Disaster management


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Disaster management

  1. 1. Academic Staff College 106th 4-week Orientation Programme from 21 October to 20th November 2013 Prof (Col) Rajive Kohli, Ph.D. Director 29 October 2013 09.30 a.m. to 12.45 p.m.
  2. 2. Disaster: A serious of the functioning of a , causing widespread human, material, or environmental which exceed the ability of the affected society to using only its own resources.
  3. 3. DISASTER dimensions – Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually severe and may also be sudden, unexpected and widespread – Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship and adverse effect on health – Effect on social infrastructure such as destruction of or damage to government systems, buildings, communications and essential services – Community needs such shelter, food, clothing, medical assistance and social care.
  4. 4. Disasters occur in varied forms •Some are predictable in advance •Some are annual or seasonal •Some are sudden and unpredictable Floods Days and weeks Earthquakes Seconds/minutes Cyclones Days Droughts Months
  5. 5. DISASTER-EFFECTS • • • • • • • • Deaths Disability Increase in communicable disease Psychological problems Food shortage Socioeconomic losses Shortage of drugs and medical supplies. Environmental disruption
  6. 6. TYPES OF DISASTER Natural Disasters Man-made Disasters Meteorological Technological Topographical Industrial accidents Environmental Security related
  7. 7. NATURAL DISASTER • A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural calamity affects humans and/or the built environment. • Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are natural hazards
  8. 8. MAN MADE DISASTER • Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made disasters. • they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
  9. 9. HAZARD A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that adversely threatens human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster.
  10. 10. Distinction between Hazard and Disaster : “A hazard is a natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived natural event which threatens both life and property….a disaster is a realization of this hazard…” – John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
  11. 11. Hazard and Disaster • Hazards have a potential to kill and destroy • Disasters certainly cause destruction of lives and infrastructure • Hazards are natural phenomena • Disasters could be natural as well as anthropogenic (caused by humans) • When Hazards involve elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities; they can turn into disasters
  12. 12. Damage Potential HAZARD Elements at Risk Societal Elements Natural Features People & Live-stock River/Stream Banks Huts & Semi-permanent Houses Low-lying Areas Weak Buildings Sea & Sea-coast Agri. & Horticultural crops Slopes of hills Livelihood tools / Equipment Unsecured personal assets Public Infrastructure
  13. 13. Water and Climate related disasters • • • • • • • • • • Floods and Drainage Management Cyclones Tornadoes and Hurricanes Hailstorm Cloud Burst Heat Wave and Cold Wave Snow Avalanches Droughts Sea Erosion Thunder & Lightning
  14. 14. Geologically related disasters Earthquake • Landslides and Mudflows • Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts. • Mine Fires
  15. 15. Biologically related disasters • • • • Biological Disasters and Epidemics Pest Attacks Cattle Epidemics Food Poisoning
  16. 16. Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear related disasters • Chemical and Industrial Disasters • Nuclear Disasters
  17. 17. Accident related disasters • • • • • • • • • • • Forest Fires Urban Fires Mine Flooding Oil Spill Major Building Collapse Serial Bomb Blasts Festival related disasters Electrical Disasters & Fires Air, Road and Rail Accidents. Boat Capsizing. Village Fire
  18. 18. WHY? And WHAT about Man made Disasters?
  19. 19. Manmade Disasters • • • • • • • • • • • • • Urban fires Village fire Mine fires Air, road and rail accidents Boat capsizing Electrical disasters Chemical and industrial disasters Nuclear disasters Mine flooding Oil spill Major building collapse Serial bomb blasts Festival related disasters      civil strife communal violence internal conflict, “complex emergencies” rapid or slow onset types COMPLEX DISASTERS urbanisation chaotic growth policy disasters war and civil strife Social violence
  21. 21. Disaster Management • Disaster management is the discipline that involves preparing, warning, supporting and rebuilding societies when natural or manmade disasters occur. • It is the continuous process in an effort to avoid or minimize the impact of disasters resulting from hazards.
