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  1. 1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SATARS (A Case study of Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa District) Submitted By RAJESH KOIRALA Exam Roll No.475 Reg. No. : 702-94 A Project Proposal Submitted to the Central Department of Rural Development Faculty of Humanities and Social Science Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Kathmandu, Nepal July 2000 Table of Contents
  2. 2. 1. Introduction 1.1 General Background 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.3 Significance of the Study 1.4 Objectives of Study 1.5 Limitation of Study 2 Research Methodologies 2.1 Rationale of Selection of the Study Area 2.2 Research Design 2.3 Sources of Data 2.3.1 Primary Data 2.3.2 Secondary Data 2.4 Total Population and Sample 2.5 Methods of Data Collection 2.6 Data Presentation and Analysis References 1. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. 1.1 General Background Nepal is one of the small countries in the world. Situated in the lap of the Himalaya, it is located in between the latitude 26o 22' to 30o 27' north and longitude 80o 4' to 88o 12' east and elevation range from 90 to 8848 meters. The average length being 885 km. east to west and average breadth is about 193 km. north to south. Geographically it is divided in three regions: Mountain, Hill and Terai. The country is bordering between the two most populous countries of the world. Social structure of Nepal is very complex, which has been highlighted by various foreign and Nepalese scholars in their writings. Unity in diversity is the major characteristic of Nepalese national culture. To explain its diversity Professor Tony Hagen has rightly said that Nepal is one the ethnic turntable of Asia. Nepal is multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-lingual country where more than 60 ethnic groups can be found. It is meeting ground for different people and culture situated at the natural boundary and the watershed that’s runs through the middle of the largest continent in the world. Nepal has traditionally attracted and given shelter to people from all direction, east, west, north and south. So development is equally important along with the geographical space in the process of national development. Almost all ethnic groups are considered as poor, some belongs to upper class from the point of view of social, political and economical aspect but the national development must cope with them all which requires the social, cultural and economical improvement of those communities. Otherwise not only Nepal but all others poor countries will remain poor forever. Ethnic diversity gives birth to the religious diversity. A nation cannot exist if we leave the diversity. The whole society here is recognized as a Nepalese society in spite of much diversity. Ethnic diversity produces diversities in almost all the aspects of culture. Human group can easily be separated due the ethnic diversity. More separation among the group brings different types of elements in the society, like quarrel, murder, crime and other evil things. Due to the result of struggle between castes and sub-castes a certain group may be destroys or exiled. Nepalese society is a unique example of the mixture of different caste and ethnic groups living together. Believing in communitive work, cooperation accepting
  4. 4. legally inter-caste marriage and equality in the caste, religion, community recognition instead of personal recognition are the aspects of equality in the diversity. Mountain, Hill and Terai have distinct natural features along with population characteristics. Sherpa, Bhote etc are from mountain, Rai, Limbu etc are from hill and Satar, Tharu, Yadav, and Mushar etc are from terai in their geographical identification. Among the different ethnic groups, Satar is one of the indigenous group having their unique culture, traditions and rituals. Their total population is 42698, 0.19% of the total national population where as in Jhapa district they constitute 23,172 (3.66) (CBS, 2002). In the study area (Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa district) their population is 548(3.41%). They are considered as very poor people and land of their own is rare. They make their home near the forest area or on the bank of the river. They celebrate their own culture, own beliefs and ritual. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The national economy of Nepal is fully depends upon agriculture, so the agriculture is the backbone of economy. The productivity in agriculture sector has been declining on account of lack of irrigation, fertilizers, modern agriculture equipments and agriculture credit. By this backwardness in agriculture, it has affected not only other people but also to Satar group who are fully depended on fishing, gathering of tumor and hunting. One of the main reasons of poverty among Satar is limited access to the agriculture and land and although they live in Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari district of eastern Nepal which is sounder than western Nepal in the case of agriculture, this group is almost poor and landless group. Also their access in agriculture is uncertain in the future due to the low concentration by the government and they have no any chances in the future to own the land. These groups are living on others land mostly owned by upper cast groups. Because of high agricultural productivity in these areas, migration from hilly region of eastern part is becoming another big problem and it is affecting to the Satar day by day. People migrate from the hilly region to these three districts and own a land for their needs, by this, those Satar groups have to leave the land where they are living and settle on another person's land. Because of poverty and landlessness they have to do this several
  5. 5. times. At this time they don't get any option but to leave the place where they are living as soon as possible. The hill based groups are not only clever but also some people use force to capture the fertile land of indigenous people like Rajbanshi, Dhimals and Satar. Although these indigenous people almost do not have land, few land owner may be victims of hilly people and loose whole or part of their land. Even the households who had agriculture land, due to the lack of irrigation, agriculture inputs, chemical fertilizer and technical know-how, every year the productivity is decreasing and not sufficient to maintain the living standard and compelled to sell a plot of their land. Many of them have becoming agriculture labor. Even if we called, quot;Nepal is a garden of flowers,quot; the flowers are sucking and plucking by the clever upper groups. The unfortunate is that not only clever groups suck and pluck lower ethnic group but the same ethnic groups also doing that kinds of job within the same groups. The clever people have captured more properties and the lower economic classes of the people are becoming poorer and poorer. The majority group dominates some of the ethnic groups and their cultures: some of the minorities are oppressed and exploited by the majority who make up the ruling class. Thus, some of the ethnic groups, minorities, tribal and indigenous people can be encompassed into the disadvantaged group. We found pluralism in our country. Each and every ethnic group has its own culture, economic and social and religious reliefs and their culture plays significant role in the national cultural and nation building process. If unique culture of Satar is neglected, it will be incomplete explaining the Nepali culture. 1.3 Significance of the Study Nepal is known as the garden of different flowers. It demonstrates that there are different ethnic groups, which have their own language, culture, dress, lifestyle etc that is influenced with the climate and the economic condition of that groups as well as the influence of development and the development of other groups of people.
