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Creative Urban Renewal in Europe (CURE)

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EU INTERREG IV Program. CURE develops innovative solutions to the question of how the creative economy can play an active role in urban renewal processes in medium-sized cities in NWE. In contrast to bigger cities and metropoles with growing development conditions, where the market mainly pushes the development of creative urban quarters, the development of creative zones in medium-sized cities has to be pushed by local authorities and other local players. An active intervention of key stakeholders in the form of an integrated approach is needed.

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Creative Urban Renewal in Europe (CURE)

  1. 1. CURE: Creative Urban RenewalCreative Zone Innovator:The social, entrepreneurial and urban dimension e soc a , e t ep e eu a a d u ba d e s oRene Kooyman  4 April  Kick‐off Bruges
  2. 2. Cultural and creative industries‘Cultural industries’: goods or services thatembody cultural expressions, irrespectiveembody cultural expressions irrespectivecommercial value: film, DVD, video, televisionand radio, video games, new media, music, and radio video games new media musicbooksand press, performing arts, visual arts.and press performing arts visual arts‘Creative industries’ : use culture as an input , whose outputs are mainly functional:  architecture, advertising,  , g,gaming, design and fashion.’ 
  3. 3. Contribution Cultural/Creative sector• UNCTAD: Creative Economy Report 2010
  4. 4. The new sme definitionThree criteria:• Staff headcount Staff headcount• Annual turnover or:• Balance sheet  turnover• ????
  5. 5. Size of EnterprisesBy sector across CCIs eurokleis 2009
  6. 6. Staff headcount - turnoverCreative industries:    headcount  / turnovero Very small  (< 2 milj EUR) 97% of headcount       27 % turnovero SME (2 10 EUR) SMEs (2 – 10 m EUR) 3 % headcount         32 % turnover 3%h d t 32 % to Large enterprises: < 1 % nr headcount        40 % turnoverCultural Industries BRDCultural Industries BRDo 763.000 taxable employees  o 210.000 Free‐lance workers not registeredFesel/Söndermann BRD 2009 BRD 2009
  7. 7. CCI : Three DimensionsSocial dimension: • fostering territorial cohesion, integration and identity• reinforcing self‐confidence (individuals /communities)• participate in the expression of cultural diversity.The entrepreneurial dimension:• owe ones own enterprise, entrepreneurial risk p p• value creation• innovative practices : new products, forms of  organization,  new markets, new production methods,  new sources of supplies and materialsThe economical dimension: • Products/marketing, labour markets, turnover / g, ,
  8. 8. Business categories• Artisan – Designer driven purely by aesthetic  motivation• Solo – Individual designer focused on growth• Creative Partnership Two creative people Creative Partnership – Two creative people• Designer and Business Partner  – One creative  and one business partner and one business partner• Designer and Licensing Partner  – Designer  under royalty contract under royalty contract• Designer and Manufacturer  – Designer in  contractual agreement with manufacturer contractual agreement with manufacturer• Partnership with Investor  – Designer in  partnership with a formal investor partnership with a formal investor NESTA 2008
  9. 9. The entrepreneur’s perspective p p pFrom the SMEs perspective, three markets: • The ‘arts’ field: pure creative work The  arts field: pure creative work • Arts related markets: teaching, services,  arts administration, art management arts administration art management • Non‐arts markets, in order to generate  additional income additional incomePersonal characteristics and motivations: • Entrepreneurial success • Professional achievement • Art creation • Professional career
  10. 10. Labour Market Characteristics• Labour market of the CCIs is complex• Thrives on numerous small initiatives• Careerwise a high degree of uncertainty • Non‐conventional forms of employment; part‐time,  temporary contracts, self‐employment , free‐lancers• Multiple job‐holdings; combined other sources• New type of employer; the ‘entrepreneurial  individual’ or ‘entrepreneurial cultural worker’ i di id l’ ‘ t i l lt l k ’• Does not fit into typical patterns of full‐time pro’s• Heterogeneity of human resources categories;  H i fh i higher professional training, vernacular backgrounds,  craft industry, any other category craft industry any other category
  11. 11. Product characteristics• Creative inputs and products are abundant• Hypercompetitive environment• Succes is uncertain: ‘nobody knows’• Knowledge‐based and labour‐intensive input• py , p Not ‘simply merchandise’, but express cultural  uniqueness and identities p g ;p• Experience goods; production and  consumption ‘on the spot’ y• Product life‐cycles are often short
  12. 12. CCIs as key strategic factor• CCIs drivers of economical growth (UNCTAD)• Drivers of innovation: Drivers of innovation:  Creativity – Innovation ‐ Design• Flexibility; direct producer/client interaction; meet  the clients needs• CCIs core of cultural and industrial networks• CCIs & Technological change (digitisation 2 way) CCIs & Technological change (digitisation 2 way)• CCIs indispensable at other firms (spill over effects) • C l Cultural and Creative Content as independent  l dC i C i d d economical factor
  13. 13. Entrepreneurship indicatorsOECD, Measuring entrepreneurship, 2008
  14. 14. Entrepreneurship Determinants• Regulatory framework: administrative burden Regulatory framework administrative burden• R&D and Technology: core business• Entrepreneurial capabilities: skills E i l bili i kill• Entrepreneurial culture• Access to all types of equity (Tax incentives)• Market conditions and public involvement
  15. 15. Entrepreneurial capabilities• Weaknesses in business skills• Training and experience of  entrepreneurs• Traditional Business Education• Entrepreneurship Education (skills)• Entrepreneurship Infrastructure Entrepreneurship Infrastructure  (Public and Private) 
  16. 16. Regulatory framework• Administrative Burdens (entry and growth)• Bankruptcy Legislation Bankruptcy Legislation• Safety, health, environment and product  regulation l ti• Court‐legal framework• Labour Market Regulation• Social and Health Security y• Income Taxes• Business Taxes and Fiscal Incentives Business Taxes and Fiscal Incentives• Wealth and inheritance Taxation
  17. 17. The Urban Dimension• Territorial approach: zoning• Diversified cultural environments (J b ) cultural environments (Jacobs)• Social integration/identification (‘belonging’) and distinction (Bourdieu/Florida)• Integrated approach: Integrated approach: – Physical: bricks and mortar – Social – Infrastructure: networking g• Conceptualisation /re‐evaluation
  18. 18. CURE: Creative Urban Renewal• Creative Zone Innovator: integrated  approach to urban, economic, cultural,  approach to urban economic cultural social and entrepreneurial development• ABC: Area , Building, Creative entrepreneur• Themes: a. Flow of diversity b. Learning Lab c. g Cultural Business Modeling d. Supply Chain
  19. 19. CURE: Creative Urban Renewalhttp://cci.hku.nl/www.rkooyman.com

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