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Nature of matter chemistry of life - chapter 2

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Nature of matter chemistry of life - chapter 2

  1. 1. Nature of Matter Chapter 2.1
  2. 2. Particles of an Atom• Protons – Positive charge – Located in the nucleus• Neutrons – No charge (neutral) – Located in the nucleus• Electrons – Negative charge – Move around the nucleus
  3. 3. Atoms• Basic unit of matter• Extremely small• Center region is called the nucleus• Made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
  4. 4. Element• Pure substance made of only one type of atom• Each is represented by a one or two-letter symbol• Examples – Carbon, letter C – Sodium, letter Na
  5. 5. Chemical Compounds• Substance formed by combination of two or more elements• Example – Hydrogen and Oxygen combine to form H2O (water)
  6. 6. Other Vocabulary Terms• Macromolecule – made from hundreds or thousands of smaller molecules• Monomer – smaller unit of a larger molecule• Polymer – groups of monomers joined together
  7. 7. Chemical Bonds• Ionic Bond – One or more electrons are moved or transferred – Example – NaCl (salt)• Covalent Bond – Electrons are shared by atoms – Example – H20 (water)
  8. 8. Isotopes• Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons• Example – All atoms of carbon have 6 protons – However, they may have 6, 7, or 8 neutrons
  9. 9. Carbon• Carbon has four electrons for bonding – Allows carbon to form four bonds• Carbon compounds can also bond with each other to form long chains• Carbon is used to form many of the molecules of living things
  10. 10. Carbon• Carbon has four electrons for bonding – Allows carbon to form four bonds• Carbon compounds can also bond with each other to form long chains• Carbon is used to form many of the molecules of living things

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