But I want to suggestthat the real message isit is time to focus onthe real issue ofeducation….
It is time to change school Culture from a culture of Teaching to a culture of Learning. DuFour, Aker, DuFour- On Common Ground (2005)
“the standards define what all studentsare expected to know and be able to do,not how teachers should teach” (2010a, 6)
CCSS• Teach to depth of understanding.• Equal emphasis on reading and writing• Reading complex text• Intellectual growth is a process over time• Learning should be across the curriculum Pathways to the Common Core
It becomes about Teaching children how to learn
What do you know about Common Core State Standards? Turn and Talk
Comprehension and CloseReading Looking at Text Differently
“Reading, in the Common Core, is making meaning.” Calkins, et al, Pathways to Common Core, p. 25 …the Common Core deemphasizes reading as a personal act and emphasizes textual analysis. (p.25)…the meaning of texts resides in the interaction of thereader with the text. Louise Rosenblatt (1995) Literature as Exploration as quoted in Pathways to Common Core
Old Structure versus Common CoreHere is the conversation of Here is the Conversation ofComprehension as traditionally taught Comprehension based on Common Core• Who were the main • What descriptions are used characters in Charlotte’s by the author to indicate Web? that Wilbur is growing• Where did they live? lonelier at the Zuckerman• When animals are given farm? human characteristics it is • What is the main point of called _______________. the friendship of Charlotte• Can you think of a time and Wilbur? when animals influenced • How does the author let us how you felt about know that Fern has grown something? disinterested in Wilbur?
Common Core Literature Standards Key Ideas and Details Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade1. With prompting and Ask and answer Ask and answer such support, ask and answer questions about key questions as who, what, questions about key details details in a where, when, why, and in a text. text. how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.2. With prompting and Retell stories, including Recount stories, including support, retell familiar key details, and fables and folktales stories, including key demonstrate from diverse cultures, and details. understanding of their determine their central central message, lesson, or message or lesson. moral.3. With prompting and Describe characters, Describe how characters support, identify settings, and major in a story respond to characters, events in major events and settings, and major events a story, using key challenges. in a story. details
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade7. With prompting and support, Use illustrations Use information describe the relationship between and details in a gained from the illustrations and the story in which story to describe illustrations and they appear (e.g., what moment in a its characters, words in a print or story an illustration depicts). setting, or events digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.9. With prompting and support, Compare and Compare and compare and contrast the adventures contrast the contrast two or and experiences of characters in adventures and more versions familiar stories. experiences of of the same story characters in (e.g., Cinderella stories stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
Common Core Literature Standards Key Ideas and Details Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade1. Ask and answer questions to Refer to details and Quote accurately from a text demonstrate Under-standing of a examples in a text when when explaining text, referring explicitly to the text explaining what the text what the text says explicitly as the basis for the answers. says explicitly and when and when drawing inferences drawing inferences from from the text. the text.2. Recount stories, including fables, Determine a theme of a Determine a theme of a folktales, and myths from diverse story, drama, or poem story, drama, or poem cultures; determine the central from details in the text; from details in the text, message, lesson, or moral and summarize the text. including how characters explain how it is conveyed through in a story or drama respond key details in the text. to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., Describe in depth a character, Compare and contrast two or their traits, motivations, or feelings) setting, or event in a story or more characters, settings, or and explain how their actions drama, drawing on specific events in a story or drama, details in the text (a drawing on specific details in the contribute to the sequence of character’s thoughts, words, text (e.g., how characters events. or actions). interact).
What impacts do these have oninstruction in the classroom?What changes should be made?How will these impact what wedo with ELL students? Turn and Talk
Implications• Emphasis is now on critical analysis of text and not merely foundational skills of decoding.• Teachers may need to retool to build capacity for drilling deeper into text.• Students will need explicit instruction in deeper, closer reading and thinking at higher levels of comprehension.• Teachers will have to examine closer the text to assure students can actually practice on these texts.• Social Studies and Science teachers need to understand how this applies in informational text as well.• Students will need lots of texts (5-7 books/week)
The Greatest Condition to Guarantee Student Success………Lots and Lots of Practice Outliers, study by Malcolm Gladwell (2008) of conditions to lead to extraordinary success the unifying factor between piano players, NBA players, programmers, etc. was HOURS OF PRACTICE 10,000 hours of Practice
How much time will the average studentthemselves spend reading in the classroom in one year?
