By: Rohit kumar
BBS 2nd year
A resource, or system resource, is any physical or
virtual component of limited availability within a
computer system. Eve...
Telecommunication is the exchange of information in any form i.e.,
voice, data, text, images, audio, video, etc. over netw...
4. Computers : All sizes and types of computers can be
connected to telecommunications networks. Ex:
Typical arrangement i...
Structure of a telecommunications network
Telecommunications
Software
1
2 3
4
52
PCs, NCs,
and Other
Terminals
Computers
T...
There are many different types of networks that serve as the
telecommunications infrastructure for the internet and the
in...
Telecommunication networks that covers a large
geographic area are called WANs. They are essential for
the working of many...
Connects computers within a limited physical area, such as
an office, classroom, or building. LANs have become
commonplace...
Many organizations use VPN to establish secure intranets
and extranets.
VPN relies on network firewalls, encryption, and o...
In a client/server network, end user personal computers or
networked computers workstations are the clients. They are
inte...
With growing reliance on computers, for many users, the
network is the computer. This network computing concept
views netw...
Peer-to-peer networks are a powerful telecommunications
networking tool for many business applications. It has two major
m...
2) Pure Peer-to-Peer Architecture: There is no central
directory or server. First, the File sharing software
connects your...
1)Wired technologies include twisted pair wires, coaxial
cables, and fiber-optic cables, all of which physically link the
...
1)Twisted-Pair Wire-
•Consists of Cu wire twisted into pairs
•Wrapped or shielded in a variety of forms
•Used in establish...
2)Coaxial Cable-
Consists of a sturdy Cu or Al wire wrapped with spacers to
insulate and protect it
Insulation minimizes...
1)Terrestrial Microwave-
Involves earthbound microwave systems that
transmit high speed radio signals between relay
stati...
2)Communication Satellites-
Use microwave radio as their telecommunication
medium
HEO communications satellites are plac...
3)Wireless LANs-
Its use arrives when wiring an office/building for a
local area network is often a difficult and costly ...
5)Wireless Web-
Smart telephones, pagers, PDAs, other portable
devices have become very thin clients in wireless
networks...
Telecommunications processors such as modems,
multiplexers, and other devices perform a variety
of support functions betwe...
 Modems. Modems are the most common type of communications
processor. They convert the digital signals from a computer or...
Since data from computers are in digital form
(voltage pulses), devices are necessary to
convert digital signals into app...
Internetwork Processors
 Telecommunications network are interconnected by
special purpose communications processors called
inter-network processo...
 Bridge-A bridge is a device that connects two or more
local area networks that use the same communication
rules or proto...
 Gateway-Networks that use different communications
architectures are interconnected by using a
communications processor ...
 Multiplexers. A multiplexer is a communications processor that allows
a single communications channel to carry simultane...
 A network topology describes the arrangement of
systems on a computer network.
 It defines how the computers, or nodes,...
Advantages Disadvantages
Easy to implement
Limits on cable length and Workstation
numbers
Low Cost Difficult to isolate ne...
In the star topology, all computers and other network
devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch.
 Each ...
Advantages Disadvantages
Cable failures affect limited users Costly Wiring
Equal access for all users Difficult Connection...
Network resources
Network resources
Network resources
Network resources
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  • In the star topology, all computers and other network devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch. Each connected device requires a single cable to be connected to the hub, creating a point-to-point connection between the device and the hub.Using a separate cable to connect to the hub allows the network to be expanded without disruption to the network. A break in any single cable will not cause the entire network to fail
  • Network resources

    1. 1. By: Rohit kumar BBS 2nd year
    2. 2. A resource, or system resource, is any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system. Every device connected to a computer system is a resource. A network refers to an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system. Network resources therefore, refer to communication media and network support that are essential for information systems in all types of business organizations.
    3. 3. Telecommunication is the exchange of information in any form i.e., voice, data, text, images, audio, video, etc. over networks. Basic components of telecommunications networks include: 1) Terminals: any input/output device that uses telecommunications network to transmit or receive data. Ex: networked computers, networked personal computers, etc. 2) Telecommunications processors: These are specialized hardware components that support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers. Ex: modem, switches and routers. 3) Telecommunications channels: refer to channels over which data is transmitted and received using combinations of media such as copper wires, coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, or wireless systems like microwave carriers, etc.