  6. 6. In primitive age, people lived in forest and their main occupation was hunting. They lived in-groups and the stronger groups have been dominated the weak groups. During the period of time, different ways of dominating the groups of people and countries were emerged. After the “Industrial Revolution” of 17th to 18th century many “Industrial countries” made colony to the third world nations for their market and for raw materials, minerals etc. When the light of education was spread to the colonial countries, the people started fighting against the imperialist are made their countries independent. In Nepal after the Rana regime, there were establishing schools, collages and the facility of road and air transportation. The economically upper class of people and the upper class generally utilized these facilities. In the same way, in Jhapa district, the tribal castes like Dhimal, Satar, Rajbansi and Meche are also influenced economically as well as socially by the Brahman, Chhetri, Rai, Limbu and Gurung. The hill based ethnic groups of people started to migrate in this district. At the beginning of migration they settle at the foot of hills and after the opening of east west Mahendra highway, they gradually scattered along with this highway. The process was continued and the program of Punarbas and the construction of North-South linkage road, like Birtamode-Kechana, Dudhe, Mahabhara, Surunga-Jhapa, Padajungi-Gauriganj, helped the hill base ethnic groups to reach up to the Nepal-India boarder. The Satars are relatively disadvantaged community. This community is in crisis. They are affected by modernization and westernization. So, this study basically centers on and around the socio-economic statu of Satar of Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa District. s 1.4 Objectives of the Study The general objective of the study is to analyze the socio-economic status of Satar of the Chandragadi VDC. Other specific objectives are: 1. To trace out the cultural behavior of Satars of the study area. 2. To find out the social organization and social behavior of Satars. 3. To assess the impact of other cultures in their culture.
  7. 7. 1.5 Limitations of the Study The present study will be focused on the socio-economic status of Satar of Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa District, Nepal. Every social science research is not beyond the limitations and it is not the exception of that. Some major limitations are as follows. 1. The study will be conducted at Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa district and the generalization of this study may or may not be applicable to other places or community , 2. This study will be conducted with financial limitations and in a limited time framework, 3. Simple statistical tools will be used to analyze the data. 4. The study is representing only a selected community for research but not the whole communities, 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 Rationale of Selection of the Study Area The proposed study will be carried out in the Chandragadi VDC of Jhapa district. Satar of the study area are one of the primitive indigenous ethnic groups. There are about 75 families of Satars are living in the study area. Their economic condition is very poor despite they are rich in their culture. They are being exploited by the so called upper caste and elite people. So the present study will try to trace out the socio-economic status of Satar.
  8. 8. 2.2 Research Design In order to fulfill the objectives of this study, descriptive and analytical systems will be used. In accordance to above set objectives, the study will be carried out in a systematic way. 2.3 Sources of Data In this study, both primary as well as secondary data will be considered. 2.3.1 Primary Data The primary data will be collected using questionnaire, from each selected households. Each sampling households will be selected by simple random sampling method. The household details, according to questionnaire, will be collected through the direct contact with Satar people. 2.3.2 Secondary Data The numbers of secondary data will be taken out from the published books, journals and documents of Nepal. 2.4 Total Population and Sample Among the whole population of the Satar of Chandragadi VDC, 10 percent will be selected as sample on the basis of simple random sampling method. 2.5 Method of Data Collection To collect the required data, an individual will be selected from the sampled household and will be interviewed from sample households heads to get information. For the personal interview, a pre-designed questionnaire will be used. If required, the observation method will be used specially to know about the socio-economic aspects of Satar people. The data
  9. 9. will be thoroughly checked, edited and tabulated to make the data set suitable for analysis. Data processing will be performed with the help of simple calculator, computer and other electronic and manual devices. 2.6 Data Presentation and Analysis The collected data will be quantified by tabulating. Qualitative data will be arranged systematically. The data will be processed by editing, classifying and tabulating. In this study, analytical as well as descriptive methods will be used to analyze the data and information. Necessary maps and diagrams will be used whenever appropriate in the presentation of text. After analyzing the data and information, necessary conclusion and recommendation will be made. REFERENCES CBS, Population of Nepal (Population Census 2001). Sharma, Prem, quot;A Hand Book of Social Science Research Methodologyquot;, Kshitiz Prakashan, Kiritpur, Kathmandu. Sharma, Prem, quot;Format for Writing Project work for the Student of RD (Handout given to the students).