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  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A number of persons and organizations helped me to prepare this study report. All of them have equally contributed their suggestions and help to the whole life cycle of this report. My special and heartiest gratitude goes to my supervisor Mr. Umesh Acharya, Lecturer at the Central Department of Rural Development for his regular interest, valuable guidance, encouragement, comments and suggestions for the preparation of this project report instead of his valuable business. I am equally indebted to Dr. Pradeep Kumar Khadka, Professor and Head of the Central Department of Rural Development and other respectable teachers for their co-operation. This study would not have been possible without their incentives for researcher. It is my opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Santosh Kumar Dahal, the Secretary of Chandragadhi VDC and other staff members of the office for providing me with the data needed for this study. On this occasion, I should remember my friends Sushil Bhattarai, Sudhir Bhattarai, Padam Prasad Parajuli, Bishal Adhikari, Rabi Shah and Miss Shihomi Sakamoto for their friendly cooperation in the field visit and at the time of data processing. Also I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Satar community; the Satar People and the children. Last but not least, I have to express my sincere gratitude to my revered parents, Brother Rajeev Koirala and Sisters Ranjeeta Koirala and Rejina Koirala who have supported me throughout the whole period of the study. July 2005 Rajesh Koirala LIST OF TABLES i
  2. 2. Table No. Title Page No. 1 Sampled Households 15 2 Types of Soil 17 3 Distribution of Population on the Basis of Ethnic Group 18 4 Population by Mother Tongue for Chandragadhi VDC 18 5 Age and Sex Structure of the Respondents 22 6 Educational Attainment of the Respondents 23 7 Educational Attainments of the Respondent's Children 23 8 Family Types of the Respondents 24 9 Occupation of the Respondents 27 10 Size of Landholding of the Respondents 28 11 Landless Respondents and their Settlement 28 12 Annual Income of the Respondents 29 13 Number of Respondents who Took Loan 30 14 Number of Livestock Among all Respondents 30 15 Number of Respondents Having Livestock 31 16 Child Name According to the Specific Day of the Birth 36 17 Marriage Preferred by the Respondents 37 18 Effects of Other Culture in their Culture 44 18.1 Affected from Other Particular Cultures 45 19 Effects of Modern Dances and Songs 45 LIST OF MAPS ii
  3. 3. Map No. Title Page No. 1 Map of Jhapa District 20 2 Map of Chandragadhi VDC 21 ABBREVIATION CBS Central Bureau of Statistics iii
  4. 4. CHN Chandragadhi DDC District Development Committee HH Household HMG His Majesty's Government T.U. Tribhuvan University VDC Village Development Committee EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Nepal is a meeting ground for different people and culture situated at the natural boundary and the watershed that’s runs through the middle of the largest continent in the world. Nepalese society is a unique example of the iv
  5. 5. mixture of different caste and ethnic groups living together. Social structure of Nepal is very complex, which has been highlighted by various foreign and Nepalese scholars in their writings. Unity in diversity is the major characteristic of Nepalese national culture. Among the different ethnic groups, Satar is one of the indigenous ethnic groups having their unique culture, traditions and rituals. The study “Socio-Economic Status of Satars” has been conducted at Chandragadhi VDC of Jhapa District with a general objective to analyze the socio-economic status of the Satars of the area. The objectives of the study were to trace out the cultural status of the Satars of the study area, to find out the social condition of the Satars and to assess the impact of other cultures on their culture. Primary and secondary data were used to collect the information and tools like observations, formal and non formal discussions, interviews were held to collect other necessary information. Descriptive and analytical research designs have been followed to describe and examine the findings of the study. Out of total 77 households of Chandragadhi VDC, fifty household members of the Satars were taken as sample following simple random sampling method. The study shows that the Satars are one of the indigenous ethnic groups of the study area following their own sorts of traditions and culture. They are culturally rich, simple and gentle but economically poor. They basically depend upon the wage and agricultural labor for their livelihood. Their life cycle ceremonies are very interesting and can attract national as well as foreign scholars and researchers. Literacy rate among them is not encouraging. Hardly few people are literate. However, they are still solving the local cases themselves rather than to visit police stations and courts. Modernization has changed their traditional social organizations, such as marriage, family kinship, religion, village polity, dance, songs, and dress etc. and they have started to follow modern types of culture. Technological advancements have not brought significant changes among them. Based upon the findings, the paper suggests some strategies in order to improve their socio-economic condition. These include mainly introducing social security by government, creating employment opportunities and introducing formal and non formal education by government and other concerned organizations to enhance their educational as well as awareness level. v