  22. 22. DISASTER MANAGEMENT The body of policy and administration decisions and operational activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. An applied science which seek, by systematic observation and analysis of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery. Encompass all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre and post disaster activities.
  23. 23. AIMS/ GOALS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT • Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the potential losses (lives & infrastructure) from hazards. • Reduce the risks by timely measures, short-term and long-term policies • Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims of disaster when necessary. • Achieve rapid, effective, sustained & durable recovery & rehabilitation.
  24. 24. What is Disaster Management
  25. 25. Preparedness: Measures enabling govts, orgs, communities and individuals to respond rapidly and effectively to disaster situations. Response: Measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact. Recovery: Process by which communities and the nation are assisted in returning to their proper level of functioning. Mitigation:Measures aimed at reducing the impact of a natural or man-made disaster on a nation or community.
  26. 26. Disaster Management Cycle
  27. 27. Stages of Disaster Management Cycle The cycle generally comprises four major stages: • Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation • Disaster Response and Immediate Relief • Disaster Rehabilitation, Reconstruction and Recovery • Long-term Development
  28. 28. • Prevention • Mitigation • Preparedness • Response • Rehabilitation • Reconstruction Six elements that defines the complete approach to Disaster Management.
  29. 29. Response • Includes actions taken to save lives, prevent damage to property, and to preserve the environment during emergencies or disasters. • It is the implementation of action plans.
  30. 30. RESPONSE • Activities during disaster • Public warning systems, emergency operations, search and rescue • The response phase includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area.
  31. 31. RECOVERY • Activities following a disaster • Ex.. Temporary housing, claims processing and grants, long term medical care and counselling • The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. • Includes actions that assist a community to return to a sense of normalcy after a disaster. •
  32. 32. Mitigation • Activities that reduces the effects of disaster. • It reduces either the chance of a hazard taking place or a hazard turning into disaster. • Mitigation efforts are attempts to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether or to reduce the effects of disasters. • it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. • Mitigation measures can be structural or non-structural. • It includes building codes; zoning and land use management; regulations and safety codes; preventive health care; and public education.
  33. 33. Risk reduction • Anticipatory measures and actions that seek to avoid future risks as a result of a disaster. Prevention • Avoiding a disaster at the eleventh hour. • Includes activities which actually eliminate or reduce the probability of disaster occurrence, or reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters.
  34. 34. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS Disaster preparedness aims at minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard • Through effective precautionary actions • Ensure timely, appropriate and efficient organisation and delivery of emergency response following the impact of a disaster. •  Plans made to save lives or property.  This phase covers implementation/operation, early warning systems and capacity building
  35. 35. Disaster Preparedness Framework COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS Vulnerability Assessment Planning Institutional Framework Information System Resource Base Warning Systems Response Mechanisms Public Education and Training Rehearsals
  36. 36. Typical Post Disaster Needs The Initial Response • Search, Rescue and Evacuation • Medical Assistance • Disaster Assessment
  37. 37. • Short term food and water provision • Water purification • Epidemiological Surveillance • Temporary shelter
  38. 38. The Secondary Response • Repair or reconstruction • Reestablish or create employment • Assist with recovery of agriculture through loans, distribution of farm equipment and tools • Assist with recovery of small businesses and fisheries
  40. 40. Scale of Disaster Is Dependent on : • • • • • • Lead Time Available. Intensity of Hazard. Duration. Spatial Extent. Density of Population & Assets. Time of Occurrence. • Vulnerabilities existing in the Elements at Risk. • Hazard X Vulnerability = Disaster
  41. 41. DEFINITIONS OF “VULNERABILITY” • “The extent to which a community, structure, service or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular disaster hazard…” • “Vulnerability is the propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard”.