    4. 4. 4. Computers : All sizes and types of computers can be connected to telecommunications networks. Ex: Typical arrangement includes mainframe computer as a host for the network, a minicomputer as a front-end processor, with a dedicated microcomputer as a network server to a smaller local group of networked microcomputer workstations. 5. Telecommunications control software: consists of programs that control telecommunications activities and manage the functions of telecommunications networks. For ex: network management programs include: Telecommunications monitors (mainframes) Network operating systems (network servers) Web browsers (microcomputers)
    5. 5. Structure of a telecommunications network Telecommunications Software 1 2 3 4 52 PCs, NCs, and Other Terminals Computers Telecommunications Channels and Media Telecommunications Processors
    6. 6. There are many different types of networks that serve as the telecommunications infrastructure for the internet and the intranets and extranets of inter-networked enterprises. However there are some basic types of networks, such as: •Wide Area •Local Area •Virtual Private •Client/Server •Peer-to-peer
    7. 7. Telecommunication networks that covers a large geographic area are called WANs. They are essential for the working of many business and govt. organizations and their end users. For ex: WANs are used by many multinational companies to transmit and receive information among their employees, customers, suppliers and other organizations across cities, regions and countries.
    8. 8. Connects computers within a limited physical area, such as an office, classroom, or building. LANs have become commonplace in organizations as the link end users in offices, departments etc. They use a variety of media such as, telephone wiring, wireless radio and infrared systems to interconnect microcomputer workstations and computer peripherals enabling distribution of data files and software packages along the network. To communicate each PC has a circuit board called network interface card.
    9. 9. Many organizations use VPN to establish secure intranets and extranets. VPN relies on network firewalls, encryption, and other security features to build a “pipe” through the Internet that enables to send and receive data. Advantages: •Creates a private network without the high cost of a separate proprietary connection. •Safe exchange of files between distant branches without risk of anyone else outside the pipe seeing it.
    10. 10. In a client/server network, end user personal computers or networked computers workstations are the clients. They are interconnected by local area networks and Network servers manage the networks. It is also called a two-tier client server model because it interconnects LANs and WANs. Today, Larger computer systems are being replaced with multiple client/server networks. This involves a complex and costly effort to install new application software that replaces the software of older mainframe-based business information systems. Client/server networks are more adaptable to a diverse range of business needs & computing workload.
    11. 11. With growing reliance on computers, for many users, the network is the computer. This network computing concept views networks as the central computing resource of any organization. In network computing, network computers and other Thin clients provide a browser-based user interface for processing applets. Thin clients include Network computers, Net PCs & Other low-cost network devices or information appliances. It is called three-tier client/server model as it consists of thin clients, application servers and database servers.
    12. 12. Peer-to-peer networks are a powerful telecommunications networking tool for many business applications. It has two major models: 1) Central Server Architecture: P2P file-sharing software connects all PCs to a central server that contains a directory of all the other users in the network. When a PC requests a file, the server searches for any user who has that file and is online at that time. Then The server sends the requesting PC a list of links to all such active users. Clicking on one such link connects the two PCs and automatically transfers the file to the hard drive of requesting PC.
    13. 13. 2) Pure Peer-to-Peer Architecture: There is no central directory or server. First, the File sharing software connects your PC to one of the online users in the network. Then an active link to your username is transmitted to all the online users in the network that first user encountered in previous sessions. In this way the more you use peer to peer the more the active links are spread. When you request a file, the software searches every online user and sends you a list of active file names. Clicking a link automatically transfers the file from that user’s hard drive to yours.
    14. 14. 1)Wired technologies include twisted pair wires, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables, all of which physically link the devices in a network. 2)Wireless technologies include terrestrial microwave, communication satellites, cellular phone systems, and packet and LAN radio, all of which use microwave and other radio waves.
    15. 15. 1)Twisted-Pair Wire- •Consists of Cu wire twisted into pairs •Wrapped or shielded in a variety of forms •Used in established communications for both voice and data transmission •Used extensively in home and office telephone systems and many local area networks •Transmission speeds range from 2mbps(unshielded) to 100mbps(shielded).
    16. 16. 2)Coaxial Cable- Consists of a sturdy Cu or Al wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it Insulation minimizes interference and distortion of the signal it carries Can be placed underground and laid on the floors of lakes and oceans Transmission speeds range from 200-500 mbps Used for cable T.V. systems, short distance computer connections etc. 3)Fiber Optics- •Consists of one or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket. •Conduct pulses of visible light elements at transmission rates as high as Tbps •Provide substantial size and weight reductions •Multiple fibers can be placed in the same cable
    17. 17. 1)Terrestrial Microwave- Involves earthbound microwave systems that transmit high speed radio signals between relay stations spaced approx 30 miles apart Usually placed on top of buildings, towers, hills, and mountain peaks
    18. 18. 2)Communication Satellites- Use microwave radio as their telecommunication medium HEO communications satellites are placed in stationary geosynchronous orbits approximately 22,000 miles above the equator Powered by solar panels and transmission speeds range in several hundred Mbps Serve as relay stations transmitted from earth stations and use dish antennas to beam microwave signals to satellites Used for voice and video transmission of large volumes of data Many Cos use networks of small dish antennas known as VSAT to connect their stores and distant worksites via satellite
    19. 19. 3)Wireless LANs- Its use arrives when wiring an office/building for a local area network is often a difficult and costly task Growing rapidly because of high speed technologies Prime example is Wi-Fi which is faster and less expensive than other technologies Wi-Fi wireless LANs enable laptop PCs and other devices to connect easily to internet 4)Bluetooth- Short range wireless technology rapidly being built into computer and other devices Serves as a cable-free wireless connection to peripheral devices Operates at 1Mbps with a range of 10 to 100m Cable replacement technology
    20. 20. 5)Wireless Web- Smart telephones, pagers, PDAs, other portable devices have become very thin clients in wireless networks Agreement on standard WAP has encouraged the development of many wireless web services Telecommunications industry’s goal is to raise wireless transmission speeds to enable streaming video and multimedia apps on mobile devices
    21. 21. Telecommunications processors such as modems, multiplexers, and other devices perform a variety of support functions between the terminals and computers in a telecommunications network. Let's take a look at some of these devices and their functions.
