―It’s not faith in technology. It’s faith in people.‖ –Steve Jobs— -This is an exceptionally true statement.There can be new technologies thrown aroundbut the real test is whether or not people choose toadapt to them. -We can only make an attempt to predict thefuture of technology, it is merely uncontrollable.
The Umbrella perspective Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations Moore’s Innovation Adoption Theory Critical Mass Theory Uses and Gratifications Theory Media System Dependency Theory Social Learning Theory/ Social Cognitive Theory The theory of the Long Tail The Principle of Relative Constancy
New technologies usually All five sections of the umbrella are spring from developments in important in understanding theory. hardware. *In identifying each level of the Umbrella Breakdown umbrella one must evaluate in terms Handle> Individual Users of enabling, limiting, motivating & Bottom level> Hardware and inhibiting factors. software - If an application provides a new Next level> Organizational way to access something infrastructure; group of desirable, limits accessible users, organizations involved in motivates one to use the devise production and distribution of and most of all a competitive technology. and new innovation. Top level> System level; - It is important to understand Political, economic & media that when analyzing the success systems + other organizations of a technology political and serving function in society. economical factors should be the first examined.
Rogersdiffusion ofInnovationsOutline of the process that a personundergoes during the decisionmaking stages.1.) Knowledge- Learn theinformation.2.) Persuasion- Create a positiveopinion.3.) Decision- I will or will notpurchase this.4.) Implementation- Using thedevice.5.) Confirmation- did I make agood decision? An attempt to explain how an innovation is communicated over time through different channels to members of a social system.
Further explored diffusion of innovations & high-tech marketing in crossing the chasm. Gaps between innovators & early adopters & so on.. Who are you?? 1.Innovators- take risk 2.Early Adaptors- must see new benefit before adopting 3.Early majority- largest gap through chasm. Want to see improvement through productivity & numbers.
―Critical Mass‖ Innovators & early adaptors who are willing to take the risk to try new interactive technology ―Collective action‖ Actions by individuals that benefit others -Technologiesbecome more useful ifeveryone in the system isusing the technology- goalis universal access.
This approach views users as actively seeking to use different media to fulfill different needs. A type of research that adds a descriptive approach that gives insight into what people do with technology. Focus: 1. Social & psychological origins 2. needs, which generate 3. Expectations 4. mass media or other sources, leads to 5. Different patterns of media exposure for engagement in other activities, result in 6. needs gratifications & 7. other consequences perhaps unintended ones
An ecological theory that attemptsto explain & explore the role of themedia in society by examiningdependency relations with andacross levels of analysis. -In order to fully understand amedium one must analyzerelationship at different levels aswell as individual level (Medialevel & society in general). Six Dimensions 1. Self-understanding 2. Action oriented 3. Interaction orientation 4.Solitary play 5. Social play RESEARCH ON INDIVIDUAL MEDIA 6. Social understanding SYSTEM DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIPS HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH DIFFERENT MEDIA.
Focus of how people learn by modeling others - Symbolic modeling =watch TV or computer &learn Reinforce & Punishment Theory -Watching & learingWII bowling with friends
There are no more ―Hit‖ movies, television shows &albums like there once was because now the massmedia doesn’t control everything its all distributed.• ―Our culture & economy is increasongly shifting away from a focus on a relatively small number of ―hits‖ at the head end of the demand curve & toward a huge number of niches in the tail.• *In order for niche companies to make money they must lower their prices, help people find it & make it all available.
The Principle of People spend a constantRelative fraction of their disposableConstancy income on mass media over time. When new innovations are introduced people rearrange their spending money. e.i. Satellite radio users are more likely to spend less on iTunes.
Through the years the Early adaptors will jump telephone has adapted to our right on this idea. It is a new needs. First it was the home concept that brings phone. Then cell phones conversation to real life. were invented and people Other reasons people will became reachable join the band wagan throughout their day. Now - professors can teach many there is video chat where more students at once people can see each other Professionals can leave the and communicate. In 2022 everyone will have hologram country and still attend meetings phones. People will virtually be able to chat like real life Long distance relationships without being in the same can hold strong room. * This new technology will be universally accessible & the last of the early majority will be joining in on this device.
Computers have adapted from big blocks which only held the information that we imputed to light weight notebooks that connect toothers in the world around us. Our society has become increasingly more dependent on computers over the last decade. In 2022 everyone willhave a notebook at hand. Through this device people are able to carry all of their important information and can connect with others. Everyone will need a notebook in order to stay up to date and successful in the world.
News papers, magazines & books will be aphase of the past. The future will not bring theseitems along. In the world of 2022 people willneed these things ready at their finger tips.Through the use of an e-reader this will bepossible. With everyone going green, the treelovers will be happy with this change. The e-reader is light weight and wont break your back.It is easy to carry around and much morecompact. It’s more convenient so why wouldn’ta person want one? It will be easier to find yourbook through a digital library then a library weuse now.
Internet has come along way over theyears. People arebecoming increasinglymore dependent onthe internet. In 2022wifi will be availablefor use everywhere,not just café’s andlibraries. With theconvenience on wifipeople can connectwith others, do workand find informationat the convenience oftheir finger tips.