19   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Use Humor to Make It Less Intimidating




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 20   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Taxonomy Documentation Styles


          • Diagram
          • Outline
          • Spreadsheet
          • Other Tables
          Not great for people
          •          XML
          •          RDF
          •          N-triples

          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 21   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Communicating About Taxonomy Documentation


          • “How to use this document” instructions
          • Talking points for distributed communication
          • Track important decisions




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 22   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Wireframe Phase

                     Key Question: How is the information organized?

Web Dev                                                                                                                                                  Build   Live
                          Concept                                         Wireframes                                                 Design
 Phase


Taxonomy                                                                                                                           Detailed
                      Groundwork                                         Dimensions &                                                                     Usage &
  Tasks                                                                                                                           Taxonomy
                      & High Level                                       Relationships                                                                   Maintenance


                                                                                             Communication


                                         Tip: Use real taxonomy data in the wireframes



          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 23   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Diagram Format: Structure


          • Dimensions
          • Polyhierarchy
          • Relationship
            details
          • Not effective for
            showing nodes



          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 24   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
          Illustrations - Peter Morville, as seen in Ambient Findability (O’Reilly Media).
Dimensions


                                                                                             Fashion Magazine




                                Stores                                                 Fashion                    Entertainment
                                                          Beauty                                                                                           Gifts




                                                                                                                                                         Holidays &
                             Locations                             Brands                                    People
                                                                                                                                                         Occasions




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 25   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Polyhierarchy


                                                                                             Fashion Magazine




                                Stores                                                 Fashion                    Entertainment
                                                          Beauty                                                                                           Gifts
                                                                                 Supermodel                            TV Host




                                                                                                                                                         Holidays &
                             Locations                                                                       People
                                                                                                                                                         Occasions
                                                                                                       Heidi Klum




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 26   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
          Photos © Bravo TV & NBC Universal. All rights reserved.
Relationship Structure




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 27   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Relationship Sample Data




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 28   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
          The Departed © Warner Brothers; The Queen © Miramax. All rights reserved.
Not Effective For Showing Nodes




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 29   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Outline Format: Limited Detail
                                                                                                             Fashion Products
                                                                                                                                                         Pants
                                                                                                             Accessories
                                                                                                                                                               Cropped
                                                                                                                  Belts
          • Hierarchical                                                                                                                                       Jeans
                                                                                                                  Hats
                                                                                                                                                               Shorts
                                                                                                                  Gloves
                                                                                                                                                               Tailored
                                                                                                                  Scarves
          • Dimensions and                                                                                                                               Shirts & Blouses
                                                                                                                  Socks
                                                                                                                                                               Long-sleeve
                                                                                                                  Umbrellas
            narrower terms                                                                                                                                     Short-sleeve
                                                                                                                  Wallets
                                                                                                                                                               Sleeve-less
                                                                                                             Bags
                                                                                                                                                               T-shirts
                                                                                                                  Clutch
                                                                                                                                                         Shoes
          • Dozens of                                                                                             Makeup Bags
                                                                                                                                                               Boots
                                                                                                                  Shoulder
                                                                                                                                                               Clogs
            nodes, not                                                                                            Suitcases
                                                                                                                                                               Sneakers
                                                                                                                  Tote
                                                                                                                                                               Flats
            hundreds                                                                                              Weekend Bags
                                                                                                                                                               Mules
                                                                                                             Coats & Jackets
                                                                                                                                                               Pumps
                                                                                                                  Blazers
                                                                                                                                                               Sandals
                                                                                                                  Parkas
                                                                                                                                                               Slingbacks
                                                                                                                  Ponchos
                                                                                                                                                               Slippers
                                                                                                                  Raincoats
                                                                                                                  Sweater-coats
                                                                                                                  Trench-coats
                                                                                                                  Vests
          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 30   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Wireframes With Fake Taxonomy


                                                                                                                       The functionality isn’t
                                                                                                                       accurately represented,
                                                                                                                       if the data is completely
                                                                                                                       made up.