That means the average child in an American school will spend less time engaged in reading in a year than theaverage High School football team will spend practicing in one week!
Qualitative Factors• Are meanings explicit or implicit?• Does the text structure follow conventional or unconventional formats?• Literal, figurative or domain specific language?• Are knowledge demands common or specialized? From Pathways to Common Core, p 35
Quantitative Measures• A measure that takes into account word length, frequency, sentence length, cohesion.• Several frameworks might be considered including Flesch-Kincaid test, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile Framework for Reading• The CCSS seems to lean toward Lexile Levels but does not exclude other systems.
• Common Core has moved higher the complexity of text that children should be in during these grades.• Common Core makes no specific allotment for utilizing Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.
Reader and Task Considerations• Reader’s motivation to comprehend the text• Familiarity with language• Prior knowledge…the expectation that educators will employprofessional judgment to match texts to particularstudents and tasks” (CCSS 2010b, 7)
Strategies for Working with Complex TextRead aloud the first chapter of a book and discuss Audio Version Introduce the book and give clear indication ofwhat the students should observe Partner Reads
A glance at current efforts to mapthe CCSS onto curriculum, or at thedesign of sample units, suggests thatthere is little understanding in ourcommunity of the role played bylanguage in the process of attainingliteracy. Fillmore & Fillmore, What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? Stanford University
Fundamental Problems1. Substantial differences between spoken English and written English.2. Vast difference between conversational language and academic language.3. The structural change from primary text designed to teach reading to intermediate text design for learning of information.4. The literacy learning of most Els does not provide them with the proper foundation for working with complex text.
WHILE confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statementcalling our present activities “unwise and untimely.” Seldom, if ever, do I pause toanswer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms thatcross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day,and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men ofgenuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer yourstatement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have beeninfluenced by the argument of “outsiders coming in.” I have the honor of serving aspresident of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating inevery Southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-fiveaffiliate organizations all across the South, one being the Alabama Christian Movementfor Human Rights. Whenever necessary and possible, we share staff, educational andfinancial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago our local affiliate here inBirmingham invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program ifsuch were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we livedup to our promises. So I am here, along with several members of my staff, because wewere invited here. I am here because I have basic organizational ties here.Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here…Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr.
On page 5 of the CCSS document, the anonymous writers state that “a significant body of research links …close reading regardless if the student is a strugglingreader or advanced—to significant gains…” yet most of the students cited are from college and high school. They ignore the body of research in regards to text difficulty and instructional leveled text.
Furthermore, PARCC speaks specifically to the questions of students who may be unable to read within the text complexity bands by saying “flexibility is built in for educators to build progressions of more complex textswithin grade bands…that overlap to a limited degree with earlier bands, but reading texts from the appropriate band lies at the core of the Model Content Frameworks.” (2011, 6)
In order to be successful, Setting a Purposethis method of usingcomplex text must becoupled with a profound Visual Literacyamount of scaffolding forstudents. In order forteachers to be effective Pre-teaching of vocabularywith students, capacitymust be built allowing forteacher implementation. Contextualization of meaning
What Students Should Do in Making Meaning1. Students should carry meaning across the whole story.2. Operate on the basis of “what does the text tell us.”3. Understand words based on context.4. Comparative analysis is a focal point of CCSS.5. If you are using limited targeted text provided by a basal, you will have difficulty with CCSS.
Implications for Implementation• Determine where students are with needs assessment• Insure practices are moving students forward through alignment of methods with content• Make sure there is plenty of time for student reading• Offer student choice for reading• Offer explicit reading skill instruction• Have students take ownership
Let’s Develop An AssessmentEach table will receive a text. Go through and place a higher level textdependent question that students must stop and answer.