    22. 22.  Modems. Modems are the most common type of communications processor. They convert the digital signals from a computer or transmission terminal at one end of a communications link into analog frequencies, which can be transmitted over ordinary telephone lines. A modem at the other end of the communications line converts the transmitted data back into digital form at a receiving terminal. This process is known as modulation and demodulation, and the word modem is a combined abbreviation of those two words.  Modems are used because ordinary telephone networks were primarily designed to handle continuous analog signals (electromagnetic frequencies), such as those generated by the human, voice over the telephone.
    23. 23. Since data from computers are in digital form (voltage pulses), devices are necessary to convert digital signals into appropriate analog transmission frequencies and vice versa. However, digital communications networks that transmit only digital signals and do not need analog/digital conversion are becoming commonplace. Since most modems also perform a variety of telecommunications support functions, modems may still be needed in digital networks.
    24. 24. Internetwork Processors
    25. 25.  Telecommunications network are interconnected by special purpose communications processors called inter-network processors, which include switches, routers, hubs, and gateways.  Switches-A switch is a communications processor that makes connections between telecommunications circuits in a network. Switches are now available in managed versions with network management capabilities.
    26. 26.  Bridge-A bridge is a device that connects two or more local area networks that use the same communication rules or protocol.  Router-A router is an intelligent communication processor that interconnects networks based on different rules or protocols, so a telecommunication message can be routed to its destination.  Hub-A hub is a port switching communications processor. Advanced versions of hubs provide automatic switching among connections called ports for shares access to a network's resources.
    27. 27.  Gateway-Networks that use different communications architectures are interconnected by using a communications processor called a gateway.  All these devices are essential to providing connectivity and easy access between the multiple LANs within an organization and the wide area networks communications channel. In many cases, star networks take the form of hierarchical networks.
    28. 28.  Multiplexers. A multiplexer is a communications processor that allows a single communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals. Thus, a single communications line can be shared by several terminals. Typically, a multiplexer merges the transmissions of several terminals at one end of a communications channel, while a similar unit separates the individual transmissions at the receiving end. This is accomplished in two basic ways. In frequency division multiplexing (FDM), a multiplexer effectively divides a high-speed channel into multiple slow speed channels. In time division multiplexing (TDM), the multiplexer divides the time each terminal can use high-speed line into very short time slots, or time frames.
    29. 29.  A network topology describes the arrangement of systems on a computer network.  It defines how the computers, or nodes, within the network are arranged and connected to each other.
    30. 30. Advantages Disadvantages Easy to implement Limits on cable length and Workstation numbers Low Cost Difficult to isolate network faults A cable fault affects all workstations As the number of workstations increase, the speed of the network slows down In bus network The computers that send data also attach address of the destination computer with the data. All computers connected to the bus receive the data but only that computer accept it whose address matches the address attached with data. In this topology only one computer at a time can send a data therefore the speed of network reduces as the number of computers attached to the bus increases.
    31. 31. In the star topology, all computers and other network devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch.  Each connected device requires a single cable to be connected to the hub, creating a point-to-point connection between the device and the hub. Using a separate cable to connect to the hub allows the network to be expanded without disruption to the network. A break in any single cable will not cause the entire network to fail Advantages Disadvantages Easy to add new workstations Hub failure cripples all workstations connected to that hub Centralized control Hubs are slighty more expensive than thin- Ethernet Centralized network/hub monitoring
    32. 32. Advantages Disadvantages Cable failures affect limited users Costly Wiring Equal access for all users Difficult Connections Each workstation has full access speed to the ring Expensive Adaptor Cards As workstation numbers increase performance diminishes slightly the ring topology is a computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connected to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape). Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. Today, the ring topology is seldom used.

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