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English Language Learners in the Classroom: Strategies That Make A Difference


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This workshop was presented at an elementary in TN and deals with strategies regular education teachers may use in the classroom to work with ELL and Special Education students.

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English Language Learners in the Classroom: Strategies That Make A Difference

  1. 1. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh English Language Learners in the Classroom: Strategies That Make a Difference Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting
  2. 2. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Agenda Discussion of six strategies within the framework of: Increasing Comprehensible Input Increasing Interaction Promoting Thinking Skills Interdependence Theory Schema Theory
  3. 3. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Total Physical Response (Asher) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Learning (Slavin, Gardner, Hoyt) </li></ul><ul><li>Preview, View, Review (Freeman) </li></ul><ul><li>Using Visualization and Schema (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, Marzano, Piaget) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Texts (Clay, Fountas, Pinnell, Booth, Opitz, Ford, Zbaracki) </li></ul><ul><li>Transference (Cummins, Freeman) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Are some of your students still trying to figure out how to get over the fence while the rest are surging ahead?
  5. 5. What is Comprehensible Input?
  6. 6. What is the level of Understanding Here? <ul><li>“A related observation about the F distribution is that it is positively skewed, not symmetric as are z and t . This is because F is always positive: It is the ratio of variances, both of which are positive, so F itself must be positive. There is no left-hand tail of F because the F distribution ends abruptly at 0.” </li></ul><ul><li>Russell T. Hurlburt (2003). Comprehending Behavioral Statistics . Thomson: Australia, p. 336. </li></ul>
  7. 7. fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid too Cna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can. i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! Can You Read This?
  8. 8. The Greater the Comprehensible Input … … the greater the capacity to comprehend.
  9. 9. So which is more desirable? The student who reads every word? Or The student who understands the meaning?
  10. 10. <ul><li>What is Involved In Comprehension? </li></ul><ul><li>What Does it Mean to Understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Making Sense of text based on author’s intention and message. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how the words interplay to relay a message. </li></ul><ul><li>To exercise intellectual muscle </li></ul><ul><li>To connect with a text in a meaningful way </li></ul>Jamika’s Story
  11. 11. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh <ul><li>Comprehension Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Make Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Infer </li></ul><ul><li>Use Fix-Up Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize </li></ul><ul><li>Create Sensory and Emotional Images </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Keene and Zimmerman, Mosaic of Thought , 1997 </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Road On The Left By Keith Pruitt On my Tuesday drive through the country side, I happened on a road I had not previously seen. It was on my left just past Conner’s store. Even though I had been here many times, I had never noticed this road before and it seemed seldom driven as grass was grown waist high on the edges. The treads of tires previously venturing down the lane were the only signs the path had been driven. ∞ I can see that in my mind. I can just see me driving down this dirt road and there is grass in the middle hitting on my car and the dust is flying and the weeds on the side of the road are up to my window. Can you stand in your space and show your conversation partner how high you think the grass would be? Remember, it is up to the window of my car. Turning down the road the grass between the tire ruts seemed short for a distance but soon became taller hitting the grill on my car. It was obvious I had turned down a road where few had driven in recent days. Over in the field was a house that appeared to be vacant. ∞ If the house is vacant it means that no one is living there. A smile crossed my face as memories from the past came rushing through my mind. ∞ I think that this person has been to this house before. I know this because the author says memories came rushing through my mind . A memory is based on something that has happened before to a person. How would a person smile when they remember something they like. What do you think the author means when he says memories came rushing through my mind ? Turn and Talk.
  13. 13. My mother had moved here as a child of five years old from their old house in Chicago. She loved living here in the country. She use to tell me of swinging on an old tire hung by a rope from a tree. Well, I wonder if that is the tree over yonder. “Look the old rope is still there,” I called to the air. When I was but five years old, I remember coming to visit grandmother. She would be sitting on the porch in her rocker just knitting and singing. “I’ll fly away, oh glory, I’ll fly away,” I mumbled the words still remembering the old hymn she loved so much. My face lit up with the warmth of these remembrances. Fifty years had gone by, but it was as though it were yesterday. ∞ Have you ever moved far away from your house? What do you think it would look like if you went back? The house looked to be in fairly good shape. It needed a coat of paint and a few boards had come loose. Otherwise, it had survived the years rather well. Mr. Corbin told me the last people to live at Shiloh Valley were the Hendricks. They had both been dead now only a couple of years. I guess they did right well by the place. It looked better than I had supposed. I opened the door and grabbed my box of supplies and began up the steps. The movers would be here in a week. There was a lot to be done in such a short time. I had come home. What do you think the person is going to do with the house?