Obstacles for Informational Text1. Not enough exposure to non- fiction2. Reading is at frustration level3. Engage with text in wrong manner “Just the facts”4. Little Choice given students5. Teacher tells what should know
1. More High Interest 2. Do more in content classes3. Match text to children’s ZPD 4. Move students up the gradient.
Text SetsThe Teacher’s College of Columbia UniversityReading and Writing Project under thedirection of Lucy Calkins has created Text Setsboth in Literature and Informational Texts thatare available athttp://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/
Teaching Vocabulary in a Common Core World Getting at the heart of Common Core Vocabulary Instruction
• Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown andVarious aspects of CCSS multiple-meaning words• Anchor and phrases by using Standards K- context clues, analyzing 12 meaningful word parts, and demonstrate consulting references the • Demonstrate importance of understanding of word word relationships knowledge. • Acquire and use academic A.4-6 words
Anchor Standards K-5Reading Show Vocabulary• Key Ideas and Details • 4. Interpret words and phrases• Craft and as they are used in a text, Structure including determining technical, connotative, and• Integration of figurative meanings, and Knowledge and analyze how specific word Ideas choices shape meaning or tone.• Text Complexity
Let’s See How Vocabulary is handled atgrade level
Areas with Emphasis for Vocabulary1. Literature2. Informational Text3. Foundational Skills4. Writing5. Language
Literature K-5Craft and Structure Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Ask and answer Identify words and Describe how questions about phrases in stories words and phrases unknown words or poems (e.g., regular in a text. that suggest beats, alliteration, feelings or appeal rhymes, repeated to the senses. lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
Literature K-5Craft and Structure Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Determine the Determine the Determine the meaning of words meaning of words meaning of words and phrases as and phrases and phrases they are used in a as they are used in as they are used in text, distinguishing a text, including a text, including literal from those figurative nonliteral language. that allude to language such as significant metaphors and characters found in similes. mythology (e.g., Herculean).
Informational Text K-5Craft and Structure Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade With prompting Ask and answer Determine the and support, ask questions to help meaning of words and answer determine or and phrases in a questions about clarify the meaning text relevant to a unknown words in of words and grade 2 topic or a text. phrases in a subject area text.
Informational Text K-5Craft and Structure Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Determine the Determine the Determine the meaning of general meaning of general meaning of general academic academic academic and domain- and domain- and domain- specific words and specific words or specific words and phrases in a text phrases in a text phrases in a text relevant to a grade relevant to a grade relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject 4 topic or subject 5 topic or subject area. area. area.
Foundational Skills K-5 Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Demonstrate Demonstrate understanding of understanding of spoken words, spoken words, syllables, and syllables, and sounds- sounds- Phonological Phonological Awareness Awareness Know and apply Know and apply Know and apply grade-level phonics grade-level phonics grade-level phonics and word and word and word analysis skills in analysis skills in analysis skills in decoding words decoding words decoding words
Foundational Skills K-5 Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Know and apply Know and apply Know and apply grade-level phonics grade-level phonics grade-level phonics and word and word and word analysis skills in analysis skills in analysis skills in decoding words decoding words decoding words a. Identify and know Use combined Use combined the meaning of the knowledge of all knowledge of all most letter-sound letter-sound common prefixes and correspondences, correspondences, derivational suffixes. syllabication patterns, syllabication patterns, b. Decode words with and and common Latin morphology (e.g., morphology (e.g., suffixes. roots and affixes) to roots and affixes) to c. Decode multi- read read syllable words. accurately unfamiliar accurately unfamiliar d. Read grade- multisyllabic words in multisyllabic words in appropriate context and out of context and out of irregularly spelled context. context. words.
So we have seen WHATwe are to do… let’s lookat how we do it.
Working with Vocabulary1. Explain2. Restate3. Show4. Discuss5. Refine and Reflect6. Application and Fun Building Background Knowledge, Robert Marzano Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKeown, Kucan
All of the Read Aloud selections come fromfavorite children’s literature, essentialliterature selections and big books.The system accentuates students learning acontext for the words and not definitions.These are available from CreateSpace, Wordsof Wisdom, and Amazon.com exclusively.
At your table are books andtemplates of lesson one.• Select words from a book.• Following the template, each table will be responsible for designing a set of lessons.• Report out to groups
Teaching for Academic Successby Targeting Vocabulary Instruction Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
The relationshipbetween vocabularyknowledge andacademic achievementis well established.--Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge, p 31
Grades 4-12 Academic Difference 50 Gap of 6,000 words 40 30 Academic 20 Difference 10 0 Nagy & Herman, 1984, as Category 1 Category 2 quoted in Marzano, 2004
A word is the term used to describethe label given to a packet ofinformation stored in our permanentmemories. Marzano, 2004, p32 Nation insists that there are approximately 570 academic words from the Coxhead List that coupled with the 2,000 most frequently used words from the General Service List that constitute 90% of the reading students are to do. As quoted by Lebedev, 2008, Pearson, Vocabulary Power 1
For the teacher, then, the supreme task is to store as many words as possible into thepermanent memory of students.
