Agent has Custody of a Resource. An Agent (person or system) can exchange the custodianship of a resource with other Agent's custodianship of other Resource. A Resource has economic value; which can be decremented or incremented. Resource may be a product or a service. Service provides intangible utility, generally, the facility or platform used to produce the utility remains to the owner. An economic exchange is an economic Event between Agents; which results an economic Commitment. A Commitment is fulfilled by execute some types of economic Process. Commitment can be further break down many (Service Level) Agreement. They have contractual nature, and need to be fulfilled by responsible Agent. An economic process changes the Custody of a Resource or state of a Resource.
eclipse workspace: rea-uml
Orchestration = dynamically compose eTOM cell to fulfill SLA, modify service components to meet new requirements, provide feedback to nel/nme/nms/oss/bss
Not just like symphony, more like entertainment event Type of activity Music selection
Identify service -> app -> software component -> execution environment -> configuration (FCAPS, policy, monitoring, notification) and composition -> quality control ->
NFV Orchestration should be Service Orchestration (SO)
NFV Orchestration should be Service Orchestration (SO)
View Orchestration from Model Driven Engineering Prospective
from Model Driven Engineering
• To understand orchestration;
• What is orchestration?
• What is the purpose of orchestration?
• Why do I need it? Can I automate the orchestration?
• Are there different types of orchestration?
• Is there a general concept/design pattern I can follow?
using “Model Driven Engineering” as a tool to view orchestration.
• General guiding principle
• To allow the learning continue to evolve.
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• Resource-Event-Agent (REA)
• Business Process
• TMN, Value Chain, and eTOM
• Roles and responsibilities
• Use Cases
• 1 - Deliver a pizza order
• 2 - Deploy a telecom service to cloud
• Open Source
• ETSI-MANO and NFV-IFO model
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What is model?
Simpler version of the real thing.
There are many modeling tools for
various domains, e.g.
F18 airplane in AMES wind tunnel,
UML is only one model language
for software development.
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• Not necessary
• Real Men Don't Eat Quiche;
• Real Women Don't Pump Gas;
• Real Kids Don't Say Please;
• Real Architects Don't Write Code!!!
• Real Programmers Don't Model Software Design!!!
• Good thing to do
• Communicate/sync among team members.
• Design documentation and Code generation.
• Reverse engineering.
• Model transformation and Data mapping.
• Manage complexity.
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Resource, Event, Agent (REA) Model
Resources, Events, Agents (REA)
• is a model of how an accounting
system can be re-engineered for
the computer age.
• proposed in 1982 by William E.
McCarthy as a generalized
accounting model, and contained
the concepts of resources, events
and agents (McCarthy 1982).
• ISO 15944-4
20170126CC 4.0 SA, NC 6Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resources,_events,_agents_(accounting_model)
REA in a Nutshell
• Agent has Custody of a Resource.
• An Resource has economic value.
• An economic exchange is an Event between Agents; which results an economic
• Commitment needs to be fulfilled by the responsible Agent to complete the
• A Process changes the Custody of a Resource or state of a Resource.
• Service groups a set of Resources and deliver the utility to the Agent. Service
Level is established in the exchange.
• Policy governs the behavior of economic exchange.
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UML Class Diagram for Extended REA (working in progress)
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• A value chain is a set of activities that a
firm operating in a specific industry
performs in order to deliver a valuable
product or service for the market. The
concept comes from business
management and was first described
and popularized by Michael Porter in his
1985 best-seller, Competitive Advantage:
Creating and Sustaining Superior
20170126CC 4.0 SA, NC 9Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN2)
• A standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
• will provide businesses with the capability of understanding their internal
business procedures in a graphical notation and
• will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures in a standard
• the graphical notation will facilitate the understanding of the performance
collaborations and business transactions between the organizations.
• Large ecosystem: BPMN design tools, executable platforms, flow
simulation, code generation,…
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Simple BPMN Model for REA
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Use Case 1 – Deliver Ordered Pizza
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Decide type of
pizza to eat
Find pizza store
Like the pizza and
its price, call & order it
If there is no pre-made
pizza, get dough
and other ingredients
Make pizza Deliver pizza
Wrong size pizza
Finished this order
Or no one is happy
New pizza or refund,
Different payment method
Use Case 2 – Simple BPMN Model for Network Services
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Decide the network
Find service provider
Web Shipping Site
to production OSS
- Create vm or container
- Identify network links
- Configure …
- Fetch network apps
Update service menu
- Load app
Network is too slow
Keep using the network
Or service cancelled
Telecommunication Management Network
20170126CC 4.0 SA, NC 14Ref: http://www.snmpcenter.com/what-is-the-tmn-model/
eTOM in Production
20yymmddCC 4.0 SA, NC 16Ref: https://processarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/030314_1558_staticanddy3.jpg
and the eTOM
20yymmddCC 4.0 SA, NC 17Ref: https://processarchitecture.wordpress.com/
What is Orchestration? (my interpretation)
A system can
Dynamically select and deploy processes
• To allocate and to assemble resources to fulfill service order,
• To trigger quality assurance to meet desired SLA,
• To provide billing information.
In telecom context:
• It monitors the state of resources and logs the changes, can dynamically allocate and
adjust the network resources components to meet new requirements in real-time,
provides feedback to BSS and self-aware and self-healing in OSS/NMS/NME/NEL layers.
• BPMN2 Provides a standard notations, practices for design various processes, and TOSCA
for topology and automation.
• MicroServices provides granular software components (eTOM) for reuse and flexibility.
• VMs and containers provide execution environment.
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• Real-time, any time, anywhere.
• Dynamic and speed.
• Software Defined Everything
• New paradigms, control strategies.
• Service mixing and complexity.
• Flexibility and complexity.
• Development management.
• Open Source and Open Platform
• More software options.
• Nature of competitiveness.
• New software design, and
development and deployment
• IoT, M2M, eHealth, …
• 5G, Mobile Edge Computing
• Autonomous driving.
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Open Source MANOs
• Reference design (NFVO, VNFM, VIM, …)
• Open Source MANO (OSM)
• ETSI OSM leverages OpenMANO for Resource
Orchestration (RO), and
• Juju for VNF configuration and management (CM),
• OSM also introduces a component for Service
Orchestration (SO), provided by Rift.io Riftware
(NSO) which is beyond the ETSI NFV current scope.
• Open Baton
• Open Baton is an open source project led by
Fraunhofer Focus and TU Berlin. It uses use
message bus + driver. It is now being used by a few
European projects and is available under GitHub
and Apache 2.0 license.
• Open Baton is also based on ETSI NFV phase 1
reference architectural framework and MANO
specifications. It is not aligned yet with the IFA
• Linux Foundation (NFV-O + SDN-O)
• Cloudify, Project ARIA
• EU project
• Open Source TOSCA Orchestration.
• OpenStack Heat.
• Kubernetes, Fleet, Swarm.
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Architecture to Fit
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Framework to Fit
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Demo - ETSI-MANO Information Model (NFV-IFA)
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Thank You for Listening
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Out of date,