  14. 14. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh <ul><li>To Teach Comprehension: </li></ul><ul><li>Model a comprehension strategy for children. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students practice the strategy with you. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to practice the strategy with each other. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Strategies Used: TPR Cooperative Learning Visualization Alternative Text
  16. 16. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Preview View Review David and Yvonne Freeman, Closing the Achievement Gap and others.
  17. 17. Preview Using Story Mapping Build schema with Visual Anchor Visual Transference
  18. 18. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
  19. 19. <ul><li>Preview, View, Review can be used with story mapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used when introducing new science and social studies text. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to introduce new vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Can pre-teach using ELL/ Spec Ed teacher. </li></ul>Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
  20. 20. Connected Comprehension Instruction The Keys to Comprehension Instruction is getting students to THINK! Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008
  21. 21. 1. Read, Cover, Remember, Retell 2. Say Something 3. Partner Jigsaw 4. Two-Word 5. Reverse Think-Aloud Interactive Reading Techniques The Power of Peer Learning Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008
  22. 22. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Visualization And Creating Schema
  23. 23. How Is Schema Created? <ul><li>What Comes to Your Mind When You Think of… </li></ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Statue </li></ul><ul><li>Man </li></ul><ul><li>How about when I spell this word? </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Work of J R Anderson Sensory Memory Working Memory Discards OR Permanent Memory Files Anderson, J.R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons How Does The Brain Work?
  25. 25. <ul><li>Learn new vocabulary by creating schema that connects with what is already known. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan and Marzano) </li></ul>What words come to your mind as you look at this picture? Turn and Talk
  26. 26. How About Now? What Schema Do You Have For This Picture? Can you transfer your learning? Can you adopt new schemes for this if I give you information?
  27. 27. Beck, McKeown, Kucan <ul><li>Vocabulary must first be orally introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is not grade specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Words must be explained, not defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be contextualized. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple usages in a meaningful context (8-10). </li></ul><ul><li>Create Schema (visual representation) </li></ul><ul><li>Students reflect with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Three Tiers of Vocabulary </li></ul>
  28. 28. Working With Vocabulary <ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Restate </li></ul><ul><li>Show </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Refine and Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Apply and Learning Games </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge </li></ul>
  29. 29. Comforting - Something or someone that is comforting makes you feel good when you are sad or hurt. Beck & McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004 Further explain by putting the word in a context. A warm cup of tea is comforting when my throat hurts. My dog feels comforting when I am hurt.
  30. 30. Using Vocabulary Journals <ul><li>Have students create journals </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Consultations </li></ul>
  31. 32. By creating the visual representation, they are making the learning concrete by making permanent memory files. Why is this important?
  32. 33. Hooking The Learning <ul><li>Have you ever met someone and then five minutes later…you couldn’t remember their name? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever met someone for the first time that you had talked with on the phone for a long time only to think,… they don’t look like what I thought? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think in images? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your husband or wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you just dream in words, or do you create images? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Do Not Under-estimate the power of a picture. The Heart of the Tulip By Keith Pruitt
  34. 35. <ul><li>Exaggerate </li></ul>Beck and McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  35. 36. scheming The cats were scheming against the birds.
  36. 37. Invisible Beck and McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  37. 38. Fatigue The bear was very fatigued from walking so far.
  38. 39. Icon Michael Phelps is an Icon of Olympic swimming.
  39. 40. Spider Would this be helpful in a Science lesson? ©Keith Pruitt, Art by Keith
  40. 41. Open For Discussion <ul><li>What are the possible advantages of students discussing with each other their concepts of a word (context, visual representation, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to transfer from L1 to L2 using peer tutoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing personal understanding broadens each understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates multiple contexts for usage. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Reflection allows a refinement of understanding. It permits the memory file to be adjusted to incorporate new understandings.
  42. 43.