One of the arguments for ____________ in the first place had beenthat ________ would increase the wealth of the ______ _______And lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the__________ theory, she would prosper and grow strong by_________ more and more to __________ and _________ lessand less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a ______for her ___________ goods and a source of supply for ___ _________she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would haveto exclude ________ (as Spain had done) from her _______trade. The words in red are great Tier 2 words that can be emphasized for clarity. The blanks represent Tier 3 (Academic Language) that is absolutely necessary to make sense of the text. This is an American History Text.
One of the arguments for colonization in the first place had beenthat colonies would increase the wealth of the mother countryand lessen her dependence on other nations. According to themercantile theory, she would prosper and grow strong byexporting more and more to foreigners and importing lessand less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a marketfor her manufactured goods and a source of supply for raw materialsshe could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would haveto exclude foreigners (as Spain had done) from her colonialtrade. One could not access the text without the vocabulary. But unless one has a schema for the words, it is like not having the words printed.
What is therelationshipbetween learningeveryday languageand academiclanguage?
So how would I use the idea of thematic instruction to teach vocabulary in a content?
NOAA Universe today.com The PowerfulForces of Nature ZMEScience.com Public domain
Step 1- Introduce the Big Idea How Does Nature Change the Earth around Us?
Step 2- Introduce the theme byintroducing the words you will study.ERUPT ASH LAVATYPHOON HURRICANE PLATETREMOR MAGMA EPICENTEREARTHQUAKE STORM SURGE
Inclusion of vocabulary. Now we can contextualize. We also now have supporting information that can lead to projects: Ring of Fire, Vesuvius We also can now link to career path by pointing students to www.usgs.gov where they can learn how scientists work with volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.
Wow, that’s cool, dude. Ithink I might like to study about volcanoes.
The volcano Etna has been on Sicily for more than a million years, longer than human beingshave inhabited the Mediterranean. It has been erupting nearly continuously throughout 3500years of recorded history, since 1500 BCE, and doubtless for long before that.Etna has had hundreds of recorded major eruptions; another began with the eruptions of spring2001. And like the hundreds of times before, the local people responded in the ways theyalways have. But modern technologies have allowed them to respond a bit more effectively, andwith a bit less resignation, than before.Etna Then and NowEtna is such an important volcano that the ancients made it the home of Vulcan, blacksmith tothe gods. Like the personality of Vulcan himself, Etna is always unpredictable, often gloomy andirritated, sometimes dangerously angry, even on rare occasions playful. All of the seafaringpeoples of the ancient Mediterranean knew Etna as a steady beacon and landmark, loomingnear the strategic Strait of Messina at Sicilys eastern tip.People have always lived near Etna, even upon its sides. The same is true with volcanoes aroundthe world. After all, volcanic ash weathers into rich soil, and the risk of injury or death from aneruption is pretty small. On many volcanoes, you can live your whole life without witnessing aneruption—or if there is one, it wont destroy your part of the mountainside. Thats the kind ofrisk we all accept about the place we live, whether its prone toearthquakes, hurricanes, sinkholes, or landslides.The 2001 eruption of Etna made news not only because it was a great spectacle, but becausethere was human drama as well. The lava engulfed an important skiing and tourism center onthe mountain, the Rifugio Sapienza. Nowadays we dont just send prayers to our current gods, asthe ancients did—although the archbishop of Sicily did just that in 2001. Today the Italianauthorities send bulldozers to throw up barriers to the lava.
Acting Against VolcanoesWeve tried other things against volcanoes, too, such as military bombing to divert lava flows. When a volcanothreatened the Icelandic town of Westmanneyjar in 1983, the main tactic was spraying the lava with seawater tofreeze it solid.But the first successful defense against a volcano was here in Catania, the city of half a million at Etnas foot. In1669, the Monti Rossi vent on Etnas southern flank began pouring out a river of lava uphill from Catania. The citysexisting walls held back the flood for a week. But after part of the wall gave way, the authorities built new walls inthe city streets that were effective against the lavas advance.Another tactic tried in 1669 was to break open the roof and sides of the lava tube feeding the flow. It was hopedthat this would cool and freeze the molten rock, as well as directing part of the flow elsewhere. The nearby town ofPaternò felt so threatened by this measure, it sent out an armed force to stop the work crews.As a result, laws were enacted to forbid tampering with lava flows. These remained in effect until 1983, when moremodern techniques were allowed. So the bulldozers of today are still an experimental technology when it comes tofighting eternal Etna.Another experimental technology was tried at Etna in 2009: gas sampling by remote-controlled helicopter. TheScots geologist whose brainstorm that was won a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 2008. Remote-observationtechniques like this promise to spare volcanologists from some of the danger inherent in their work while helping ineruption forecasts.PS: The Etna eruption, among other things, produced a small quantity of Peles hair. This fine-fibered volcanic glassis more familiar from Hawaii, where the liquid basaltic lava is readily blown in the wind.