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 31   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Use Real Sample Data




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 32   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Design Phase

                                       Key Question: What’s the actual data?

Web Dev                                                                                                                                                  Build   Live
                          Concept                                         Wireframes                                                 Design
 Phase


Taxonomy                                                                                                                           Detailed
                      Groundwork                                         Dimensions &                                                                     Usage &
  Tasks                                                                                                                           Taxonomy
                      & High Level                                       Relationships                                                                   Maintenance


                                                                                             Communication


                                                                         Tip: Prototype the data.



          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 33   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Spreadsheet Format: Extensive Data


          • Many nodes
          • Faceted
          • Few dimensions
          • Some Attributes
          • Less effective for
            complex
            relationships

          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 34   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 35   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Spreadsheet – Pivot Tables




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 36   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Other Tables: Attributes


          • More familiar
          • Many
            relationships
          • Defined
            template
          • Labor intensive



          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 37   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Prototype
          Created with MindManager




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 38   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips


          • Appropriate level of detail
          • Don’t try to do it all in one
          • Make it appealing to look at
          • Make it familiar




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 39   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Too Much Detail




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 40   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Not Enough Detail




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 41   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips


          • Appropriate level of detail
          • Don’t try to do it all in one
          • Make it appealing to look at
          • Make it familiar




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 42   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Multiple Deliverables Working Together




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 43   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips


          • Appropriate level of detail
          • Don’t try to do it all in one
          • Make it appealing to look at
          • Make it familiar




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 44   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Hard To Look At = Hard To Understand

                                  Too Busy                                                                            Clean & Comprehensible




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 45   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips


          • Appropriate level of detail
          • Don’t try to do it all in one
          • Make it appealing to look at
          • Make it familiar




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 46   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
`


          Use Design Elements Associated With The Project




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 47   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Build Phase & Live

                Key Question: How do we make sure this taxonomy
                is used properly and is still relevant in six months?

Web Dev                                                                                                                                                  Build   Live
                          Concept                                         Wireframes                                                 Design
 Phase


Taxonomy                                                                                                                           Detailed
                      Groundwork                                         Dimensions &                                                                     Usage &
  Tasks                                                                                                                           Taxonomy
                      & High Level                                       Relationships                                                                   Maintenance


                                                                                             Communication

                                                 Tip: If they don’t own it, they won’t use it.


          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 48   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Get Ready to Hand It Over


          • How to use the data for content creation
          • How to maintain the taxonomy




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 49   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Tagging Guidelines


          • Define the terms

          • How to apply
            the tags
          • Affect on the site




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 50   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Change Management Plan


          • Definitions and guidelines

          • What kind of changes can be made
          • Who can make changes
          • How to assess the impact of changes
          • How often changes will be made




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 51   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
• Introduction
            • The Mission
            • Approaches
            • Future Directions
            • Resources




            ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 52     may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.

Photo by Rachel Lovinger
Future Directions


          • Best Practices
          • Prototyping tools
            – Easy to use
            – Support flexible data structures
            – User-friendly presentation

          • Adoption of standards




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 53   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
• Introduction
           • The Mission
           • Approaches
           • Future Directions
           • Resources




           ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 54    may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.

Photo by Dave Gorman
Resources
          • Glossaries
            – Taxonomy Glossary on CMS Wiki
            – Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic Maps! – A paper on Topic Maps that
              includes a good overview of these terms. By Lars Marius Garshol of Ontopia.

          • Selling Taxonomy
            – Dublin Core Metadata Initiative – includes business cases, ROI presentation, etc.
            – Taxonomy today, ROI tomorrow – By David Berlind, ZDnet

          • Constructing Taxonomy
            – ANSI/NISO Z39.19 - 2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and
              Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies (PDF)
            – Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy – by
              Christian Ricci, Boxes & Arrows

          • Existing Taxonomy Data
            – Thousands of OWL documents are indexed in Google. Add “filetype:owl” to your
              search and see what comes up.