  42. 42. Role Players in Disasters • • • • People : Individuals, House -Holds, Volunteers Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati Secretary, Panchayat Members Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Retired Army & Police Personnel Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical, Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings, Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public Health, Police, Defence, NGOs
  43. 43. ELEMENTS AT RISK • • • • • • • • • People Livestock Rural Housing Stock Houses Vulnerable Crops, Trees,Telephone, Electric poles Boats, Looms, Working Implements Personal Property Electricity, Water and Food Supplies Infrastructure Support
  44. 44. Major Disasters in India 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy 2001 Gujarat earthquake 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami 2008 Mumbai attacks
  45. 45. Earthquake, Oct 2005 Avalanche , Feb 2005 MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA (1980-2011) Earthquake Uttarkashi, Oct 1991 Earthquake Chamoli, April 1999 Kosi Floods, Aug, 2008 Earthquake, Bh uj Jan 2001 Flood, Assam & Bihar 2004 Earthquake, Lat ur Sept 1993 Floods July 2005 Bhopal Gas Disaster, Dec 1982 Super Cyclone Oct 1999 Tsunami Dec 2004 Tsunami Dec 2004 Cyclone Aila, West Bengal, 2009
  46. 46. FLOODING IN UTTRAKHAND… From 15 to 18 June 2013, Indian state of Uttrakhand and adjoining area received heavy rainfall, which was about 375 percent more than the benchmark rainfall during a normal monsoon. 16th and 17th June,2013 The Day of Destruction happened in history of UTTRAKHAND
  47. 47. The massive rainfall and cloud burst events were happening at multiple places, including in Bhagirathi basin, Assiganga basin, Mandakini Basin, Badrinath region, other places in Alaknanda region from 15 June 2013 to around 18 June 2013. This lead to melting of Chorabari Glacier at the height of 3800 metres, and eruption of the Mandakini River which led to heavy floods near Kedar Dome, Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh. It is considered to be the largest natural disaster after tsunami occurred in 2004
  48. 48. CONSEQUENCES:HUMAN LOSS  According to the official records 400 houses were destroyed and 265 were damaged  4,200 villages were victims of the floods  6,000 people were dead,10,000 were injured and 1,00,000 were stuck in the valley  Landslides, due to the floods, damaged several houses and structures, killing those who were trapped Over 70,000 people were stuck.
  49. 49. CONSEQUENCES:ECONOMIC LOSS  Major roads,telephone towers were destroyed due to which communication with the outer world was lost.  20,000 crores loss was reported,which may be in the form of destruction of houses roads,cars e.t.c  Tourism constitutes about 30% of the state’s income which was lost  All the shops and hotels were destroyed and all roads were broken
  50. 50. RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATION  The Army, Air Force, Navy, Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Border Security Force, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Public Works Department and local administrations worked together for quick rescue operations.  Several thousand soldiers were deployed for the rescue missions.  Activists of political and social organizations are also involved in the rescue and management of relief centres.  Helicopters were used to rescue people, but due to the rough terrain, heavy fog and rainfall, maneuvering them was a challenge.
  51. 51.  By 21 June 2013, the Army had deployed 10,000 soldiers and 11 helicopters, the Navy had sent 45 naval divers, and the Air force had deployed 43 aircraft including 36 helicopters.  From 17 June to 30 June 2013, the IAF airlifted a total of 18,424 people - flying a total of 2,137 sorties and dropping/landing a total of 3,36,930 kg of relief material and equipment.  Prime Minister of India undertook an aerial survey of the affected areas and announced 1,000 crore (US$170 million ) aid package for disaster relief efforts in the state. Several state governments announced financial assistance,
  52. 52.  Special trains were employed by the government all over the country to cater the needs of the flood victims  Indian army showed extreme levels of courage in saving the people in spite of the helicopter crash occurred during the missionoperation Rahat.
  53. 53. Even the Corporates joined hand to help the people..
