Intro to Sociology, Perspectives, and Governments


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Intro to Sociology, Perspectives, and Governments

  1. 1. What is Sociology??? Science of how we act as a collective in terms of our social structure Concentrates on patterns of social relationships
  2. 2. <ul><li>A young student cheats on his math test </li></ul><ul><li>A couple in their upper 20’s decide to get married </li></ul><ul><li>A newly retired man goes out and buys a sports car for the first time </li></ul>How Does Sociology Compare With Psychology?
  3. 3. Theoretical Perspectives <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Functionalism <ul><li>Everything exists because of a reason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it didn’t have a purpose, it simply wouldn’t exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is poverty because society is in need of cheap labor and a workforce to do the less desirable jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty can be seen as a motivating force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest vs. latent functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life will always return to a state of stability </li></ul><ul><li>There is a general consensus among people about how to live </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conflict Theory <ul><li>Those in power make the rules to maintain their own control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses competition among those who have and among those who don’t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on the ideas of Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic exploitation leads to political oppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are kept poor in order to protect the status of the wealthy, who make the rules </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Symbolic Interactionism <ul><li>Sociologists began to focus on how we interact with each other </li></ul><ul><li>We have mutually understood symbols that we use with each other. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4 Basic Theories of Government Answers the question – How did governments form?
  8. 8. Force Theory <ul><li>Power comes from those that are willing to rise up and take the power </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects follow until someone else rises to overtake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cycle continues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describes dictatorships </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Power derives from the family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small family with head of household </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through marriage, clans form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head of household now head of clan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clans form villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Villages bring towns  cities  states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes many indigenous political developments </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Divine Right Theory <ul><li>Power to rule comes from a deity </li></ul><ul><li>divine being gives power to ruling force </li></ul><ul><li>Those in power maintain power as long as they appease the god, gods, or God. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Divine Right Theory <ul><li>When favor is lost – power is lost and given to another </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese called this cycle the “Dynastic Cycle” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Divine Right Theory <ul><li>Explains monarchies, especially in Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Still used today by leaders – actions are justified because God has found favor on them. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Contract Theory <ul><li>John Locke and Thomas Hobbes – state of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacking of rules – most powerful in control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract is made to bring order from the chaos </li></ul></ul>Follow and respect those rules that have created safety W/O Power create rules that will take care of those who lack power – power is given by the people With Power
  14. 14. What Happens When This Contract is Broken? <ul><li>If those that are ruled break the contract? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they have a consequence that is administered by those in power </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What Happens When This Contract is Broken? <ul><li>If those that have been given power break the contract? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people have a right and responsibility to overthrow such government and institute a new one. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What do you think? <ul><li>Has this contract been broken today? </li></ul><ul><li>What does our Declaration of Independence say about this possibility? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Basic Concepts of Democracy Fundamental Worth of the Individual Equality of All Persons Majority Rule and Minority Rights Necesity of Compromise Individual Freedom
  18. 18. <ul><li>Must we accept what we are given by our system? </li></ul><ul><li>What right do we have to ask for change? </li></ul><ul><li>What means should we use to bring about change if change is necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What prevents us from bringing change when needed? </li></ul>