          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 55   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Resources
          • Prototyping
            – MindJet® MindManger® - commercial mind mapping software
            – FreeMind – open source mind mapping software
            – Bubbl.us – an online brainstorming tool
            – TopBraid Composer™ - a commercial tool for building ontologies and semantic
              web applications
            – Protégé – an open source ontology editor

          • Shared Knowledge
            – Taxonomy Community of Practice
            – CM Pros – Content Management Community of Practice
            – Semantic Web Interest Group

          • Information Design
            – Edward Tufte
            – VisualComplexity.com
            – Information Aesthetics
          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 56   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Thanks

          To the colleagues who shared their examples, insights
          and feedback.
          And to these flickr.com users who made their images
          available through Creative Commons:
                       Sarah Jane Rhee                                              Some rights reserved.


                       Tom Mascardo                                     Some rights reserved.


                       Yu Kizawa                                     Some rights reserved.


                       Dave Gorman                                             Some rights reserved.


                                                  Rachel Lovinger                                           Some rights reserved.




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 57   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
Questions?
                            Rachel Lovinger
          rachel.lovinger@avenuea-razorfish.com




          ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and
Page 58   may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
          Photo by Rachel Lovinger

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Representing Taxonomies: What am I looking at here?

  • 1. Representing Taxonomies: What am I looking at here? By Rachel Lovinger Semantic Technology Conference 2007 May 23, 2007 Photo by Sarah Jane Rhee
  • 2. • Introduction • The Mission • Approaches • Future Directions • Resources ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 1 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Rachel Lovinger
  • 3. About Avenue A | Razorfish Largest independent interactive consulting firm in the U.S. 2000 professionals with average of 10+ years experience Bring together core disciplines of business strategy, user experience design, program management and technology. Pioneers and recognized experts around a user-centered, insight-driven approach to designing web experiences Deep technology experience in content management, portals, e-commerce, personalization, and business intelligence 2005 AdAge™ – Best Interactive Media Agency of the Year Offices in 11 U.S. cities, Europe and Asia/Pacific: -Atlanta -Seattle -Austin, TX -Berlin -Boston -Frankfurt -Chicago -London -Ft. Lauderdale -Paris -Los Angeles -Hong Kong -New York -Shanghai -Philadelphia -Sydney -Portland, OR -Tokyo -San Francisco -Kobe ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 2 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 4. Representing Taxonomy Is About… How to help your project stakeholders understand and work with large, complex sets of taxonomy data ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 3 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 5. What We Won’t Be Covering • How to get approval to do taxonomy work as part of a project • How to build a taxonomy Note: Domain expertise not required ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 4 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 6. Formula for Successful Taxonomy Building Deliverable Design + Communication “Politics and consensus building are the toughest aspects of building a taxonomy” ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 5 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 7. Terminology • Taxonomy • Stakeholders • Classification • Contributors • Controlled Vocabulary • Subject Matter Experts • Ontology • Editors • Metadata • Client • Authority File • Boss • Attributes • Dimensions • Facets • Glossary • Thesaurus • Page Inventory • Sitemap • ----------- ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 6 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 8. • Introduction • The Mission • Approaches • Future Directions • Resources ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 7 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Tom Marscado
  • 9. You Want to Create a Data Driven Site What makes these concepts work? Citegraph MoMA Allmusic ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 8 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 10. Citegraph Citegraph MoMA Allmusic ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 9 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 11. MoMA Contemporary Voices Citegraph MoMA Allmusic ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 10 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 12. All Music Guide Citegraph MoMA Allmusic ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 11 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 13. Your Mission • The site needs taxonomy data • The taxonomy needs decisions made by experts Citegraph MoMA Allmusic How do you facilitate & document those decisions? ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 12 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 14. • Introduction • The Mission • Approaches • Future Directions • Resources ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 13 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Yu Kizawa