  43. 44. Games on Facebook
  44. 46. EAT ATE Will Eat A Graphic Way of Showing Tense Past Present Future
  45. 47. Use graphic organizers to help students use the words in meaningful contexts Drinking warm tea when my throat hurts Holding my cat in my lap A warm blanket on a cold night Comforting
  46. 48. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Use Slam Board greedy chunky formulated marginal fleet
  47. 49. Check the box that matches the meaning of the word at the top comforting Sandpaper A blanket Being hit Versatile Sing and dance Play piano Read a book Companionship A stranger Someone in Another city A Pet Fashionable Hoop Skirt Tailored suit Coveralls
  48. 50. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Exploding The Vocabulary <ul><li>Through direct instruction, 5-8 words/week </li></ul><ul><li>Adds approximately 160 words to reading/writing vocabularies. </li></ul><ul><li>If we take the connective words for those five… look what happens. </li></ul>
  49. 51. So work becomes Works Worker Worked Working Will Work Labor Job Employment Exert Lazy A Word Tree Starts with Base Word
  50. 52. Using Word Tree <ul><li>Those five words have become @50 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Now in 32 weeks we have instructed 1600 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Students may gain another 320-600 words via reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Now we have exploded the vocabulary by a maximum of 2200 words in 32 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>In the traditional program 640 words are instructed, but only 64-120 of them are learned. And emphasis is on spelling. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh You Try It Here are some common words taught. What other words may we teach in conjunction with these: Glimmer Vast Artistic Disturb
  52. 54. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh <ul><li>Morris’ research on phonics/ pa shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics lessons should be no more than 10-15 min </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of lesson should be tactile experience </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn more when manipulating phonemes than by just hearing sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics instruction should be completed by end of second grade. </li></ul>
  53. 55. <ul><li>Using children, create a photo collection of these words and have students match pictures to words. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students act out the action words using the nouns (TPR). Which part of my body can I raise? </li></ul><ul><li>Have set of words and then other words with which I can make compound words. </li></ul>
  54. 56. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh After modeling a sorting activity with students, in centers have students do sorting activities on dry erase boards, on magnetic boards, or using a card sort activity. Remember, practice is the key to ownership.
  55. 57. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Using Alternative Text What is the Zone of Proximal Development and what role does it play in selecting text for students? TURN and TALK
  56. 58. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh <ul><li>Small Group Strategic Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous grouping of students </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting for a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Selected text because it is at their instructional level and meets the skill challenge needed </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting students where they are in order to bring where they need to be </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to practice, practice, practice </li></ul><ul><li>With beginning students, wordless picture books allows students to create stories and learn language </li></ul><ul><li>Students read to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher observes and makes evaluation of further needs </li></ul>
  57. 59. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Leveling Systems Hirschian System- Below On Above Categorical System- A B C= Kindergarten Incremental System- Read. Recovery, PM 3 C Pre-primer Kinder 2 C Readiness Kinder 1 B Readiness Kinder A B A Readiness Kinder
  58. 60. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Increasing Fluency is A Matter Of Practice!
  59. 61. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Does Fluency Make A Difference? The teacher said the principal is the best in the district. What is the meaning?
  60. 62. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Does Fluency Make A Difference? “ The teacher,” said the principal “is the best in the district.” What is the meaning?
  61. 63. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Recipe for Fluency Success Step 1: Read the story to children. Step 2: Have students listen to story with CD or cassette Step 3: Have student read 1 minute reading to teacher Step 4: Have students buddy read Step 5: Students should read to themselves Based on Tim Shanahan model, Elements of Reading Fluency, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  62. 64. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Goals for Reading If students read 1 book a week=32 books/yr If students read 2 books a week=64 books/yr If students read 3 books a week=96 books/yr If each book averages 130 words, how many new words would they read at 1:10. Building stamina builds vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.
  63. 65. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Consider what it is like to be an ELL student struggling to make meaning of what is being said in the classroom.
  64. 66. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Cummins’ Interdependence Theory To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (either in school or environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly. --J. Cummins, 1981. “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework . P. 29
  65. 67. What Do ELL Students Need? <ul><li>The keys to effective reading instruction for ELLs include activating or building background knowledge, helping students use psychological strategies and linguistic cueing systems to construct meaning from English texts, choosing appropriate materials, and organizing curriculum around themes. </li></ul><ul><li>--David and Yvonne Freeman </li></ul>
  66. 68. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  67. 69. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK 叉 ; 耙 Eat 杯子 Drink coffee 时钟  Tell Time Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  68. 70. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK tenedor Food copa Coca reloj Time Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  69. 71. Creating New Schema <ul><li>Using Spanish Cognates </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of words in Spanish and English have common roots in Latin. Many of the these words are the same except for one letter. These serve as good basis of conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn and Talk: Tell me what the English word is for these Spanish cognates. </li></ul>
  70. 72. Spanish Cognates <ul><li>Ocurrir </li></ul><ul><li>Reptil </li></ul><ul><li>Ciclo </li></ul><ul><li>Paciente </li></ul><ul><li>Invitar </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperar </li></ul><ul><li>Educacion </li></ul><ul><li>Sociedad </li></ul><ul><li>Presente </li></ul>
  71. 73. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Today’s discussion has begun a process. What teachers do in the classroom makes all the difference. We can not loose our focus!
  72. 74. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
  73. 75. The Teacher I taught a child to read today, Aren’t I a lucky soul; And now a world has opened up, The child can now be whole. He’ll run and play as others do, But more will be his call; By opening up a book at play, He’ll stand so sure and tall. A preacher, teacher, scientist perhaps, Someday his task will be; But it all began one simple day, When I taught Joe how to read . Keith Pruitt ©2009
  74. 76. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting Keith Pruitt