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  1. 1. China
  2. 2. Chinese Facts <ul><li>Name Zhong Guo “Middle Kingdom” </li></ul><ul><li>Population-The population of China is over 1 billion. 94% of the population is known as HAN (ethnic Chinese), but there are 55 national minorities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chinese Facts <ul><li>Area-The total area of China is 3,696,032 square miles. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Rivers-The two major rivers are the Yellow Rives and the Yangtze River. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate-Primarily temperate, but varies from bitterly cold in north to tropical in south. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities-China’s two most populous cities are Beijing, the capital, and Shanghai. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Language <ul><li>Mandarin is the official dialect of the country, although there are many dialects which vary from region to region. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Written Language <ul><li>The Chinese do not use an alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, each Chinese word is called a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Each character represents an idea or object . </li></ul><ul><li>Written form was standardized around 200 b.c. (Spoken not standardized-different dialects). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Written Language cont. <ul><li>Chinese characters are really pictures of things (pictographs) or pictures of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of characters make up the Chinese Language. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Daily Life <ul><li>6 th Century-500 b.c. Confucius teachings were deeply ingrained in Chinese society. </li></ul><ul><li>He stressed the importance of family and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized that if children obeyed and respected their parents, then as adults, they would respect authority. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue or respect towards one’s elders is known as filial piety. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chinese Manners <ul><li>Showing respect towards others is one of the principle virtues in Chinese society. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in rules of etiquette and proper behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: both hands should be used to handle items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive a gift, sit aside and open later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowing, as to convey respect to the higher level </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Manners cont. <ul><li>Do not use large hand movements. The Chinese do not speak with their hands. Your movements may be distracting to your host. </li></ul><ul><li>  Personal contact must be avoided at all cost. It is highly inappropriate for a man to touch a woman in public. </li></ul><ul><li>To point do not use your index finger, use an open palm. </li></ul><ul><li>  It is considered improper to put your hand in your mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>  Avoid acts that involve the mouth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gift giving is a very delicate issue in China <ul><li>The following gifts and/or colors are associated with death and should not be given: </li></ul><ul><li>Clocks </li></ul><ul><li>Straw sandals </li></ul><ul><li>A stork or crane </li></ul><ul><li>Handkerchiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Anything white, blue or black </li></ul>
  11. 11. Food <ul><li>Because of the climates, wheat is grown in the north and rice in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>*Bread, noodles, and rice are main staples. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables are the next most consumed foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Meat is eaten in small quantities and is often used to flavor food. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits are eaten for snacks and are sometimes served as desert. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Foods cont. <ul><li>Dog is common in Korean restaurants in Beijing. The dogs used are not pets taken from people's homes but are specially raised for food - just as a cow, lamb or chicken would be in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Scorpion </li></ul><ul><li>Mice/Rat meat dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cicada </li></ul><ul><li>Snake meat dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Starfish </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chinese Art <ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Favorite Subjects in Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bamboo-Strength and durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus – purity and perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrysanthemum-retirement and life of ease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plum Tree-strength and long life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peach-long life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crane-most popular, placed with pine tree, long life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bat-happiness and wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish-wealth and abundance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Chinese Art <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Slide Show </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Architecture </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chinese Religion <ul><li>Different from Western Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian, Muslim or Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend of Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, and Local Gods/Spirits </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Basic Ideas <ul><li>Humanistic rather than center it on gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast to Western in God’s will on Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis is on what God wants, what God intends, not on what mankind wants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese relate religion on how to act in such a way that the gods will grant one's wishes, or how to ensure that the gods will do what mankind wants and needs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Basic Ideas <ul><li>Focus on good life on earth not afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectibility of Humankind </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony and peace with the world and with other people </li></ul>