  54. 54. •Struck the Odisha coast, off Gopalpur 9.15 pm 12 October 2013 •Winds raging at 200km an hour, storm surge of a over 3 meters and inundating areas up to half a kilometer inland •873,000 people moved before the cyclone made landfall •100,000 were evacuated Some 600,000 people were left homeless after the storm swept through 14,000 villages mainly in coastal districts. DEAD: Confirmed dead – 27
  55. 55. Hazard Vulnerability in India drought 70% Earthquakes 57% Floods 12% Landslides 3% One million houses get damaged annually, in addition to human, economic, social, and other losses Cyclones 8%
  56. 56. SEISMIC ZONING MAP Zone Zone V Very High Risk Quakes of Magnitude 8 and greater Zone IV High Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 7.9 Zone III Moderate Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 6.9 Zone II Source: IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 (BIS) Magnitude Seismic Disturbances upto Magnitude 4.9
  57. 57. Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 6. Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests 7. Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour 8. Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways 9. Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation 10. Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs 11. Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy 12. Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
  58. 58. National Level Disaster Nodal Ministry Natural Disasters Management (other than Drought) Ministry of Home Affairs Drought Relief Ministry of Agriculture Air Accidents Ministry of Civil Aviation Railway Accidents Ministry of Railways Chemical Disasters Ministry of Environment & Forests Biological Disasters Ministry of Health Nuclear Disasters Department of Atomic Energy
  59. 59. NATIONAL LANDMARKS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT • 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution • Eleventh Schedule and Twelfth Schedule • High Powered Committee (HPC) • Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth Finance Commissions • Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans • Disaster Management Act 2005 • National Policy on Disaster Management • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
  60. 60. Management of Disaster in India  Paradigm shift in approach. a) From Response and Relief Centre to:i) Prevention & restoration ii) Mitigation and Preparedness b) From Ministry of Agriculture to Ministry of Home in 2002.  High power Committee under J C Pant-1999. i) Culture of preparedness ii) Culture of quick response iii) Culture of strategic thinking iv) Culture of Mitigation.  All party National Committee under chairmanship of P.M.-2001 68
  61. 61. Disaster Management……contd.  DM Act - 2005 i) Constitution of NDMA, SDMA, DDMA ii) Constitution of NDRF/SDRF iii) Provision of Mitigation/Legal Actions iv) Responsibility to each department  Inclusion in Five year plan Development can not be sustainable unless D.M is built into development process  Recommendations by 13th Finance Commission  Inclusion of curriculum in Education system  Community Preparedness/Awareness. 69
  62. 62. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 • It was enacted under the Concurrent List of the Constitution of India. • The Act comprises 79 sections and 11 chapters • It provides for the pre-requisite institutional mechanism for monitoring and implementation of plans • Ensures measures by various wings of the Government for the prevention and mitigation • In tune with the paradigm shift, the State Governments have been advised to amend their Relief Codes • The Act provides for a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) • The State governments shall create State Disaster Management Authorities and Districts District Disaster Management Authorities • There shall be a Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at national, state and district levels
  63. 63. NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE (NDRF) 10 NDRF Bns  A Specialist Response Force with : -High skill training -State of the art equipments  A Multi Disciplinary, multi skilled and high tech Force -for all types of disasters capable of insertion by Air, Sea & Land All NDRF Bns to be equipped and trained for all natural disasters including NBC. Dedicated exclusively for Disaster Response 72
  64. 64. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTH AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY OF NDRF BNS Area of Responsibility will be relocated once NDRF Bns at Patna and Guntur get operational
  65. 65. Composition of NDRF Bns  Each Bn have 1149 personnel  Each Bn have 18 specialist teams of 44 Members to handle natural & NBC disasters. Each team have Engineers, Paramedics, Technician, Electrician, Communication personnel & Dog squad.  Organized, equipped and trained for all type 74
  66. 66. Aspects Disasters: Negative and Positive Aspects Negative Aspects Positive aspects D Damage Development I Interruption Innovation S Severe Sharing A Antagonistic Awareness S Scourge Self sufficiency T Traumatic Transformation E Emergency Education R Risk Resilience