Step 6- Have students connect to media Step 7- Have students discuss their learning.
Step 8- Have students create from their learning. This is one of thefundamental elements of Common Core.
Why would we have students do anexperiment with earthquakes when we are studying volcanoes?
Step 1- Introduce the big ideaStep 2-Introduce wordsStep 3- Create BackgroundStep 4-Explore TextStep 5-Have students connect to textStep 6- Have students connect to mediaStep 7- Students discuss their learningStep 8- Students create from their learning
In following this methodology, students can learn inthe way the brain directs and learn a host of vocabulary along the way.And most important, learning will be fun.
…writing is treated as an equal partner toreading, and more than this, writing isassumed to be the vehicle through which agreat deal of the reading work and thereading assessments will occur. Calkins, et al Pathways to the Common Core, p 102
Types of Writing in Common Core State StandardsResponse to Literature Process Writing
Response to Literature Students will be expected to writeabout their reading experiences ondemand in a meaningful, clear, and concise manner pointing to clearevidence in the text to support their writing.
Clear Implications of Process Writing1. Three different types (Narrative, Persuasive/Opinion/Argu ment, Informational and Functional/Procedural Writing2. The bar is exceptionally high3. Writing happens often4. Based on strong rubrics
Exemplar Rubric TextToday before we had writing groups Mrs. John read usa story about frogs. We had to write about frogs. Wehad a tadpole in the science center. It has two backlegs and when it has two front legs its tail disappearsand it cannot eat when its mouth is changing. Thenthe skin gets too little and the frogs pull off their skinand they eat it. Some fo the frogs blow bubbles.Frogs laid eggs that look like jelly and the fish eatsome but some hatch to tadpoles. It grows bigger andbigger and bigger.
Considerations in Writing• Write Often, Model Often, Release Often• Use a learning progression in working with writing (James Popham, 2007), building blocks• Design a continuum of writing for assessment (www.readingandwritingproject.com) 1. Use an on demand benchmark to begin measure 2. Compare to your continuum 3. Monitor their progress over time compared to thecontinuum 4. End the year by an on demand piece and show theprogression• Provide students with clear goals and effective feedback
Feedback Repetition Mistake Retry Practice Perfection
Writing with ELLStudents requires lots of modeling
First, boys and girls, tell me whatyou see in the picture.CatsBirdsCarWindowNow, tell me what do you thinkthe cats may do?I think they go out window andeat the birds.I think the birds will fly awayI think the cats will watch thebirds.
Amanda was from India when the monsoon rains caused 1. What two new things hasgreat flooding. Amanda done in her new country that she neverAmanda’s family came to the United States when she did in the old according towas twelve years old. the text?Amanda missed her friends and family very much when 2. What does the author sayshe first came to America. But she soon made new that lets us know thatfriends. Amanda is happy in the United States?In American, Amanda was allowed to attend schoolsomething she had never done before. She really liked 3. How do we know how oldto learn and is a good student. Amanda was when she came to the UnitedAmanda likes sports and likes to play basketball. This States?was something she had never seen in her old country.
In Process Writing: 1. Target the instruction- don’t try to get all the lions out of the jungle the first day2. Offer constant feedback, but let the children do the work (they don’t learn from what you do, but what they do)3. Use a writers workshop model with six trait writing
Pedagogy Suggestions1. Sentence strips, magnetic words, and tactile experiences are a great start.2. Drawing is writing. Have students tell you the story in dictation.3. For beginners, use lots of pictures to create the connection with stories and print.4. Target questions in texts for reading in order to connect with writings. Use sticky notes to place in text.
Thank You Keith Pruitt Words of Wisdomwww.woweducationalconsulting.com Join us on facebook