  18. 18. Confucianism 6 centuries b.c. <ul><li>Everything is seen as relational, what you do effects everything, even generational </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Righteousness and justice for everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filial piety: family, country, not one’s own wishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truthfulness </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Daoism <ul><li>Opposite of Confucian stress on ethics and education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more education a person had the more you become divorced from the natural way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let nature takes its course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humankind should discard all contrivance </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Buddhism <ul><li>The Four Truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering exists as an inescapable part of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering has a cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That cause is desire for things to be different than they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering is the elimination of desire </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Chinese Festivals <ul><li>There are innumerable festivals and celebrations that vary from region to region. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are a number of major festivals that have a long tradition and are celebrated with much enthusiasm and excitement throughout the country. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ching Ming Festival <ul><li>Also known as the Grave-sweeping or Spring Remembrance </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese families show their respect by visiting the graves of their ancestors to clear away weeds, touch up gravestone inscriptions and make offerings of wine and fruit. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Dragon Boat Festival <ul><li>Dragon Boat Festival also known as Duanwu Featival. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place on the 5 th day of the 5 th month of the Chinese Calendar. (2008-June 8 th ). </li></ul><ul><li>Main celebration is a boat race and the eating of Zong zi. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Zong Zi
  25. 25. Dragon Boat Festival <ul><li>Festival Dates back 2,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The festival is held to commemorate Quyuan, an ancient scholar and hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Quyuan was a high official of the Chu State who committed suicide by drowning himself in the Miluo River (in today's Hunan province in central China) after knowing the Chu Army had been defeated in a vital battle. </li></ul><ul><li>The local people knowing Quyuan was a good man, felt very sorrowful about his death. They went out in their boats to rescue him or at least to try to find his body. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chinese Dragon Boat Festival <ul><li>Images/YouTube clip. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  27. 27. Moon Festival <ul><li>Originally named the Mid-Autumn Festival, the Moon Festival is one of the most important holidays celebrated by Chinese communities around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;When the moon is full, mankind is one&quot; -- In China, the full moon has always represented the gatherings of friends and family. Thus, Mid-Autumn Festival is a time for family reunions. On this night, families will go together to scenic spots and parks for moon appreciation parties, and eating mooncakes . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Moon Festival
  29. 29. Moon Festival <ul><li>Mooncakes earned their popularity during the Yuan Dynasty (1200 A.D.- 1368 A.D) when, as legends say, the Mongols who had established the Yuan Dynasty were too oppressive, and were overthrown by the Chinese with the help of this simple dessert. Since Mongols did not eat mooncakes, the Chinese took advantage of this cultural difference and planned a revolt against them. Leaders of the revolts distributed mooncakes, under the pretense of celebrating the emperor's longevity, to other Chinese people. The mooncakes held secret messages baked within the skin, informing people to revolt on the 15th of the 8th moon, also the Mid Autumn festival. The rebellion was successful and mooncakes were forever kept a national tradition of China. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chinese New Year <ul><li>The most festive and joyous of all celebrations. </li></ul><ul><li>15 day celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Begins of the 20 th day of the first moon. (Between January-March). </li></ul><ul><li>Family members gather for a feast. </li></ul><ul><li>Firecrackers explode to frighten away evil spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>Day to remember ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Red envelopes of money is given for good luck. </li></ul><ul><li>Lion Dances are performed. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Lion Dance <ul><li>Performed in the street to bands of gongs and drum players. </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanied by more explosions of fireworks </li></ul>
  32. 32. Chinese New Year <ul><li>1 st day-”Welcoming the gods of Heaven and Earth”. Do not eat meat to assure long and happy lives. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd day-the Chinese pray to their ancestors as well as to all the gods. They are extra kind to dogs and feed them well as it is believed that the second day is the birthday of all dogs.  </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd day-are for the sons-in-laws to pay respect to their parents-in-law. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chinese New Year <ul><li>5 th day-called Poo Woo. Stay home to welcome God of Wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>6-10 th Day-visit relatives, friends and temples. Pray for fortune and good health. </li></ul><ul><li>7 th day-birthday of human beings. Day for farmers to display their produce. Noodles are eaten to promote longevity and raw fish for success. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Chinese New Year <ul><li>8 th day-family reunion dinner, and at midnight they pray to Tian Gong, the God of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>9 th day-make offerings to the Jade Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>10 th -12 th -days that friends and relatives should be invited for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>14 th day-preparations for the 15 th day. </li></ul><ul><li>15 th day-Lantern Festival. </li></ul>
  35. 35. 15 th day-Lantern Festival <ul><li>Lantern’s display the signs of the Zodiac. </li></ul><ul><li>The subjects of the riddles are often traditional Chinese songs, poems, stories or historical events </li></ul><ul><li>lanterns beautiful and decorative, they also celebrate and express Chinese history and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Referred as Chinese Valentines-in past only day single women could go out and be seen by bachelors. </li></ul>