This definition is especially useful because it makes propaganda “morally neutral”So to be more specificOther writers doubt that a line can be drawn b/w propaganda and education. “accepted attitudes” raise the question like: accepted by whom? How is this acceptance signified?American recruiting poster Wartime poster called "We Can Do It!" encouraging workers to maintain war production
But after all, one can lie for some time to some people, or to all people for some time, but not to all people for all time.
In other words, the purveyors of and the recipients of both stand to benefit from the dissemination of this propaganda.The former is vital to a democratic society that serves the long-term interests of all while the latter creates a world filled with “misery” in which people, moved by passion more than reason, are driven to act against their own self-interest.Propaganda in favour of action that is consonant with enlightened self-interest appeals to reason by means of logical arguments based upon the best available evidence fully and honestly set forth. Propaganda in favour of action dictated by the impulses that are below self-interest offers false, garbled or incomplete evidence, avoids logical argument and seeks to influence its victims by the mere repetition of catchwords so that atrocities come to be perpetrated in the name of God-treated as a matter of religious principle and patriotic duty.
Methods of Presentation : Black-and-White fallacy, Flag-wavingTechniques of Gaining attention : Repetition, Testimonial, BandwagonDevices for Gaining response : Common man, Direct order, Big lieMethods of Gaining acceptance : Appeal to authority, Appeal to fear
The word PROPAGANDA has been derived from Congregatio
de Propaganda Fide (Congregation for Propagating the Faith),
a committee of Cardinals founded in Rome in 1622 for the care
of foreign missions. It was first given general currency by the
Roman Catholic Church to refer to the disseminations of its
doctrines. Its activity consisted in a group of cardinals pitching
Catholicism in non Catholic countries.
In the most general terms “Any attempt to persuade persons
to accept a certain point of view or take a certain action” is
An authoritative handbook states:
“Propaganda is the manipulation of symbols to transmit
accepted attitudes and skills”
PHILOSOPHY & PROPAGANDA
Philosophy teaches us to feel uncertain
about the things that seem to be self-
Propaganda teaches us to accept as self-
evident matters about which it would be
reasonable to suspend judgment or to feel
Propaganda has a negative connotation attached to it. It
is something that we generally tend to look rather down
because it is presumed to depend on “suppresso
veri” and “suggestio falsi”
– in which one gives half-truths, distorted
versions, tendentious and garbled reports.
The pervasive use of propaganda by the Nazis is
largely responsible for the word "propaganda"
itself acquiring its present negative connotations.
Propaganda, the coordinated attempt to influence
public opinion through the use of media, was skilfully
used by the Nazi Party in the years leading up to and
during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany.
Hitler and Goebbels said that the “big lie” is
something that will always convince the people.
PROPAGANDA & PUBLIC
The word propaganda is used these days mainly to describe
those types of persuasion which are based solely on self-
interest and in which it may be necessary to distort the
facts or even to falsify them in order to achieve the
Public relations, on the other hand, recognizes a long term
responsibility and seeks to persuade and achieve mutual
understanding by securing the willing acceptance of
attitudes and ideas. It can succeed only when the
basic policy is ethical and the means used
In favour of action that is in consonance
with the enlightened self-interest of those
who make it and those to whom it is
Not consonant with anybody’s enlightened
self-interest but is dictated by, and appeals
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
The science or perhaps the art of propaganda is similar to the
arts of advertising and selling, and like the advertiser and
salesman, the propagandist must study his market and tailor
his product to suit the demand. He must analyze the
preconceptions, the fears, the desires, and the weakness
of the group to be approached in order to use the most
promising technique to achieve his purpose.
The total no. of available techniques is large. One
handbook lists as many as 77 but these may be
grouped under 4 general headings:
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Methods of Presentation
Techniques of Gaining attention
Devices for Gaining response
Methods of Gaining acceptance
„Education tends to make people more
receptive to the influence of propaganda.
Knowing the particular propaganda
techniques will make you resistant to their
affects, because you will recognize that they
are attempting to fool you.‟