  • 15. When Do You Start? Aligning taxonomy building with the web development process Web Dev Build Live Concept Wireframes Design Phase Taxonomy Detailed Groundwork Dimensions & Usage & Tasks Taxonomy & High Level Relationships Maintenance Communication ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 14 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 16. What Do You Need From Stakeholders? • Get approval for data • Get expert input • Build partnership and ownership • Distributed communication ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 15 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 17. Concept Phase Key Question: What is the site about? Web Dev Build Live Concept Wireframes Design Phase Taxonomy Detailed Groundwork Dimensions & Usage & Tasks Taxonomy & High Level Relationships Maintenance Communication Tip: Start building consensus as early as possible. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 16 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 18. Do the Groundwork To make good taxonomy decisions, the stakeholders need to know: • What does your audience want? • What does your site need to do? • How are other people doing it? • Do you have some data to start with? • What can you learn from the way people use the site? Summarize your findings in a brief document ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 17 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 19. Demonstrate Functionality In Action Example: Robust faceted navigation ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 18 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 20. Prepare the Stakeholders to Think Like Taxonomists The less abstract the work is, the more engaged they’ll be: • Define taxonomy terms and concepts • Tell them exactly what the taxonomy will do • Give them the context for making decisions • Be specific about what you need from them ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 19 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 21. Use Humor to Make It Less Intimidating ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 20 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 22. Taxonomy Documentation Styles • Diagram • Outline • Spreadsheet • Other Tables Not great for people • XML • RDF • N-triples ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 21 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 23. Communicating About Taxonomy Documentation • “How to use this document” instructions • Talking points for distributed communication • Track important decisions ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 22 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 24. Wireframe Phase Key Question: How is the information organized? Web Dev Build Live Concept Wireframes Design Phase Taxonomy Detailed Groundwork Dimensions & Usage & Tasks Taxonomy & High Level Relationships Maintenance Communication Tip: Use real taxonomy data in the wireframes ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 23 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 25. Diagram Format: Structure • Dimensions • Polyhierarchy • Relationship details • Not effective for showing nodes ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 24 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Illustrations - Peter Morville, as seen in Ambient Findability (O’Reilly Media).
  • 26. Dimensions Fashion Magazine Stores Fashion Entertainment Beauty Gifts Holidays & Locations Brands People Occasions ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 25 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 27. Polyhierarchy Fashion Magazine Stores Fashion Entertainment Beauty Gifts Supermodel TV Host Holidays & Locations People Occasions Heidi Klum ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 26 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photos © Bravo TV & NBC Universal. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Relationship Structure ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 27 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 29. Relationship Sample Data ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 28 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. The Departed © Warner Brothers; The Queen © Miramax. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Not Effective For Showing Nodes ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 29 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 31. Outline Format: Limited Detail Fashion Products Pants Accessories Cropped Belts • Hierarchical Jeans Hats Shorts Gloves Tailored Scarves • Dimensions and Shirts & Blouses Socks Long-sleeve Umbrellas narrower terms Short-sleeve Wallets Sleeve-less Bags T-shirts Clutch Shoes • Dozens of Makeup Bags Boots Shoulder Clogs nodes, not Suitcases Sneakers Tote Flats hundreds Weekend Bags Mules Coats & Jackets Pumps Blazers Sandals Parkas Slingbacks Ponchos Slippers Raincoats Sweater-coats Trench-coats Vests ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 30 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 32. Wireframes With Fake Taxonomy The functionality isn’t accurately represented, if the data is completely made up. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 31 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 33. Use Real Sample Data ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 32 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 34. Design Phase Key Question: What’s the actual data? Web Dev Build Live Concept Wireframes Design Phase Taxonomy Detailed Groundwork Dimensions & Usage & Tasks Taxonomy & High Level Relationships Maintenance Communication Tip: Prototype the data. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 33 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 35. Spreadsheet Format: Extensive Data • Many nodes • Faceted • Few dimensions • Some Attributes • Less effective for complex relationships ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 34 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 36. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 35 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 37. Spreadsheet – Pivot Tables ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 36 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 38. Other Tables: Attributes • More familiar • Many relationships • Defined template • Labor intensive ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 37 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 39. Prototype Created with MindManager ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 38 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 40. ` Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips • Appropriate level of detail • Don’t try to do it all in one • Make it appealing to look at • Make it familiar ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 39 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 41. ` Too Much Detail ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 40 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 42. ` Not Enough Detail ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 41 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 43. ` Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips • Appropriate level of detail • Don’t try to do it all in one • Make it appealing to look at • Make it familiar ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 42 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 44. ` Multiple Deliverables Working Together ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 43 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 45. ` Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips • Appropriate level of detail • Don’t try to do it all in one • Make it appealing to look at • Make it familiar ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 44 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 46. ` Hard To Look At = Hard To Understand Too Busy Clean & Comprehensible ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 45 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 47. ` Taxonomy Deliverable Design Tips • Appropriate level of detail • Don’t try to do it all in one • Make it appealing to look at • Make it familiar ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 46 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 48. ` Use Design Elements Associated With The Project ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 47 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 49. Build Phase & Live Key Question: How do we make sure this taxonomy is used properly and is still relevant in six months? Web Dev Build Live Concept Wireframes Design Phase Taxonomy Detailed Groundwork Dimensions & Usage & Tasks Taxonomy & High Level Relationships Maintenance Communication Tip: If they don’t own it, they won’t use it. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 48 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 50. Get Ready to Hand It Over • How to use the data for content creation • How to maintain the taxonomy ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 49 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 51. Tagging Guidelines • Define the terms • How to apply the tags • Affect on the site ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 50 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 52. Change Management Plan • Definitions and guidelines • What kind of changes can be made • Who can make changes • How to assess the impact of changes • How often changes will be made ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 51 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 53. • Introduction • The Mission • Approaches • Future Directions • Resources ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 52 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Rachel Lovinger
  • 54. Future Directions • Best Practices • Prototyping tools – Easy to use – Support flexible data structures – User-friendly presentation • Adoption of standards ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 53 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 55. • Introduction • The Mission • Approaches • Future Directions • Resources ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 54 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Dave Gorman
  • 56. Resources • Glossaries – Taxonomy Glossary on CMS Wiki – Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic Maps! – A paper on Topic Maps that includes a good overview of these terms. By Lars Marius Garshol of Ontopia. • Selling Taxonomy – Dublin Core Metadata Initiative – includes business cases, ROI presentation, etc. – Taxonomy today, ROI tomorrow – By David Berlind, ZDnet • Constructing Taxonomy – ANSI/NISO Z39.19 - 2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies (PDF) – Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy – by Christian Ricci, Boxes & Arrows • Existing Taxonomy Data – Thousands of OWL documents are indexed in Google. Add “filetype:owl” to your search and see what comes up. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 55 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 57. Resources • Prototyping – MindJet® MindManger® - commercial mind mapping software – FreeMind – open source mind mapping software – Bubbl.us – an online brainstorming tool – TopBraid Composer™ - a commercial tool for building ontologies and semantic web applications – Protégé – an open source ontology editor • Shared Knowledge – Taxonomy Community of Practice – CM Pros – Content Management Community of Practice – Semantic Web Interest Group • Information Design – Edward Tufte – VisualComplexity.com – Information Aesthetics ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 56 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 58. Thanks To the colleagues who shared their examples, insights and feedback. And to these flickr.com users who made their images available through Creative Commons: Sarah Jane Rhee Some rights reserved. Tom Mascardo Some rights reserved. Yu Kizawa Some rights reserved. Dave Gorman Some rights reserved. Rachel Lovinger Some rights reserved. ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 57 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent.
  • 59. Questions? Rachel Lovinger rachel.lovinger@avenuea-razorfish.com ©2007 Avenue A | Razorfish. All rights reserved. This material contains confidential and proprietary information of Avenue A | Razorfish and Page 58 may not be reproduced, distributed or disclosed, in whole or in part, without its express consent. Photo by Rachel Lovinger